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Nomenclature is only *'a means, not an end," but without 
uniformity it is a confusion. 


IN preparing this Hand-List our chief aims have been (1) to 
give an up-to-date and useful account of the distribution at home 
and abroad of all those birds which in our opinion are entitled to 
a place on the British list, and (2) to give each bird its correct 
scientific name in conformity with the Rules of the International 
Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 

In drawing up this account of the distribution of each species 
in the British Isles we have had in view the necessity of giving such 
details as will indicate to the student whether a bird is worthy of 
special record on account of its general rarity, its scarcity in any 
particular part of the country, or at some particular season of the 
year, or because of the want of previous observations. For these 
and other such reasons it has been necessary to treat some species 
much more fully than others. The distribution abroad has been 
given in more general terms, but here again a species of wide range 
does not require so much detail as one of more restricted or unequal 
distribution. Moreover our knowledge of the distribution of some 
species is much more complete than that of others. 

The notes on migration refer chiefly to passage-movements or 
are given in cases where the known migrations of a species are too 
complicated to be treated in the distributional accounts. 

For various reasons nearly every bird on our List has been given 
at one time or another more than one scientific name, and the 
difficulty always has been to know by which name it should be 
called. Nomenclature is proverbially a vexed subject, but there 
is one necessity which all, however diverse their views, must agree 
is of the first importance the necessity for uniformity ; not a 
partial uniformity confined to British ornithologists or to any 
other section of the ornithological world, for such a uniformity could 


only have a local and transient value, but a world-wide uniformity, 
based upon Kules which can be acepted by ornithologists of all 
nations. If the scientific names of birds were uniform all over 
the world, what an enormous benefit it would be to ornithologists 
and science generally. Should we not all unite in striving to reach 
this end ? After all, what is nomenclature ? It is little more 
than a system of labelling, and yet we have neglected for more than 
150 years one of the requisites of greatest importance that our 
labels should everywhere be the same for the same bird. 

How has the evil of want of uniformity arisen and continued ? 
In early times, with slow and difficult means of communication 
there was plenty of excuse for describing as new a bird which had 
already been named by someone else in another part of the world, 
and since those times many even of the most familiar birds have in 
ignorance of previous descriptions and names been redescribed and 
renamed, so that there has gradually grown up a long list of synonyms 
for one and the same species. The evil has continued for want of 
the adoption of a uniform system of nomenclature, based on the 
strictest priority, by which the correct names can be fixed. Unfor- 
tunately, authorities have hitherto made it very much a matter of 
individual choice as to which name should be employed, and we 
regret to say that this " method " even now obtains. But such 
a proceeding can never lead to uniformity, for so long as the matter 
is one of choice ungoverned by rules which can be accepted as 
authoritative by all the world, then so long will there be chaos. 

Let us take a few examples, out of many which might be cited, 
where uniformity in deciding upon the name to be used is an impos- 
sibility without the universal adoption of one code of Eules based 
on absolute priority. 

While Stephens in Shaw's " General Zoology " (1809) used the 
name Lanius ruficollis for the Woodchat, MacGillivray, Yarrell, 
in the 2nd and 3rd editions, and Harting in the 1st edition of 
his " Handbook," called the bird Lanius rutilus. But even at this 
period Gray (1863) and Gould (1850-68) preferred to use Lanius 
or Enneoctonus rufus. In 1871 Newton adopted the name auri- 
culatus in the 4th edition of Yarrell and was followed by Dresser 
in the " Birds of Europe." But the committee of the B.O.U. in 
their " List " (1883) changed the name to L. pomeranus. Seebohm, 
who was a member of this committee, preferred to use the name 


L. rufus in his " History of British Birds," and Lord Lilford, the 
President of the Union, again changed the name back to L. rutilus 
(1890-93). Saunders, in the 2nd edition of his "Manual" (1899) 
used L. pomeranus, but Harting in the 2nd edition of his " Hand- 
book," changed the name once more to L. rufus. This by no means 
exhausts the list of names used even by British writers for this 
unfortunate bird, but it is enough to show how impossible it is to 
expect agreement without observance of law. Let us hope that 
under the name of L. senator L. (1758) it may be allowed to rest. 

The Whitethroat used to be called Sylvia cinerea, until Newton, 
Dresser, and others introduced the name rufa, while several Con- 
tinental ornithologists began to call it Sylvia sylvia. A careful 
perusal of the original description, however, shows that the names 
rufa and sylvia are quite doubtful, and cannot be adopted, while 
Latham clearly described the species under the name communis. 

The specific names of the Arctic and Long-tailed Skuas have been 
transposed many times, the Arctic Skua having been called para- 
siticus by Fleming, Gray, Harting (1872) and others, cepphus by 
Leach, Richardsoni by MacGillivray, Yarrell (2nd and 3rd editions), 
Lilford, and Seebohm, crepidatus by Dresser, Harting (1901), Yarrell 
(4th edition), Saunders, and in the B.O.U. "List." The Long- 
tailed Skua has been called parasiticus by MacGillivray, Dresser, 
Yarrell (4th edition), Harting (1901), Saunders, and in the B.O.U. 
" List," cepphus by Gray, buffoni by Yarrell (2nd and 3rd edition) 
and Seebohm, crepidatus by Brehm and Naumann, longicaudus by 
Gould and Harting (1872). 

Many other instances of great confusion of names for one and 
the same bird might be given, but enough has been said to show 
that only by the adoption of one code of Rules and by strict 
adherence to those rules, can uniformity be attained. If our decision 
upon the name to be used rests on a set of Rules, and is not in any 
way governed by individual choice or taste, then there must needs 
be but one correct name and that name must be universally 
employed. It has been said that uniformity would never be 
attained. This is, however, not logical, because one name only 
is the oldest, and the few doubtful cases, and they are few, are 
being decided upon and cleared up by careful nomenclators, with the 
help of the International Commission, which discusses doubtful 
cases, and brings them finally before the International Zoological 
Congresses for decision. 


For these reasons we have adopted the " International Rules 
of Zoological Nomenclature," and have been strictly obedient to 
those Rules in deciding upon the correct name to be used for the 
birds on the British list. Although this has involved a good many 
changes from the names that British ornithologists are accustomed 
to, and will thus cause some temporary inconvenience, we are sure 
that the principle upon which we have acted is the only scientific 
one possible, and we firmly believe that this principle will very soon 
be universally conceded. 

These Rules have the highest international authority, and only 
international authority can be universally accepted. But the 
Rules must be followed implicitly, and no exceptions to them must 
be made, for once an exception is allowed, then the old evil of 
individual choice must enter, and uniformity be lost again. There 
may be, in certain cases, some dissension in the interpretation of the 
Rules, but when once these difficulties are overcome uniformity 
will be accomplished, and following uniformity will come stability. 

Let everyone help towards this most desirable end by studying 
and upholding the strict letter of the law, rather than his own con- 
venience, likes, and dislikes. 

The more important Rules affecting specific and subspecific names 
are given below, and of these if may be remarked that numbers 
26 and 27 are the most important, and have the greatest effect 
upon the British list, because most British authors have, since 
1846, adopted the 12th edition of Linne as the starting point, instead 
of the 10th, and have had scant regard for the strict law of priority : 

" ARTICLE 2. The scientific designation of animals is 
uninominal for subgenera and all higher groups, binominal 
for species, and trinominal for subspecies. 

" ARTICLE 11. Specific and subspecific names are subject 
to the same rules and recommendations, and from a nomen- 
clatural standpoint they are co-ordinate, that is, they are of 
the same value. 

" ARTICLE 12. A specific name becomes a subspecific 
name when the species so named becomes a subspecies, and 
vice versa. 

" ARTICLE 17. If it is desired to cite the subspecific name, 
such name is written immediately following the specific name, 
without the interposition of any mark of punctuation. 


Example : Rana esculenta marmorata Hallo well, but not Rana 
esculenta (marmorata) or Rana marmorata Hallo well. 

" ARTICLE 19. The original orthography of a name is to be 
preserved, unless an error of transcription, a lapsus calami, 
or a typographical error is evident. 

" ARTICLE 25. The valid name of a genus or species can 
be only that name under which it was first designated in the 
condition : 

(a) That this name was published and accompanied by 
an indication, or a definition, or a description ; and 

(b) That the author has applied the principles of binary 

"ARTICLE 26. The 10th edition of Linne's " Systema 
Naturse," 1758, is the work which inaugurated the consistent 
general application of the binary nomenclature in zoology. 
The date 1758, therefore, is accepted as the starting-point of 
zoological nomenclature and of the Law of Priority. 

" ARTICLE 27. The Law of Priority obtains and conse- 
quently the oldest available name is retained : 

(a) When any part of an animal is named before the animal) 
itself ; 

(b) When the larva is named before the adult ; 

(c) When the two sexes of an animal have been considered 
as distinct species or even as belonging to a distinct 
genera ; 

(d) When an animal represents a regular succession of 
dissimilar generations which have been considered as. 
belonging to different species or even to different 

" ARTICLE 32. A generic or a specific name, once published,, 
cannot be rejected even by its author, because of inappro- 
priateness. Examples : Names like Polyodon, Apus, albus, 
etc., when once published, are not to be rejected because of 
a claim that they indicate characters contradictory to those 
possessed by the animals in question. 

" Article 33. A name is not to be rejected because of 
tautonymy, that is, because the specific or the specific and 
subspecific names are identical with the generic name. Ex- 
amples : Trutta trutta, Apus apus apus." 

As the use of trinomials for subspecies or, better, geographical 
or local races does not seem to be generally understood, it may 
here be explained that when a species is divided into two or more 
races, or when two or more species are grouped as races of one 


species, then each of these races must have a trinomial appellation. 
It is impossible to say which is the oldest or parent form, therefore 
the first named race of all those grouped under one species is 
arbitrarily taken as the typical race, and its name becomes that 
of the species. 

Thus Parus major is t/he species of the Great Tit, and includes 
all the Great Tits just as the genus Parus includes all the Tits. As 
the form of Great Tit inhabiting northern Europe was the first 
to be named it must be called Parus major major, and all other races 
of Great Tits must have as their first two names Parus major. Simi- 
larly the typical race of Wren must be called Troglodytes troglodytes 
troglodytes if it is to be distinguished from Troglodytes troglodytes 
hirtensis or any other race of Wren. It must be understood that 
the binomial Parus major or Troglodytes troglodytes refers to the 
species, i.e. the whole group of subspecies, and cannot be used to 
differentiate one of those subspecies. It cannot be gainsaid that 
the trinomial system is of the greatest possible use scientifically as 
demonstrating the close relationship of geographical forms of the 
same species, just as the binomial system demonstrates the rela- 
tionship of species of the same genus. 

Where we have used in this Hand-List a different name to that 
adopted by Howard Saunders in his " Manual," an explanatory note 
has been given, except in those cases where Saunders rejected a 
specific name on account of tautonymy (e.g. Crex pratensis for 
Crex crex), or when we have transferred a species to a different, but 
well-known, genus. 

We have made the Synonymy as brief as possible, but have in 
every case given as the first reference the earliest name and the 
typical locality for the bird described under that name. We have 
also given in each case the reference to Yarrell's " History of British 
Birds," 4th edition, edited by A. Newton and H. Saunders, which, 
for the sake of brevity, has been quoted as " Yarrell," and to "An 
Illustrated Manual of British Birds " by Howard Saunders, 2nd 
edition, which we have quoted as " Saunders " When a bird has 
been added to the British list since the publication of the latter 
work, we have given a reference in the Synonymy to the first 
record. References have also been given to names given specially 
to British birds, whether distinct or not. " British Birds " (maga- 
zine) has been quoted throughout as " Brit. B." 


In preparing the accounts of the British distribution, we have 
made free use of Howard Saunders's well-known "Manual," especially 
for the earlier records of rarer species. We have also consulted 
the numerous county avifaunas, and the series of Scottish faunas, 
as well as the various journals devoted, or partly devoted, to British 
ornithology. We are also indebted to Messrs. Ussher and Warren's 
excellent book on the " Birds of Ireland," and to the former author's 
recently published " List of Irish Birds " ; we have further to thank 
Mr. Ussher for his great kindness in checking the proofs of the Irish 
distribution. There is still much to be learnt about the exact 
distribution of the birds in the British Isles, and we hope that the 
publication of this Hand-List, in which the distribution is given 
in concise form, will lead to some of the gaps in our knowledge 
being filled, and to misstatements being corrected. 

Unfortunately, up to a few years ago, British ornithologists 
failed to see the importance of separating definitely, nearly allied 
forms of the same species. Consequently, the older records of the 
occurrences of two or more forms of one species were " lumped " 
under one heading, and little trouble was taken to ascertain to which 
form any particular bird belonged. It has been impossible to 
examine more than a very few of the specimens in question, but we 
hope now that the great importance of subspecific distinctions is 
fully realized, to have more of these older specimens sent for 
examination, so that the subspecies to which they belong may be 
determined, and thus their place of origin be more exactly ascertained. 

There are some who think that a distinction should be made 
between " vagrants " which have occurred a good many times, 
and those which have occurred only once or twice, but no distinction 
save a purely arbitrary one can be so made. It is certainly of far 
greater interest to know that such a bird has occurred in one area 
several times than once, for one occurrence might be due to a pure 
accident. On the other hand, the experience of the last few years 
during which certain circumscribed areas such as Fair Isle, the Isle 
of May, and the south-east corner of England, have been very closely 
watched, proves that many of these " vagrants " or " stragglers " 
occur much more often than was formerly supposed. Indeed, so 
convincing is the proof that it must be obvious to everyone who 
has studied the question at all, that for every " straggler " which is 
identified and recorded, at least ten, let us say, go past unidentified 


and unrecorded. It is, therefore, impossible to exclude any bird 
from a full place on the list so long as it has been once satisfactorily 
recorded as having occurred in this country in a wild state. 

The British Distribution includes the information published 
in the February issue of " British Birds " (i.e. down to page 260 
of Vol. V.), while the Distribution Abroad has been brought down 
to the end of the year 1911. 

The various sections of the work have been apportioned amongst 
us as follows : 

Nomenclature : Hartert. 

British Distribution : Witherby, assisted by Ticehurst and 

Distribution Abroad : Hartert, assisted by Jourdain. 

Migrations : Ticehurst. 

But each of us has revised the other's work, and we hope that 
our Hand-List will make a step towards uniformity in nomenclature 
and a more exact knowledge of the distribution of our birds. We 
need hardly add that any information as to errors of omission or 
commission will be sincerely appreciated by 


April, 1912. 



1. Corvus corax corax L. THE RAVEN. 

CORVUS CORAX Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 105 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Corvus corax Linnaeus, Yarrell, n, p. 259 ; Saunders, p. 241. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Resident. Breeds here 
and there on coast from Isle of Wight to Cornwall and north 
Devon, and in Cumbrian and Pennine Hills and Wales. Rare 
visitor eastern counties and midlands (bred Essex, 1889). 
Breeds Isle of Man. Scotland. Resident. Breeds fairly commonly, 
especially in west and higher districts and on islands, especially 
Hebrides and Shetlands; scarcer Orkneys. More common from 
late autumn to spring. Ireland. Resident. Breeds wilder sea- 
cliffs and some mountains, especially in west. 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. In Scotland seems regular autumn- 
to spring-immigrant, sometimes in considerable numbers ; in 
Ireland small flocks occasionally noted, but elsewhere only 
vagrant-movements of a bird here and there. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe generally. Represented by 
allied forms in Faeroes, Iceland, Spain, some Mediterranean islands, 
Greece, and Palestine to north-west India ; in Canary Islands and 
north Africa ; also in north Asia, Greenland, and North America. 


2. Corvus cornix cornix L. THE HOODED CROW. 

CORVUS CORNIX Linnseus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 105 (1758 Europe 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Corvus cornix Linnaeus, Yarrell, u, p. 275 ; Saunders, p. 245. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Regular autumn- and 
winter- visitor east coast, south coast to Hants., Trent Valley, and 
east midlands ; occasional further inland and western counties ; 
rare Wales. Has bred occasionally, mostly eastern counties, and 
seldom inland. Has also interbred with C. c. cor one. Resident 
Isle of Man. Scotland. Resident. Abundant north and west 
and islands. Overlaps breeding-range of G. c. corone, and often 



interbreeds with it, especially in Clyde area in west, and Tay 
area in east. Very occasionally breeds in south-east, where chiefly 
known as migrant. Ireland. Resident in every county. 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. Great numbers arrive east coast 
Great Britain from central Europe and Scandinavia, from mid- 
Sept, to mid-Nov., and depart from mid-Feb. to mid- April. No 
evidence of migration in Ireland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Scandinavia, Denmark, Russia, east 
Germany, Austria, Hungary, Italy, also Faeroes. Represented 
by other forms in Corsica and Sardinia, Balkan Peninsula, 
Cyprus, Egypt, and west Asia. Interbreeds with C. corone where 
ranges overlap. 


3. Corvus corone corone L. THE CARRION-CROW. 

CORVUS CORONE Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 105 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : England). 

Corvus corone Linnaeus, Yarrell, n, p. 274 ; Saunders, p. 243. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Resident and common, 
but somewhat local. Scotland. Resident. On east side common 
as far north as Perth, not rare in north of Moray area, and 
occasionally nests east Sutherland ; on west side common parts of 
Clyde district, but scarce resident Skye and very scarce north-west 
Highlands ; occasional visitor Orkneys, Shetlands, and Fair Isle. 
Where overlapping range of C. c. comix frequently interbreeds. 
Ireland. Very rare. Said to have bred Mayo, 1890. 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. Arrives east coast Great Britain 
from central Europe between mid-Sept, and mid-Nov., and returns 
between mid-Feb. and mid- April. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Western Europe generally, in Germany 
roughly to the Elbe, and throughout the Alps to Bohemia. An 
allied form in north-east Asia. Interbreeds with C. comix in 
Germany and Siberia where ranges overlap. 


4. Corvus frugilegus frugilegus L. THE ROOK. 

CORVUS FBUGILEGUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 105 (1758 

Europe. Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Corvus frugilegus Linnaeus, Yarrell, u, p. 289 ; Saunders, p. 247. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Generally distributed. 
Increasing and spreading north in Scotland, and now breeds 
Caithness, Sutherland, Ross, and Cromarty, O.Hebrides and Orkneys, 
but only visitor Shetlands. Now breeds western isles of Ireland. 


MIGRATIONS British Isles. After nesting our residents are 
subject to partial and irregular movements some probably 
emigrating to Continent. Great numbers arrive east coast Great 
Britain between mid-Sept, and mid-Nov. from central Europe and 
Scandinavia, and return between February and April. Winter- 
movements also noted in Hebrides ; in Ireland apparently a cross- 
channel movement autumn and spring. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe generally from Finland and 
60 north in Sweden, but rare or absent in south Europe. 
Represented by allied forms in parts of west and east Asia. 


5. Coloeus monedula spermologus (Vieill.)* THE JACKDAW. 

CORVUS SPERMOLOGUS Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., vm, p. 40 

(1817 Typical locality : south of France). 

Corvus monedula Linnaeus, Yarrell, n, p. 305 ; Saunders, p. 239. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Common except north- 
west Scotland, w r here scarce, O. Hebrides, where appears on 
migration and has recently nested, and Shetlands, where only 
rather rare visitor, although now abundant Orkneys. Does not. 
breed western isles of Ireland. 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. Some of our residents appear to- 
depart autumn and return spring. Numbers arrive east coast 
Great Britain Sept. and Oct., and depart Feb. or March. Arrivals 
have been noted April and Oct. Fair Isle. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. West and central Europe, also parts of 
south Europe, but exact limits not yet ascertained. Replaced by 
closely-allied forms in Scandinavia, east Europe, parts of north and 
west Asia, and Algeria. 


6. Pica pica pica (L.) THE MAGPIE. 

CORVUS PICA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 106 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Pica rustica (Scopoli), Yarrell, 11, p. 312 ; Saunders, p. 237. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Resident. Generally dis- 
tributed, but much diminished in numbers in some parts by game- 
preserving and probably now exterminated East Anglia. Some 
evidence of migration on east coast England. Scotland. Resident. 

* The Scandinavian Jackdaw, Coloeus monedula monedula (L.), is possibly 
an immigrant to the east coast of Great Britain in autumn, but none of the, 
specimens of migrants which we have so far examined have been of this form.. 

B 2 


Very scarce north and north-west, and rather local elsewhere on 
mainland, being in some places plentiful and in others very scarce. 
Unknown 0. Hebrides and very rare vagrant Orkneys and Shet lands. 
Ireland. Resident since 17th century. Numerous ; scarcer in 
extreme west. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Nearly whole of Europe. Replaced by 
other forms in Spain and north-west Africa, and in parts of Asia 
and North America. 


7. Nucifraga caryocatactes caryocatactes (L.) THE THICK- 

CORVUS CARYOCATACTES Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 106 (1758 
Europe. Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Nucifraga caryocatactes (Linnaeus), Yarrell, n, p. 330 (part) ; Saunders, 
p. 233 (part). 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Rare vagrant. Some occurrences 
recorded under N. c. macrorhynchus may have been of this form, 
but only the following have been satisfactorily identified : Sussex 
one near Chichester, Dec. 21, 1900, male near Brede, Feb. 12, 
1907, one Penhurst, Nov. 7, 1908, female near Hastings, March 4, 
1909 ; Kent male, Benenden, Jan. 14, 1905 ; Cheshire male near 
Northwich, 1860. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Scandinavia, Bornholm, northern Russia, 
East Prussia, and principal mountain-systems of Europe (Harz, 
Bohmerwald, Alps. Carpathians, Tatra, Balkans, etc.) 

8. Nucifraga caryocatactes macrorhynchus Brehm THE 

NUCIFBAGA MACRORHYNCHOS Brehm, Lehrb. Naturg. eur. Vogel, i, 
p. 103 (1823 Mountain forests mid N. Europe and Asia. Restricted 
typical locality : Germany winter. Type, a migrant. 
Nucifraga caryocatactes (Linnaeus), Yarrell, n, p. 330 (part) ; Saunders, 
p. 233 (part). 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Vagrant. About forty authentic 
records of Nutcrackers in England, chiefly in southern and eastern 
counties, one Wales, three Scotland, but none Ireland. Probably 
most were of the Slender-billed form, but few have been properly 
identified (c/. supra). Five in autumn, 1911, were of this form. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeding in Siberia ; in winter frequently 
all over Europe, as far westwards as France and central Pyrenees. 
Common in certain years, rare or absent in others. Represented 
by allied forms in Japan, Formosa, north China, Kamtschatka, 
Turkestan, Himalayas, etc. 



9. Garrulus glandarius glandarius (L.) THE CONTINENTAL 

CORVUS GLANDARIUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 106 (1758 

Europe. Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Garrulus glandarius (Linnaeus), Yarrell, n, p. 323 (part) ; Saunders, 

p. 235 (part). 

Garrulus g. glandarius, N. F. Ticehurst, Brit. B., iv, p. 213. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Migrant. Jays arriving on east 
coast England in autumn have fairly often been recorded (cf. 
Saunders, p. 235 ; Birds Yorks., i, pp. 226-7 ; Hist. Birds Kent, 
p. 196, etc.), but no specimens of immigrants had been examined 
until recorded by Ticehurst, Kent, and Sussex, Oct., 1910 (Brit. B., 
TV, p. 213). More records of ContinentalJays based on examination 
of specimens are required. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe generally, but represented by 
different forms in Spain, some Mediterranean islands, south-east 
Russia, Turkey, north-west Africa, and parts of Asia. 

10. Garrulus glandarius rufitergum Hart. THE BRITISH 

GARRULUS GLANDARIUS RUFITERGUM Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, i, p. 30 
(1903 Type, Tring) ; id., Brit. B., i, p. 209. 

Garrulus glandarius (Linnaeus), Yarrell, i, p. 323 (part) ; Saunders, 
p. 235 (part). 

DISTRIBUTION. Confined to Great Britain. England, and Wales. 
Resident. Generally distributed ; locally abundant. Not found 
Isle of Man. Scotland. Resident. Very local. Decreased in 
numbers but apparently extending northwards. Very rare north 
of Great Glen and not found Sutherland, Caithness, north-west 
Highlands, Hebrides, or Orkneys. Recorded Shetlands, but this 
may have been the Continental form. Ireland. Replaced by 
Garrulus glandarius hibernicus, but may occur casually. 

n. Garrulus glandarius hibernicus With. & Hart. THE 

GARRULUS GLANDARIUS HIBERNICUS Witherby and Hartert, Brit. B., iv, 
p. 234 (1911 Ireland. Type, co. Wexford). 

DISTRIBUTION. Confined to Ireland. Resident in parts of fol- 
lowing counties : Waterford, Tipperary, Kilkenny, Wexford, 
Carlow, Queen's, King's, Kildare, and irregularly in Cork, Galway, 
Westmeath, Wicklow, Dublin, Meath, and Louth ; recently spread 
into Fermanagh and Cavan. 



12. Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax (L.) THE CHOUGH. 

UPUPA PYRRHOCORAX Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 118 (1758 Coasts 
of England and Egypt. Restricted typical locality : England). 
Pyrrhocorax graculus* (nee Linnaeus) Yarrell, n, p. 252 ; Saunders, p. 231. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Resident. Rapidly decreasing. 
Breeds on parts of south-west coast of England ; some sea-cliffs 
and a few places close to sea in Wales ; Isle of Man ; some 
I. Hebrides (especially Islay and Jura), and one or two places on 
mainland in south-west Scotland. Occurs sporadically elsewhere. 
Ireland. Resident on many sea-cliffs, especially in west, and some 
inland cliffs, but decreasing. Absent from east coast. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Channel Islands, coasts of west France, 
Alps, Spain, some Canary Islands, north-west Africa, Mediterranean 
countries, Asia Minor, Syria, and mountains of central and north 
Asia eastwards to China, southwards to Himalayas. 

[NOTE. An example of the ALPINE CHOUGH, Pyrrhocorax graculus 
(L.) nee auct., shot in Oxon in 1881, had probably escaped from captivity 
(cf. Saunders, p. 232).] 


13. Sturnus vulgaris vulgaris L. THE STARLING. 

STURNUS VULGARIS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 167 (1758 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Sturnus vulgaris (Linnaeus), Yarrell, n, p. 228 ; Saunders, p. 227. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Generally distributed. 
Increased greatly during last fifty years or so, and has spread 
northwards on Scottish mainland (has long been common Shet- 
lands and Orkneys) and westwards on mainland Great Britain and 
Ireland and in I. Hebrides, though has long been common (but 
lately greatly increased) in O. Hebrides and some western isles of 
Ireland. In Ireland now nests every county, but still scarce some 
districts, especially in parts of Cork and Kerry. 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. Our residents flock late summer 
and some emigrate autumn and return Feb. and March. Vast 
numbers arrive from central and north Europe on east coast Great 
Britain from Sept. to Nov. ; some winter and some pass south ; 

* It is difficult to understand how this name came to be accepted 
for the red-billed Chough, as the diagnosis says : " rostro pedibusque luteis." 
On the other hand, the Upupa Pyrrhocorax of 1758 is undoubtedly the Chough, 
the diagnosis being: "Upupa atra, rostro pedibusque rubris " ; in 1766, 
however, Linnaeus, apparently having forgotten what he had already written 
quite correctly except for the genus in 1758, gave under the name of 
Gorvus Pyrrhocorax a mixture. E.H. 


return movement noted from Feb. to April. A great immigration 
in Ireland from Sept. to Nov. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. From north Scandinavia and Russia to 
south Europe, the Pyrenees and Italy ; on migration to Madeira 
and Canary Islands, wintering in north Africa. Other more or less 
closely-allied forms on Fseroes, Azores, in south-east Europe, and 
in Asia. 


14. Pastor roseus (L.) THE ROSE-COLOURED STARLING. 

TUBDTJS ROSEUS Lmnseus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 170 (1758 Lapland 

and Switzerland). 

Pastor roseus (Linnaeus), Yarrell, n, p. 243 ; Saunders, p. 229. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Vagrant. Fairly frequent. 
Recorded from many parts England, chiefly east side, but often 
Devon and Cornwall ; seldom Wales ; often Scotland, but never 
0. Hebrides ; about twenty-eight times Ireland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. South-east Europe, occasionally as far 
west as Italy and Hungary, and in Asia from Asia Minor to 
Turkestan, common in winter in India. Wandering irregularly 
far northwards, thus observed from time to time in nearly all parts 
of Europe, exceptionally as far north as Lapland, Finland, East 
Prussia, also Belgium and Holland. 

[NOTE. Examples of the RED-WINGED STARLING, Agelaius phosniceus 
Linnaeus, of North America have been taken in this country, but this species 
not being migratory, the recorded examples had no doubt escaped from 
captivity. The same may be said of Icterus galbula (Coracias galbula Linnaeus, 
Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 108, typ. loc. Carolina), also from America, which 
has been captured in Shetland, and recorded under the name Icterus Baltimore, 
though the latter, being a migrant, might more likely have been a genuine 
visitor. Sturnella magna and Scolecophagus carolinus (sub nomine S. ferru- 
gineus] from North America must also have escaped from captivity, and this 
is absolutely certain with the Indian Mynah, Gracula religiosa, from southern 
India and Ceylon.] 


15. Oriolus oriolus oriolus (L.) THE GOLDEN ORIOLE. 

CORACIAS ORIOLUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 107 (1758 Europe, 

Asia. Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Oriolus galbula Linnaeus, Yarrell, i, p. 233 ; Saunders, p. 145. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Spring- visitor. Annual in 
very small numbers to south-east and south-west England; irregular 
elsewhere, but has occurred most counties. Has nested Norfolk, 
Suffolk, Essex, Northants., Herts., Surrey, Devon, and especially 
Kent, while other records are not authenticated. Scotland. A few 


occurrences, mostly in south ; one Shetlands, one Orkneys, and noted 
Fair Isle spring and autumn, 1908, and May, 1909. Ireland. 
Rare casual spring and summer- visitor, most frequent Kerry, Cork, 
Waterford, and Down. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe generally, except Norway, 
Sweden, north of 63 and Russia north of 60, to Mediterranean, 
and in mountain-forests of north-west Africa (local and not 
common) ; eastward to Tian-Shan and Altai, and replaced by allied 
form in India. In winter in tropical and southern Africa and 


1 6. Coccothraustes coccothraustes coccothraustes (L.) THE 

LOXIA COCCOTHRAUSTES Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 171 (1758 
" Habitat in Europa australiore. " Restricted typical locality : Italy). 
Coccothraustes vulgaris Pallas, Yarrell, n, p. 98 ; Saunders. p. 171. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Resident. Local, but generally dis- 
tributed except in north and west, where, however, has lately 
increased and spread, and now breeds in Cumberland, Durham, 
and Northumberland (since 1884). Rarely breeds in Devon and 
not in Cornwall. Wales. Resident. Now well-known in eastern 
half, but rare or unknown in western parts. Scotland. Resident. 
Now considered as widely distributed and not very rare in south- 
east, and has nested East Lothian (1908 and 1909), and east Fife 
(1903) ; also bred Dumfries (1906 and 1908). Elsewhere a good 
many stragglers, even as far north as Fair Isle and Shetlands. 
Ireland. Rare vagrant to all quarters, mostly winter. Said to 
have nested Kildare 1902. 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. No regular migrations yet worked 
out, but occurs occasionally at lighthouses in England, Scotland, 
and Ireland, and has been noticed in winter in parts where it does 
not breed. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe generally, exact limits eastwards 
uncertain. Replaced by allied forms in north-west Africa, Turke- 
stan, India, and east Asia. 


17. Chloris chloris chloris (L.) THE GREENFINCH. 

LOXIA CHLORIS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 174 (1758 Europe. 
Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Coccothraustes chloris (Linnaeus), Yarrell, n, p. 105. Ligurinus chloris 
(Linnaeus), Saunders, p. 169. 


DISTRIBUTOR British Isles. Resident. Common most parts, 
but only a visitor to Shetlands and most O. Hebrides, though it 
breeds Stornoway (Lewis). 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. Most home-bred birds emigrate Sept. 
and return March. Great numbers arrive north-east coasts Great 
Britain Oct. and leave in early spring. An autumn -immigration 
has also been noticed in Ireland. 

DISTRIBUTION. A broad. North and central Europe generally. 
Replaced by allied forms in south-west Europe and north-west 
Africa, in south-east Europe, Syria, and Turkestan. 


[Carduelis carduelis carduelis (L.) THE CONTINENTAL 

FRIISTGILLA CARDUELIS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 180 (1758 
Juniper woods of Europe. Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. " Immigrant." Goldfinches are 
recorded regularly east coast England in Oct. (cf. Saunders, p. 174 ; 
Birds Yorks., i, p. 171). Until actual specimens have been examined, 
however, the Continental form cannot be definitely included. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe from about lat. 65 in Norway 
and 60 in Russia to the Mediterranean. Replaced in Spain and 
north-west Africa, some Mediterranean islands, and the Atlantic 
isles as well as in western Asia, by closely-allied forms.] 

18. Carduelis carduelis britannica (Hart.) THE BRITISH 

ACANTHIS CARDUELIS BRiTANNicus Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, i, p. 68 
(1903 British Isles. Type, Rottingdean) ; id., Brit. B., i, p. 211. 
Carduelis elegans Stephens, Yarrell, n, p. 117; Saunders, p. 173. 

DISTRIBUTION. Confined to British Isles. British Isles. Resident. 
Local, but generally distributed, and increasing except in Ireland 
where decreasing ; very rare northern Scotland and only scarce 
vagrant 0. Hebrides, Shetlands, and Orkneys. 
MIGRATIONS. British Isles. Flocks, and migrates locally autumn 
and winter, and some may emigrate. Passing birds (possibly of 
British form) have been noted in spring in various counties (cf. 
Bull. B.O.C., xx, p. 178 ; xxn, p. 182 ; xxiv, p. 173). 



19. Carduelis spinus (L.) THE SISKIN. 

FRINGILLA SPINUS Linnseus, Syst. Nat., ed. x. i, p. 181 (1758 Juniper 
woods of Europe. Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 
Carduelis spinus (Linnaeus), Yarrell, IT, p. 126 ; Saunders, p. 175. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Resident and autumn-to- 
spring visitor. A few pairs nest regularly Cumberland, and nests 
have been recorded Durham, Yorks., Salop, and north Wales. 
Evidence of having bred exceptionally Surrey, Sussex, Kent, and 
other south counties, in most cases unsatisfactory. Scotland. 
Breeds from Perth northwards to Caithness and east Sutherland, 
also in east Ross, occasionally in Tweed, and in small numbers in 
Solway district, but otherwise a rare visitor to west side, and only 
recently recorded from O. Hebrides (Barra, autumn). In Shet- 
lands and Fair Isle has been noted on spring and autumn passages, 
and in Orkneys in autumn. Ireland. Resident. Breeds locally 
all four Provinces. 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. Arrives in fluctuating numbers east 
coast Great Britain from Sept. to Nov., and departs in April and 
early May. Has been recorded from Lights of south coast Ireland 
in winter, which may point to occasional emigration of Irish 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Locally in north Europe and northern 
Asia (but absent from the high north) as far south as Alps and 
rarely to north Italy, Balkans, and Caucasus. In winter common 
in Italy, sometimes not rare in north-west Africa. 

Carduelis tristis (L.), shot on Achill Island (Mayo), Sept. 6, 1894, had no 
doubt escaped from captivity (cf. ZooL, 1894, p. 396)]. 


20. Carduelis flavirostris flavirostris (L.) THE TWITE. 

FRINGILLA FLAVIROSTRIS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 182 (1758 

" Europa." Typical locality : Sweden). 

Linota flavirostris (Linnseus), Yarrell, n, p. 160 ; Saunders, p. 193. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Resident. Breeds very 
locally most moorlands from east Cheshire, north Staffs., north 
Derby., and west Yorks. northwards, and in Lanes, at lower levels. 
Forsakes high ground in winter. Small colony found nesting 
north Devon 1904, but otherwise only known as somewhat uncertain 
winter- visitor to south, though in some years plentiful on parts 
of south coast. Very rare visitor Cornwall. Suspected of nesting 
in north Wales. Scotland. Much more common and general than 


in England, especially on west coast and Hebrides, Orkneys, 
and Shetlands. In south-west and on lower ground on east side 
scarce as nester. Ireland. Breeds all counties except those of 
central Plain. 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. The coasts are resorted to in winter 
by inland breeding- birds ; but migrants, possibly from oversea, 
arrive east coast Oct. and return March. In Ireland an autumn- 
immigration has been noted on north and west coasts. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. North Norway, Lapland, and north 
Finland, in winter over Europe, but very rare in Mediterranean 
countries. Replaced by other races from Asia Minor and Caucasus 
to Persian Turkestan, etc., and in Tibet and Manchuria. 


21. Carduelis linaria linaria (L.) THE MEALY REDPOLL. 

FBINGILLA LINARIA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 182 (1758 Europe. 
Restricted typical locality : the alder woods of Sweden). 
Linota linaria (Linnaeus), Yarrell, n, p. 133 ; Saunders, p. 189. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Irregular autumn- winter visitor 
along whole east coast Great Britain, but more common east 
Scotland and north-east England. Occasionally arrives great 
numbers, as in 1829, 1847, 1855, 1861, 1863, 1873, 1885, 1897, 1910. 
More rarely recorded spring. Elsewhere in Great Britain rare 
winter-straggler, as it is in Ireland, where it appears chiefly in 
western islands. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Northern portions of Northern Hemi- 
sphere, the northern limit of its breeding-range overlapping the 
southern range of C. hornemannii exilipes ; in Europe as far south 
as Baltic and coast of East Prussia. In winter and on migration 
over greater part of Europe, parts of central Asia, and United 

22. Carduelis linaria rostrata (Coues) GREENLAND 

AEGIOTHUS ROSTRATUS Coues, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1861, 

p. 378 (S. Greenland). 

L. rostrata, Saunders, p. 190 (in text). 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Rare vagrant. Barra (0. Hebrides) 
one, Oct. 8, 1896 ; one, Nov. 10, 1898 ; one, Oct. 13, 1900 ; 
two, Sept., 1901. Fair Isle (Shetlands), a number Sept. and Oct. 
1905, and small party Sept. 21, 1907. Shetlands, several Oct. 
and Nov., 1907. (W. Eagle Clarke, Ann. S.N.H., 1901, p. 131, 
1902, p. 118, 1906, p. 17, 1908, p. 76. E. Hamilton, op.c., 1910, 


p. 54.) Several Achill Island (Mayo) and two or more Tearaght 
(Kerry) have been assigned to this form. (Birds Ireland, p. 64) 
(cf. Brit. B., i, pp. 182, 383 ; m, p. 378). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Summer-resident in south Greenland- 
In winter south-westwards through Canada and parts of western 
United States. 

[Carduelis linaria holboelli (Brehm) HOLBOLL'S REDPOLL.* 

LINABIA HOLBOELLI Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deutschl., p. 280 
(1831 Described from migrants obtained in Germany). 
L. holboelli, Saunders, p. 189 (in text). 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Vagrant. One, Aston Clinton 
(Bucks.), Dec. 14, 1895 (Vog. pal. Fauna, i, p. 80). One said 
Achill Island, Mayo (Bull. B.O.C., xn, p. 15). Possibly some of a 
flock inYorks., 1881 (Birds Yorks., i, p. 187). A number Fair Isle 
autumn 1910. Two Shetlands, Oct. 28, 1910. One Isle of May 
(Forth) Oct. 23, 1910. A number Lothians, Oct., 1910. One 
Cambridge, Dec. 12, 1910. (Brit. B., iv, pp. 291, 369, v, p. 60). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Polar regions of Old and New World, 
in winter southwards to Holland, Germany, Austria, Hungary, 
Russia, central Asia, Japan, and occasional during migration in 
parts of north-east North America.] 

23. Carduelis linaria cabaret (P.L.S. Miill.)t THE LESSER 

FBINGILLA CABARET P.L.S. Muller, Natursystem, Suppl., p. 165 (1776 

Ex Daubenton and Buffon. Europe. Restricted typical locality : 


Acanthis linaria britannica Schmiedeknecht, Wirbelt. Eur., p. 128 (1906 

Great Britain). 

Linota rufescens (Vieillot), Yarrell, n, p. 146 ; Saunders, p. 191. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Resident. Breeds most 
counties, but locally and especially so in southern England and 
Wales, and very sparingly in south-west England, while in extreme 
south-west it is rare even in autumn and winter, when it becomes 
more generally distributed elsewhere. Scotland. Resident. More 
generally distributed in wooded districts than in England, but 
uncommon in north-west, and appears not to breed Caithness. 
Breeds sparingly I. Hebrides, and has nested Barra (0. Hebrides). 

* As this form appears to breed within the same area as C. I. linaria 
it may represent only an individual variation, and until this question is finally 
decided we cannot admit it fully to the list. Occurrences of specimens 
possessing the characters assigned to this form should, meanwhile, be carefully 

j- The name cabaret is forty years older than rufescens. E.H. 


Said to nest Orkneys, but rare at any time Shetlands. Ireland. 
.Resident. Generally distributed, even in the bare west. 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. Flocks said to arrive Yorks. coast 
in Oct., and it becomes more generally common east coast in winter. 
Some at least of our breeding-birds appear to emigrate in winter. 
No migration noted in Ireland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Alpine regions, probably also Carpa- 
thians and Balkans, and possibly the Caucasus. 


24. Carduelis hornemannii hornemannii (Holb.) HORNE- 

LINOTA HORNEMANNII Holboll, Naturk. Tidskr., iv, p. 398 (1843 


L. hornemanni, Yarrell, n, pp. 141 and 144 (in text) ; Saunders, p. 189 

(in text). 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Very rare vagrant. Specimens 
from Spurn (Yorks.), Oct., 1883, and Oct., 1893, have been assigned 
to this form (Birds Yorks., i, p. 189), and one near Whit burn 
(Durham), April 24, 1855 (Saunders, p. 189). Five Fair Isle 
(Shetlands), Sept. and Oct., 1905 (W. E. Clarke, Ann. S.N.H., 1906, 
p. 17). One Unst (Shetlands), Oct., 1905 (E. Hamilton, op.c., 1910, 
p. 54). (cf. Brit. B., I, p. 183 ; m, p. 378). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Resident in Greenland. Once obtained 
in France, in Spitsbergen, Franz -Josef Land, Jan May en, and 
perhaps Iceland, but probably in all these places as a rule only 
an accidental visitor. In winter regularly in parts of North 

25. Carduelis hornemannii exilipes (Coues) -- COUES'S 

AEGIOTHUS EXILIPES Coues, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Nov., 
1861, p. 385 (Fort Simpson, Arctic America). 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Very rare vagrant. A specimen 
assigned to this form occurred atEasington (Yorks.), winter 1893-4, 
and two others at Skeffling (Yorks.), Dec. 30, 1898 (Birds Yorks., 
i, p. 188). One Fair Isle autumn 1900 (W. E. Clarke, Ann. S.N.H., 
1911, p. 53 ; cf. Brit. B., iv, p. 292). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Lapland and north Russia, northern- 
most portions of continents of Asia and America. In winter 
southwards to East Prussia (rare), Japan, and northern United 
States of America. 



26. Carduelis citrinella citrinella (L.) THE CITRIL FINCH. 

FRINGILLA CITRINELLA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. xu, i, p. 320 (1766 
" Hab. in Europa australi." Restricted typical locality : Alps ; Hartert, 
Vog. pal. Fauna, i, p. 81). 

Citril Finch, Yarrell, n, p. 113 (in footnote) ; Saunders, p. 178 (in text) ; 
Chrysomitris citrinella, id., Brit. B., i, p. 12. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. One. Female Yarmouth (Norfolk) Jan. 
29, 1904 (J. H. Gurney, ZooL, 1905, p. 91). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Mountain-systems of central and south 
Europe. Replaced by a local race in Corsica, Sardinia, and 
perhaps parts of Italy. 


27. Carduelis cannabina cannabina (L.) THE LINNET. 

FRINGILLA CANNABINA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 182 (1758 

Europe. Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Linota cannabina (Linnaeus), Yarrell, n, p. 153 ; Saunders, p. 187. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Common and widely 
distributed, but uncommon and local in west Scotland and 
I. Hebrides ; rare vagrant O. Hebrides and apparently so Shet- 
lands ; recorded several times Pair Isle and common nester and 
migrant Orkneys. 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. Our home-bred birds (or in any case 
a proportion of them) move south autumn, many crossing Channel 
and returning spring. Large numbers of Continental immigrants 
arrive east coasts Great Britain autumn and return spring. Fre- 
quently observed as immigrant on Irish coasts both spring and 
autumn, but movements not clearly worked out. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe generally, except in the high 
north. Replaced by smaller forms in Mediterranean countries and 
Atlantic isles, and by a lighter one in parts of west Asia. 


28. Serinus canarius serinus (L.) THE SERIN. 

FKINGILLA SERINUS Linnseus, Syst. Nat., ed. xn, i, p. 320 (1766 South 


Serinus hortulana K. L. Koch, Yarrell, n, p. Ill ; Saunders, p. 177. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Rare vagrant. About twenty 
recorded England, ten being from Sussex coast, where also small 
flock said to have been seen, three each Kent and Norfolk, one or 


two near London, one each Hants., Somerset, and Devon, and one 
said to have been seen Yorks., and another Oxon. Two co. Dublin. 
Male near Edinburgh Nov. 9, 1911. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Common in north-west Africa and south 
Europe, northwards to Germany, where in olden times restricted 
to south-west parts (Frankfort), but now nearly all over the country. 
In Holland now less rare than formerly, but whether it breeds as 
yet uncertain. Casual in Denmark. 

[NOTE. " Wild " CANARIES, Serinus canarius canarius (L.) have been 
taken in Great Britain, but these were undoubtedly escaped birds, as in its 
home (Canary Islands, Azores, and Madeira) the Canary Serin does not 
migrate, and numbers are imported into our islands.] 


29, Pyrrhula pyrrhula pyrrhula (L.) THE NORTHERN 

LOXIA PYRRHULA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 171 (1758 Europe. 
Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 
P. major, Saunders, p. 195 (in text). 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Irregular winter- visitor. As it is 
imported as cage-bird some records may be due to "escapes," 
but following are probably genuine : England Two Yorks. 
Nov., 1894, and possibly immigrations noted under "Pyrrhula 
europcea " Nov., 1880, Oct. and Nov., 1884, 1886, 1887, and other 
years (Birds Yorks., i, pp. 194 and 195), one Yorks. coast Dec. 
3, 1910. One Yarmouth (Norfolk) Jan. 22, 1893. Scotland. 
One near Longniddry (Haddington) Oct., 1884. Considerable 
immigration Shetlands Nov., 1905, and some birds March and April, 
1905, Oct., 1906, and one Nov., 1902, probably of this form. 
One or more Fair Isle, Nov., 1905, and a few Nov., 1906, and a 
good many Isle of May, Fair Isle, and Shetlands, as well as south- 
east Scotland, Oct., Nov. and Dec., 1910. Others recorded as 
" Bullfinches " in Shetlands probably of this form (cf. Brit. B., 
i, p. 246 ; iv, pp. 211, 250, 292, 369). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Scandinavia, Russia, north-east parts of 
Germany, and west Siberia, also apparently Hungary and Tran- 
sylvania. In winter spreading southwards and westwards, as far as 
west and south Europe. Represented by a form (P.p. europcea*) ; 
much more nearly allied to P. p. pileata in west and central 
Europe generally, and by other forms in the Azores, Caucasus, and 
temperate Asia. 

* No examples of this form have as yet been detected in the British Isles. 


30. Pyrrhula pyrrhula pileata MacGillivray THE BRITISH 

PYRRHTJLA PILEATA MacGillivray, Hist. Brit. Birds, i, p. 407 (1837 
Great Britain). 

Pyrrhula pyrrhula pileata MacGillivray, Hartert, Brit. B., n, p. 130. 
Pyrrhula europcea Vieillot, Yarrell, n, p. 166 ; Saunders, p. 195. 

DISTRIBUTION. Confined to British Isles. British Isles. Resident. 
Generally distributed, but rather local in Scotland. Recently 
spread to some I. Hebrides, and recorded from Harris and North 
Uist (0. Hebrides). Its recorded visits to Orkneys and Shetlands 
may be referable to P. p. pyrrhula (ut supra). 


31. Carpodacus erythrinus erythrinus (Pall.) THE SCARLET 

LOXIA ERYTHRINA Pallas, Nov. Comm. Acad. Sci. St. Petersb., xrv, 
p. 587, pi. 23, fig. 1 (1770 S. Russia and Siberia. Restricted typical 
locality : Volga). 
Pyrrhula erythrina (Pallas), Yarrell, n, p. 172 ; Saunders, p. 197. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Four England and Wales, and 
five Scotland. Female near Brighton (Sussex) Sept., 1869. Female 
Hampstead (Middlesex) Oct. 5, 1870. Female near Yarmouth 
(Norfolk) Sept. 3, 1892 (Saunders, pp. 197, 199, 756). Male near 
Paincastle (Radnor) about 1875 (ZooL, 1904, p. 228). One Fair 
Isle (Shetlands) Oct. 3, 1906 (Ann. S.N.H., 1907, p. 70). Isle 
of May, one Sept. 25, 1907, one Sept. 12, 1908, one Sept. 13, 1909, 
one Sept. 7, 1910 (op.c., 1908, p. 18 ; 1909, p. 14 ; 1910, p. 4 ; 1911, 
p. 4 ; cf. Brit. B., i, pp. 246, 296 ; n, p. 346 ; in, p. 378 ; iv, 
p. 318). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. North-east Germany, Russia, Siberia, 
eastwards at least to the Lena River, and replaced by allied races 
in central Asia and Kamtschatka. Migrant, but its regular winter- 
quarters appear to be as yet uncertain ; during migration or in 
winter occasionally in west and south Europe. 


32. Pinicola enucleator enucleator (L.) -- THE PINE- 

LOXIA ENUCLEATOR Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 171 (1758 North 
of Sweden and North America. The American form, however, differs. 
Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 
Pyrrhula enucleator (Linnaeus), Yarrell, n, p. 177 ; Saunders, p. 199. 


DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Rare vagrant. Some fifty recorded, 
but most are not authenticated. Of recent years the following 
records : One Notts., Oct. 30, 1890 (Saunders, p. 199) ; small 
flock Kent and Sussex, Oct., 1905 ; two Kent, March 4, 1909 
(cf. Brit. B., i, p. 247 ; Hist. Birds Kent, p. 165). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Scandinavia and north Russia, north 
Siberia. In winter spreading more or less regularly southwards 
and westwards, occasionally as far as Italy and south France. 
Represented by closely-allied forms in Kamtschatka and North 


33. Loxia curvirostra curvirostra L. - - THE COMMON 

LOXIA CURVIROSTRA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 171 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Loxia curvirostra anglica Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, i, p. 119 ; id., Brit. B., 

i, p. 209 ; cf. id., op.c., in, p. 194. 

Loxia curvirostra Linnaeus, Yarrell, n, p. 187 (part) ; Saunders, p. 201 


DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Late summer - immigrant 
arriving mid- June to August. Regular in some districts, but 
irregular in most, and especially so in north-west and south-west 
England and in Wales. Periodically (every three to ten years) 
arrives in great numbers and becomes much more generally distri- 
buted and frequently stays over following spring and into summer. 
Most nesting-records in springs immediately following " irruptions." 
Has nested in following counties ; dates within square brackets 
refer to probable but not positive records : Devon, 1839, 1894. 
Somerset, 1910. Hants., 1839, 1858, 1877, 1892, 1910. Berks., 
1882, 1889, [1898], 1899, 1910. Sussex, 1791, 1840, 1910. 
Surrey [1899], 1910. Kent [1833], [1839], [1894], 1910, 1911. 
Herts., 1907. Gloucester, 1839, 1910. Oxon [1839]. Leicester, 
1839. Staffs., 1910. Hereford [1895]. Salop 1880, [1895]. 
[1896]. Northants., 1892 1904., Beds. [1899], 1910. Essex, 1910. 
Suffolk, 1815, 1822, 1885, 1889, 1910, 1911. Norfolk 1829 [1887], 
1889, 1910, 1911. Lines. [1910]. Yorks., 1829, 1840 [1855], 
1872, 1876, 1902. Durham, 1838, 1856. Cumberland, 1839, 1856. 
[1865]. Northumberland [1821], 1838, 1869. Cheviot Hills, 1898. 
Carnarvon, 1890 or 1891. Montgomery, 1880. Merioneth [1897]. 
Scotland. Late summer-immigrant as in England, but apparently 
not so regular ; subject to similar irruptions, appearing in numbers 
even in far northern and western isles. Breeds sporadically 
and rarely in south Scotland, and possibly also in territory 
of Loxia c. scotica, but proof so far wanting. Has nested Ayr. 


1864, [1884]. Dumfries [1838-9], 1888. Kincardine, 1903. Linlith- 
gow, 1839. Stirling, 1839. Ireland. Now resident but not 
indigenous. Apparently only migrates to Ireland in years of 
" irruptions." Following irruption of 1838 bred Tipperary and has 
since ; in 1867 Kildare ; since 1868 has settled Fermanagh ; since 
1881 King's ; between 1883 and 1895 Westmeath. Following 
irruption of 1887-8, increased and bred more widely, and is now 
established (with fluctuations) in plantations of conifers in each 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe generally and north Asia, but 
represented by closely-allied forms in Spain, the Balearic Isles, 
Cyprus, north-west Africa, central Asia and Himalayas to Japan 
and North America. More or less nomadic, in certain years migra- 
tory and spreading in great numbers westwards and southwards. 

34. Loxia curvirostra scotica Hart. - - THE SCOTTISH 

LOXIA CURVIROSTBA SCOTICA Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, i, p. 120 (1904 

Scotland), id., Brit. B., i, p. 211. 

Loxia curvirostra Linnaeus, Yarrell, n, p. 187 (part) ; Saunders, p. 201 


DISTRIBUTION. Confined to Scotland. Resident in north Scotland, 
breeding from south-east Sutherland, throughout Moray Basin 
south to Dunkeld (Perth), west to Loch Maree (west Ross), and 
east to Huntley (Banff). Has occurred sporadically in winter in 
very small numbers in Dumfries, Kirkcudbright, and Fife, but 
apparently not a regular migrant from data available. 


35. Loxia pytyopsittacus Borkh. THE PARROT-CROSSBILL. 

LOXIA PYTYOPSITTACUS Borkhausen, Rheinisches Magazin, i, p. 139 
(1793 Substituted typical locality: Sweden; cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. 
Fauna, i, p. 122). 
Loxia pityopsittacus Bechstein, Yarrell, n, p. 207 ; Saunders, p. 202. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Rare vagrant. A good many re- 
corded, but some at least (especially from Scotland) may be 
referable to L. c. scotica. The following examined by us are of 
this species : near Plumstead (Kent) Jan., 1868 ; Southgate 
(Middlesex) Nov., 1864. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. North Europe (Scandinavia and north 
Russia to Poland). Like other Crossbills, somewhat nomadic, and 
known to have nested in Germany and probably also in other 
parts of central Europe. 



36. Loxia leucoptera bifasciata (Brehm) THE TWO-BARRED 

CBUCIBOSTRA BIFASCIATA Brehm, Ornis, in, p. 85 (1827 Thuringia and 


Loxia bifasciata (C. L. Brehm), Yarrell, n, p. 211 ; Saunders, p. 203. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Rare vagrant. A good many 
recorded from various parts England, but mostly on eastern side ; 
in some years (e.g. 1845-6, and autumn 1889) a number together. 
About eleven authentic records Scotland, and three Ireland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Forests of north European Russia (and 
probably west Siberia), more or less irregularly spreading south- 
westwards at various times of the year. Concerning the doubtful 
Siberian subspecies, Loxia leucoptera elegans Horn., cf. Vog. paL 
Fauna, i, p. 124. 

[Loxia leucoptera leucoptera Gm. THE AMERICAN WHITE- 

LOXIA LEUCOPTERA Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, 2, p. 844 (1789 North America). 
Loxia leucoptera J. F. Gmelin, Yarrell, n, p. 218 ; Saunders, p. 204 
(in text). 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Several recorded occurrences, are 
dealt with by Saunders and in Yarrell, and there are others, but it 
is very doubtful if it has occurred in a truly wild state. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Northern North America. In winter 
southwards, irregularly as far as North Carolina, Indiana, Illinois, 
Kansas, Colorado, Nevada. Occurs south and east Greenland. 
Said to have been procured on Heligoland.] 


37- Fringilla coelebs coelebs L. THE CHAFFINCH. 

CCELEBS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat.,ed. x, i, p. 179 (1758 " Europa." 
Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Fringilla coelebs gengleri Kleinschmidt, Falco, v, p. 13 (1909 England. 
Typical locality : Hampstead). 
Fringilla coslebs Linnaeus, Yarrell, n, p. 68 ; Saunders, p. 183. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Abundant and widely 
distributed, nesting in Orkneys but not Shetlands, nor probably 
O. Hebrides, where only a visitor. 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. Our residents flock in winter and 
move about the country, but there is little evidence that they 
emigrate. Meantime large flocks arrive from the Continent on 

c 2 


east coasts Great Britain. Many continue westward and spread 
inland, while some perhaps pass south. A diminution in Sept. 
and an increase in Oct. and Nov. have been noticed in Ireland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe generally, western parts of Asia. 
In winter in north Africa. Replaced by a supposed closely-allied 
form in Corsica, and by different races in north-west Africa, 
Canaries, Madeira, and Azo'res. 


38. Fringilla montifringilla L. THE BRAMBLING. 

FRINGILLA MONTIFRINGILLA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 179 (1758 
" Habitat in Europa." Restricted typical locality: Sweden). 
Fringilla montifringilla Linnaeus, Yarrell, n, p. 75 ; Saunders, p. 185. 

DISTRIBUTION AND MIGRATIONS. England and Wales. Winter- 
visitor, arriving north-east and east coasts England Oct., in varying 
numbers according to severity of weather. In south and west 
England and in Wales its numbers are still more dependent upon 
weather-conditions as well as supply of beech-mast. In some 
years does not occur in extreme south-west and west. Most return 
March, but many stay until April and occasionally to May and 
exceptionally June (Yorks., June 30, 1907). Scotland. Numbers 
greatly influenced by weather-conditions, and most regular and 
abundant in south-east ; in south-west and north-east more irregular 
but sometimes occurring in large numbers ; in north-west and 
O. Hebrides a straggler; in Shetlands and Fair Isle fairly regular 
autumn and spring, but in Orkneys irregular. Late dates : 
Dumfries., May 10, 1895 ; Fair Isle, May 20, 1909. Ireland. 
In varying numbers to all quarters, but rare in west. Late date : 
Down, June 13, 1910. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Sub-arctic forests of Old World, in 
Europe in northern Scandinavia and north Russia, in winter all 
over Europe and northern parts of Asia. An eastern form has 
been separated, but requires confirmation. 


39. Montifringilla nivalis nivalis (L.) THE SNOW-FINCH. 

FRINGILLA NIVALIS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. xn, i, p. 321 (1766 " Hab. 
in America." Errore ! As typical locality accepted : Switzerland; 
cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, i, p. 132). 

Montifringilla nivalis (Linn.), M. J. Nicoll, Bull. B.O.C., xv, p. 58 ; 
Saunders, Brit. B., i, p. 13. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Twice. Male, Rye Harbour (Sussex), 
Feb. 22, 1905 (ut supra}. Two, Paddock Wood (Kent), Dec. 28, 
1906, with a flock of four or five " similar-looking " birds 
(N. F. Ticehurst, Brit. B., i, p. 189). 


DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. High elevations in the Alps, Pyrenees, 
Sierra Nevada (Spain), north Apennines, rare in south-east Europe 
but breeding in Montenegro and Greece. Allied forms in Asia. 


40. Passer domesticus domesticus (L.) - - THE HOUSE- 

FRINGILLA DOMESTICA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 183 (1758 

" Europa." Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Passer domesticus (Linnaeus), Yarrell, 11, p. 89 ; Saunders, p. 179. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Widely distributed. 
Now established I. Hebrides, but still confined to Castlebay (Barra), 
Tarbert (Harris) and Stornoway (Lewis) in O. Hebrides. Local 
in many parts Ireland, but found on western isles. 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. Appears to move from certain exposed 
places in winter, but no evidence of true migration of our residents. 
An autumn-immigration to east coast of England south of the 
Wash has been noted, and there is some evidence of a cross-Channel 
departure in late autumn. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe generally except Italy , eastwards 
to Siberia. Replaced by closely-allied forms in Italy, north Africa 
and parts of Asia. 


41. Passer montanus montanus (L.) THE TREE-SPARROW. 

FRINGILLA MONTANA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 183 (1758 " Habitat 
in Europa." Restricted typical locality: North Italy; cf. Hartert, 
Vog. pal. Fauna, i, p. 160). 
Passer montanus (Linnaeus), Yarrell, 11, p. 82 ; Saunders, p. 181. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Resident. Widely spread 
but local, especially in extreme south-west (where it appears not 
to nest), south and west Wales and Lanes., Westmorland and 
Cumberland. Has nested Isle of Man. Scotland. Mostly on east 
side, very local and rare west side. Breeds in some 0. Hebrides, 
even as far west as St. Kilda, and very rarely in Shetlands. 
Ireland. Local resident, co. Dublin since 1852, and recently on 
coasts of Londonderry, Mayo and Donegal, and once seen in Sligo. 
Once occurred off Wexford. 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. Large flocks arrive east coast England 
late Sept. and in Oct., and return mid-March to mid- April. Occurs 
Fair Isle and Isle of May in autumn. No evidence of migration 
to Ireland. 


DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe generally and Siberia. Replaced 
by closely-allied forms in east Siberia, Japan, Turkestan, and 
Persia, India and China, Greater Sunda Islands, Hainan and 


42. Emberiza calandra calandra L. THE CORN-BUNTING. 

EMBERIZA CALANDRA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat, ed. x, i, p. 176 (1758 
" Habitat in Europa." Restricted typical locality: Sweden). 
Emberiza miliaria Linnaeus, Yarrell, n, p. 38 ; Saunders, p. 207. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Common in most coastal 
regions throughout, but generally local elsewhere. 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. Breeding-birds, or at all events many 
of them, emigrate in autumn from Great Britain, and perhaps 
also from Ireland. Immigrants noted east coast Great Britain, 
and flocks occur other parts in autumn. In Shetlands and Fair 
Isle occurs on both passages. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. From south Sweden in the north through- 
out Europe to north Africa and west Asia. The forms from west 
Siberia, Corsica, and Canary Islands have been separated, but are 
all very closely-allied and require confirmation. 


43. Emberiza citrinella citrinella L. THE YELLOW 

EMBERIZA CITRINELLA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 177 (1758 
" Habitat in Europa." Restricted typical locality: Sweden). 
Emberiza citrinella Linnaeus, Yarrell, n, p. 43 ; Saunders, p. 209. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Common and generally 
distributed, but does not nest in some O. Hebrides, now common 
Orkneys, but seldom noticed Shetlands except on migration ; occurs 
Fair Isle both passages, but chiefly autumn. 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. Flocks in winter, but little evidence 
that our breeding- birds emigrate. Immigrants from north appear 
east coasts Great Britain in Oct. and Nov. and return in spring. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe generally from about lat. 65J 
to 70 N., but in south Spain and south Italy only in winter, 
and absent from Greece. Replaced by allied forms in Siberia and 
east Europe. Local races require further study. 

* In 1758 Linnaeus named the Corn- Bunting calandra, and we cannot 
accept his alteration of 1766, when he called it miliaria without 
explanation. E .H. 



44. Emberiza leucocephala S. G. Gm. THE PINE-BUNTING. 

EMBERIZA LETICOCEPHALOS S. G. Gmelin, Nov. Comm. Acad. Sci. Imp. 
Petropol., xv, p. 480, pi. 23, fig. 3 (1771 Astrakhan). 

Emberiza leucocephala W. Eagle Clarke, Scot. Nat., 1912, p. 8 ; cf. Brit. B., 
v, p. 239. 

DISTRIBUTION. Scotland. One. Male, Fair Isle (Shetlands), Oct. 
30, 1911 (ut supra}. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds from west Siberia (Ural) to east 
Siberia. Migrates to China, Mongolia, Turkestan, casually to 
Europe (Italy, Dalmatia, Russia, south France, Austria, Heligoland). 


45. Emberiza melanocephala Scop. THE BLACK-HEADED 

EMBERIZA MELANOCEPHALA Scopoli, Annus i, Hist. Nat., p. 142 (1769 


Emberiza melanocephala Scopoli, Yarrell, n, p. 64 ; Saunders, p. 205. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain Five England, two Scotland. 
Female near Brighton (Sussex) about Nov. 3, 1888. Male, Notts., 
June or July, 1884. Male, near Dunfermline (Fife) Nov. 5, 1886, 
Female, Bexhill (Sussex) Nov. 3, 1894 (Saunders, p. 205). Male, 
Little Common (Sussex) April 21, 1905. Male, Fair Isle, Sept. 
21, 1907. Male, near Westfield (Sussex) May 5, 1909 (Brit. B., 
i, pp. 248, 383 ; m, p. 412). 

DISTRIBUTION Abroad. South-east Europe and Asia Minor to 
Palestine, Persia, and Baluchistan, occasionally west to Italy ; 
casual visitor to south Germany, Austria, south France, Heligoland. 
In winter in north-west India. 


46. Emberiza aureola Pall. THE YELLOW-BREASTED 

EMBEKIZA AUREOLA Pallas, Reise d. versch. Prov. d. Russ. Reichs, 

n, p. 711 (1773 River Irtish in Siberia). 

Emberiza aureola Pallas, Saunders, Bull. B.O.C., xvi, p. 10 ; id., Brit. B., 

i, p. 13. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Two. Female, Cley (Norfolk) Sept. 
21, 1905 (Saunders, Bull. B.O.C., xvi, pp. 10-11). Female, 
near Wells (Norfolk) Sept. 5, 1907 (F. G. Penrose, Brit. B., i, 
p. 263). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. North Russia and Siberia ; on migration 
in many tropical parts of Asia and casual in south and west Europe, 
Austria, Bohemia, Italy, south France, Heligoland. 



47. Emberiza cirlus L. THE CIRL BUNTING. 

EMBERIZA CIRLUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. xn, i, p. 311 (1766 S. Europe). 
Emberiza cirlus Linnaeus, Yarrell, u, p. 50 ; Saunders, p. 211. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Resident, but local, nesting 
in Somerset and coastal counties from Cornwall to Kent, scarcer 
Herts., Beds., Surrey, Berks., Bucks., Oxon, Wilts., Gloucester, 
Worcester, Hereford, Salop, and many counties of Wales, but not 
recorded nesting Pembroke, Carmarthen, Radnor, Merioneth, or 
Anglesey. Nests very rarely Middlesex, Cheshire and Yorks., and 
possibly Lanes. Elsewhere rare winter-straggler. Scotland. Rare 
vagrant. Four or five. Ireland. Rare vagrant. One seen Donegal 
Aug. 2, 1902 (H. E. Howard, ZooL, 1902, p. 353). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Mediterranean countries generally : in 
small numbers in south-west Germany (Rhine, Moselle, Saar) and 
through western parts of France. The Corsican race has recently 
been separated, but this seems to require confirmation. 


48. Emberiza hortulana L. THE ORTOLAN BUNTING. 

EMBERIZA HORTULANA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 177 (1758 

Europe. Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Emberiza hortulana Linnaeus, Yarrell n, p. 57 ; Saunders, p. 213. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Vagrant. A good many 
chiefly on east and south coasts in autumn (occasionally in small 
parties), but also in April, May, and June. Scotland. Except in 
Fair Isle, where it appears regularly on spring and autumn 
passages, only recorded some eight times. Ireland. One somewhat 
doubtful record Clare, May, 1852. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe generally (except in the high 
north), Mediterranean countries and west Asia. 


49. Emberiza cia cia L. THE MEADOW-BUNTING. 

EMBERIZA CIA Linnseus, Syst. Nat., ed. xn, i, p. 310 (1766 S. Europe 
Restricted typical locality : Lower Austria). 

Emberiza cia Linn.,Sharpe, Bull. B.O.C., xm, p. 38 ; Saunders, Brit. B., 
i, p. 13. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Five. Two near Shoreham (Sussex) 
end Oct., 1902 (R. B. Sharpe, Bull.B.O.C., xm., p. 38). One near 
Faversham (Kent) about Feb. 14, 1905 (C. J. Carroll, Ibis, 1905, 
p. 291). Two Ninfield (Sussex) April 1, 1910 (J. B. Nichols, 
Brit. B., v, p. 50). 


DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Mediterranean countries generally, north 
to Rhine valley, Lower Austria and foot of Transylvanian Alps. 
Replaced by allied forms in various parts of Asia. 


50. Emberiza cioides castaneiceps Moore THE EAST 

EMBERIZA CASTANEICEPS Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1855, p. 215 


Emberiza cioides (nee Brandt), Saunders, p. 215. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. One caught alive Flamborough Cliffs 
(Yorks.) Nov., 1886 (cf. Ibis, 1889, pp. 293-294 and 296.) 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. East Siberia, Manchuria, and Corea, 
wintering in China. Replaced by E. c. cioides in west Siberia, 
and by E. c. ciopsis in Japan. 


51. Emberiza rustica Pall. THE RUSTIC-BUNTING. 

EMBERIZA RUSTICA Pallas, Reise d. versch. Prov. d. Russ. Reichs, in, 

p. 698 (1776 Transbaikalia). 

Emberiza rustica Pallas, Yarrell, n, p. 29 ; Saunders, p. 217. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Five England, six Scotland. 
England. One near Brighton (Sussex) Oct. 23, 1867. One Holder- 
ness (Yorks.) Sept. 17, 1881. One Elstree (Herts.) Nov. 19, 
1882 (Saunders, p. 217). One Westfield (Sussex) Sept. 22, 1902. 
One near Seaton Sluice (Northumberland) sometime previous to 
Dec., 1904. One seen Lines, (cf. Brit. B., I, pp. 248-9). Scotland. 
Pair Torphins (Aberdeen) end March, 1905. Male Cape Wrath 
(Sutherland) May 11, 1906 (cf. i.e., I, p. 249). Single birds 
spring and autumn, 1908, Fair Isle (cf. op.c., n, p. 423). One 
autumn, 1909, Fair Isle (cf. op.c., iv, p'i 290). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. From east Finland throughout Siberia 
to Kamtschatka. On migration through Manchuria and Mongolia 
to Japan, China, Turkestan, casual in Europe (Sweden, Austria, 
Germany, Heligoland, south France, Italy, Holland). 


52. Emberiza pusilla Pall. THE LITTLE BUNTING. 

EMBERIZA PUSILLA Pallas, Reise d. versch. Prov. d. Russ. Reichs, in, 

p. 697 (1776 Trans baikalian Alps). 

Emberiza pusilla Pallas, Yarrell, n, p. 34 ; Saunders, p. 219. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. About six England, seventeen 
Scotland, and one Ireland. England. One Brighton (Sussex) 


Nov. 2, 1864 (Saunders, p. 219). One Teesmouth (Durham) 
Oct. 11, 1902. One near Rugby (Warwick.) Oct., 1902. One 
Dover (Kent) Nov. 16, 1907. One supposed Southend (Essex) 
Nov., 1892. One Cley (Norfolk) Oct. 19, 1908 (cf. Brit. B., i, 
pp. 249, 383, 385 ; n, p. 238). Scotland. One Pentland Skerries, 
Oct. 15, 1903. One seen Fair Isle, Oct. 2, 1905, one Oct. 3, 
1906, one April 14, 1907 ; nine identified and probably more 
present, Oct. 10 to Nov. 5, 1907 ; one autumn, 1909. One Sule 
Skerry, Sept. 22, 1908. One Isle of May, Sept. 25, and one 
Sept. 26, 1909 (cf. op.c., i, pp. 249, 383 ; n, p. 314 ; in, p. 378 ; 
iv, p. 290). Ireland. One Rockabill Lt. (Dublin) Oct. 2, 1908 
(op.c., n, p. 238). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. North Russia and Siberia to Turkestan. 
In winter further south in Asia, and not rarely in Europe : east 
Germany, south Sweden, Holland, Belgium, Heligoland, Austria, 
Italy, and Algeria. 


53. Emberiza schceniclus schoeniclus L. THE REED- 

EMBERIZA SCHCENICLUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 182 (1758 

Europe. Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Emberiza schoeniclus Linnaeus, Yarrell, 11, p. 23 ; Saunders, p. 221. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Generally distributed 
throughout, but only rare visitor to Shetlands, though in Fair Isle 
appears to be of double passage ; breeds sparingly Orkneys and O. 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. Majority of home-bred birds emigrate 
Sept. and Oct. and return March. Numbers arrive autumn from 
Continent and spread over the country, returning in spring. 
Similar migrations in Ireland are not recorded but some appear to 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe generally, but absent (except on 
migration) or rare in south-eastern Europe, eastwards to Siberia. 
In winter in south Europe, Asia Minor, in small numbers in north 
Africa, in Asia as far south as Punjab in north-west India. 
Replaced by a number of allied forms in south-east Europe and 
central Asia. 


54. Emberiza pyrrhuloides palustris Savi THE WESTERN 

EMBERIZA PALUSTRIS Savi, Orn. Toscana, n, p. 91 (1829 " Toscana ")., 
Emberiza pyrrhuloides palustris Savi, M. J. Nicoll, Bull. B.O.C., xxi, 
p. 104 ; id., Brit. B., 11, p. 88. 


DISTRIBUTION. England. One. Male, near Lydd (Kent) May 
26, 1908 (ut supra). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Italy, Sicily, south France, and east 
Spain. Allied forms in Greece and parts of west Asia. 


55. Calcarius lapponicus lapponicus (L.) THE LAPLAND 

FBINGILLA LAPPONICA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 180 (1758 

Plectrophanes lapponicus (Linnaeus), Yarrell, n, p. 15 ; Calcarius lap- 
ponicus (Linnaeus), Saunders, p. 223. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Observed in recent years with 
some regularity in autumn in Norfolk, Fair Isle, and Flannan Isles. 
Has occurred many English counties as vagrant and with fair 
regularity in Kent, and probably other east coast counties. In 
Scotland has occurred (besides in Flannans and Fair Isle) at 
intervals in Shetlands and Orkneys, Caithness, Sule Skerry and 
Isle of May. Very rarely observed in spring, exceptionally in 
summer and occasionally in winter. Ireland. Three : Fastnet 
Rock (Cork) Oct. 16, 1887; Kilbarrack (Dublin) Jan., 27, 1906, and 
Dec. 12, 1907. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Arctic and sub-arctic latitudes of the 
Old and New Worlds ; in winter to middle Europe, rarely to Italy ; 
in Asia to China. Allied forms in Kamtschatka and Alaska. 


56. Plectrophenax nivalis (L.) THE SNOW-BUNTING. 

EMBERIZA NIVALIS Linnseus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 176 (1758 Lapland, 


Plectrophanes nivalis (Linnseus), Yarrell, n, p. 1 ; Saunders, p. 225. 

DISTRIBUTION. England, Wales and Ireland. Winter-visitor (Oct. 
to March and April). Regular but in varying numbers, chiefly to 
coast, but occasionally inland, and rather commonly on hills in 
Wales. Occasionally stops until May, and fairly frequently in 
summer on north and west coasts Ireland. Scotland. Resident. 
Breeds in small numbers on higher mountains in northern half 
of mainland in any case as far south as Perth., and in Shetlands. 
Also winter-visitor, often in large numbers, from Sept. to April, 
and occasionally later. Often inland and on hills in winter, and not 
much in " evidence " on north-east coast. 

* Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., v., 1882, p. 33, has clearly shown 
that the name Plectrophanes is not tenable, and has proposed Plectrophenax. 
The namePasserina, which has been used for some time, is not correct. E.H. 


DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Arctic and sub-arctic regions of Northern 
Hemisphere, in winter farther south, in small numbers to Mediter- 
ranean countries. American ornithologists separate a subspecies 
from Siberian coast of Bering Sea and Commander, Pribilof, and 
Shumagin Islands, but this requires confirmation. 

[NOTE. A specimen of the AMERICAN SNOWBIRD, Junco hyemalis (L.)> 
of which ten different local races inhabit the whole of North America, was 
captured at Loop Head Light (Clare), May 30, 1895 (Irish Nat., 1906, p. 137 ; 
Brit. B., i, p. 12), having probably escaped from captivity]. 

Zonotrichia albicollis (Gm.), have occurred at Aberdeen, near Brighton (Sussex), 
in Holderness (Yorks.), and on Flannan Isles, but these had probably 
escaped. Breeds in eastern North America, and winters in eastern United 
States, and as far south as north-east Mexico and Florida]. 

[NOTE. Two examples of the CALANDRA LARK, Melanocorypha calandra 
(L.), are said to have been taken in England, but the typical race, which 
inhabits south Europe and north-west Africa, is a favourite cage-bird, and 
therefore the occurrences are probably not genuine.] 


57. Melanocorypha sibirica (Gm.) THE WHITE-WINGED 

ALATJDA SIBIRICA Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, 2, p. 799 (1789 ex Pallas, Reise. 
Typical locality : River Irtish). 

Melanocorypha sibirica (J. F. Gmelin), Yarrell, i, p. 642 ; Alauda sibirica 
J. F. Gmelin, Saunders, p. 257. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Six. Female, near Brighton (Sussex) 
Nov. 22, 1869 (Saunders, p. 257). Woodchurch (Kent) male Jan. 
27, female Jan. 28, and male Mar. 22, 1902 (N. F. Ticehurst, 
Bull. B.O.C., xn, p. 50; xm, p. 15). Pevensey Sluice (Sussex) 
male Dec. 30, 1907, and female Jan. 1, 1908 (R. Butterfield, op.c., 
xxi, p. 51 ; cf. Brit. B., i, pp. 256, 357). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. South Russian Steppes, Transcaspia, 
west (Russian) Turkestan to Siberia. On autumn- migration 
frequently in south-east Europe and also far west : Belgium, Italy, 
Heligoland, etc. 


58. Melanocorypha yeltoniensis (Forst.) THE BLACK LARK- 

ALAUDA YELTONIENSIS Forster, Philos. Trans. LVII, p. 350 (1767 S. 
Russia, Lower Volga, near Lake Yelton). 
Alauda tatarica Pall., Seebohm, Hist. Brit, B., 11, p. 282. 
Melanocorypha yeltoniensis (Forst.), C. B. Ticehurst, Bull, B.O.C., xix, 
p. 57 ; Saunders, Brit. B., i, p. 14. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Small party on borders of Sussex and 
Kent, January, 1907, following being shot : male, near Pevensey 
(Sussex) Jan. 29 ; female, near Lydd (Kent) Jan. 31 ; male, near 
Lydd, Feb. 18 ; male, Rye (Sussex) Feb. 16 (ut supra}. 


DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. From west Siberia and Turkestan to 
the Lower Volga. In winter more or less vagrant, and has appeared 
in the Talysh plains, Heligoland, Galizia, Belgium, and Italy. 


59. Calandrella brachydactyla brachydactyla (Leisler) THE 

ALAUDA BRACHYDACTYLA Leisler, Ann. Wetterau. Ges., in, p. 357, pi. 19 
(1814 Montpellier in France). 

Calandrella brachydactyla (Leisler), Yarrell, I, p. 637 ; Alauda brachy- 
dactyla Leisler, Saunders, p. 255. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Twelve England, two Scotland, 
one Ireland. One near Shrewsbury (Salop), four near Brighton, 
and one Amberley (Sussex) ; one near Southampton and one near 
Portsmouth (Hants.) ; one Orpington (Kent) ; one Scilly Isles ; 
one near Cambridge ; one South Breydon (Norfolk). One Flannan 
Isles (0. Hebrides) Sept. 20, 1904 ; one Fair Isle, Nov. 11, 1907. 
One Blackrock Light (Mayo) Oct. 11, 1890. Only two spring- 
records (cf. Saunders and Brit. B., i, pp. 255, 384 ; in, p. 263). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. From south France throughout south 
Europe and north Africa, eastward to Asia Minor and Palestine. 
Northern birds more or less migratory, in winter to Sahara and 
Sudan, also to north-west India ; more southern birds resident or 
vagrant. Has occurred casually elsewhere, as in Heligoland, 
Switzerland, near Metz. It is desirable that such specimens should 
be carefully examined, as they might belong to the eastern form 
which represents C. b. brachydactyla in central Asia. 


60. Galerida cristata cristata (L.) THE CRESTED LARK. 

ALATJDA CRISTATA Linneeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 166 (1758 " Habitat 
in Europae viis." Vienna fixed as restricted typical locality by Hartert, 
Vog. pal. Fauna, i, p. 228). 
Alauda cristata Linnaeus, Yarrell, i, p. 632 ; Saunders, p. 253. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Seven. Four in autumn at intervals 
and one June 12, 1880 Cornwall ; one Littlehampton (Sussex) 
prior to 1845 ; one near Shoreham (Sussex) Oct. 20, 1863. 

* The name Galerida has been rejected, and new names have been created 
by Madarasz and Dresser, because they supposed that Galerida was a misprint 
for Galerita, which was preoccupied. There is, however, nothing in the original 
publication to prove this. In the same volume Brehm adopted Galerida, 
and we may suppose that Boie and Brehm purposely spelt the name with d 
in order to distinguish it from the well-known name Galerita, referring to a 
common beetle, undoubtedly known to both authors. E.H. 


Others, including a supposed example co. Dublin, 1836, not 
authenticated (cf. Saunders, and Ussher, List of Irish Birds, p. 22). 
A male from Penzance (Cornwall) Sept., 1846, in Mr. J. H. Gurney's 
collection, is of this form, but the other specimens require careful 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe from south Sweden to Pyrenees, 
Italy, Balkans, and south-west Russia. Represented by between 
twenty and thirty more or less closely-allied forms in Mediter- 
ranean countries, north Africa to Sudan (Senegambia, Upper 
Nigeria, Somaliland) and many parts of Asia. 


61. Lullula arborea arborea (L.) THE WOOD-LARK. 

ALATJDA ARBOREA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 166 (1758 " Habitat 
in Europa." Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 
Alauda arborea Linnaeus, Yarrell, i, p. 625 ; Saunders, p. 251. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Resident. Locally distri- 
buted, most frequent southern counties, lower Severn and Thames 
valleys, from Bucks, to west Norfolk and Suffolk, in southern 
Midlands and south Wales ; northwards very scarce, but breeds 
rarely parts of Yorks., and probably parts of north Wales ; breeding 
has been recorded from Lanes, and Cumberland, and vagrants 
from Northumberland. Has undoubtedly decreased, and is not 
now found in places where formerly known. Scotland. Apparently 
110 authentic record except from Fair Isle, where small numbers 
recorded in late autumn and winter 1906, 1907, 1909, and 1910, 
and once Isle of May (Forth) Oct. 6, 1910. Ireland. Formerly 
in several counties, now extremely rare and apparently breeding 
only in Wicklow. 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. Except for Fair Isle records no 
evidence of migration, except those of quite a local character, but 
in severe weather small flocks and single birds are noticed on coast 
in various parts. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Middle Scandinavia to south Europe and 
Ural. Local forms have been separated from Corsica and Sardinia, 
north-west Africa, south-east Europe, Persia, and Transcaspia, 
but, though it is certain that southern and eastern birds are paler, 
their distribution and relations to one another are not yet clearly 

* It is impossible to suppress the generic name Lullula. If Galerida is 
separated generically, then Lullula must be too. Otherwise nearly all Larks 
must be placed in the same genus. E.H 



62. Alauda arvensis arvensis L. THE SKY- LARK. 

ALAUDA ARVENSIS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. x, i, p. 165 (1758 " Habitat 
in Europse apricis." Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 
Alauda arvensis scotica Tschusi, Orn. Jahrb., xn, p. 162 (1903 Scotland). 
Alauda arvensis Linnaeus, Yarrell, i, p. 614 ; Saunders, p. 249. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Common and generally 
distributed but somewhat local in north-west parts of mainland 
Scotland. Many, if not most, home-bred birds leave in autumn. 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. Southward movement of breeding- 
birds begins in Shetlands and Hebrides late Aug., continuing 
to early Nov. ; many cross Channel ; others pass to Ireland. In 
spring return migration along same routes from late Feb. to early 
April. From late Sept. to early Nov. vast numbers from central 
Europe arrive between Tees and Kent ; from north Europe through- 
out Oct. and early Nov. in Shetlands, and east coast Scotland and 
north-east coast England. Majority of central European birds 
pass on, following route taken by our residents, while north 
European birds form bulk of winter-residents, many crossing to 
Ireland. Spring-emigration from Ireland along same lines from 
mid-Feb. to late March. Our winter- visitors leave north-east 
and east coasts for north and central Europe from late Feb. to 
early April. During March return movement of " passage-birds " 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe with exception of south Italy 
and south-east Europe, and Mediterranean islands, where it is 
represented by a very closely- allied subspecies. Other allied forms 
inhabit west Siberia and other portions of north and middle Asia 
and north-west Africa. 

63. Alauda arvensis cinerea Ehmcke THE EASTERN SKY- 

ALAUDA CINEREA Ehmcke, Journ. f. Orn., 1903, p. 149 (Barnoul in W. 


Alauda arvensis cinerea, W. E. Clarke, Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist., 1906, p. 139. 

DISTRIBUTION. Scotland. One Flannan Islands Light (0. 
Hebrides) Feb. 24, 1906 (ut supra}. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. West Siberia, Turkestan, and parts of 
Persia. In winter farther south and as far west as Algeria. 



64. Eremophila alpestris flava (Gm.) THE SHORE-LARK. 

ALATJDA FLAVA Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, 2, p. 800 (1789 Typical locality : 


Otocorys alpestris (Linnaeus), Yarrell, i, p. 604 ; Saunders, p. 259. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Winter- visitor (Nov. -March and April). 
First noticed Norfolk March, 1830. Was irregular winter-visitor 
to east and south coasts until 1879, when considerable visitation 
occurred, and subsequently has increased and is now annual autumn 
to spring visitor east coast from Yorks. to Kent. Along south 
coast occasional ; elsewhere very rare. Wales. Very rare vagrant. 
Scotland. First recorded East Lothian Jan., 1859, subsequently 
rarely, as far north as Fife ; of recent years annually small numbers 
autumn and occasionally spring Fair Isle, and a few in autumns 
1907 and 1909, Isle of May. Unknown in west. Ireland. One 
Wicklow Head, Nov. 4, 1910 (R. M. Barrington, Brit. B., iv, p. 215. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. North Europe, chiefly north of Arctic 
Circle, and north Asia. Represented in America by a number of 
allied forms. (Hartert treats all the Horned Larks as forms of 
E. alpestris.) 


65. Anthus richardi richardi VieilL RICHARD'S PIPIT. 

ANTHUS RICHARDI Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., xxvi, 

p. 491 (1818 France). 

Anthus richardi Vieillot, Yarrell, i, p. 598 ; Saunders, p. 139. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Vagrant. Over seventy recorded 
in various parts England, but chiefly in south coast counties and 
Norfolk. In Scotland, single birds Perth and Kirkcudbright ; 
several autumn 1908, one autumn 1909, and two Oct. 6, 1911, 
Fair Isle. In Ireland, one Lucan (Dublin) Nov. 21, 1907, one Howth 
(Dublin) Oct. 23, 1911. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. North Asia. Migrant wintering in tro- 
pical India and south China, and frequently visiting Europe, 
even west Europe, and Mediterranean countries. An allied race 
breeds in south Mongolia and China. 

* The name alpestris originally refers to a north American form, which, 
though very close to the one of the Old World, is separable. E.H. 



66. Anthus campestris (L.) THE TAWNY PIPIT. 

ALATJDA CAMPESTRIS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 166 (1758 "Habitat 

in Europa." Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Anthus campestris (Linnaeus), Yarrell, i, p. 592 ; Saunders, p. 137. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Thirty or more in past fifty years 
in autumn in Sussex, where Mr. M. J. Nicoll recently considered 
it an annual visitor, and had evidence that a pair bred 1905, and 
again possibly 1906. Elsewhere very rare straggler one Scilly 
Isles, Sept. 1868 ; one Yorks., Nov. 20, 1869 ; one Hants., 1879 ; 
one Lowestoft (Suffolk) Sept. 2, 1890 ; one Yarmouth (Norfolk) 
Oct. 9, 1897 ; one Cornwall, Sept. 16, 1899 ; one Cley (Norfolk) 
Sept. 15, 1910. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe from south and middle Sweden 
to Mediterranean and north-west Africa, east to central Asia. 
In winter in tropical Africa and north-west India. The existence 
of a smaller form is doubtful (cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, i, 
p. 269). 


67. Anthus trivialis trivialis (L.) THE TREE-PIPIT. 

ALAUDA TRIVIALIS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 166 (1758 Sweden). 
Anthus arboreus MacGillivray, Hist. Brit. B., n, p. 188 ; Thompson 
B. Ireland, i, p. 224. 
Anthus trivialis (Linnaeus), Yarrell, i, p. 569 ; Saunders, p. 131. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Summer-resident. Fairly 
distributed and common except west Cornwall, but occurs autumn 
on Scilly Isles. Scotland. Plentiful south-west and fairly distri- 
buted elsewhere to central, but rarer northwards ; very rare Suther- 
land, and does not breed Caithness, not recorded Shetlands, and 
only once or twice as vagrant Orkneys and 0. Hebrides, but regular 
spring and autumn passage- migrant Fair Isle. Ireland. Reported 
occurrences not authenticated. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe from Tromso and north Russia 
to north Spain, higher portions of Italy, and in small numbers to 
south-east Europe (mountains of Greece), in Asia to the Yenisei 
and Tian-Shan. Migrates in winter to Mediterranean, tropical 
Africa, and north-west India. 


68. Anthus pratensis (L.) THE MEADOW-PIPIT. 

ALAUDA PRATENSIS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 166 (1758 " Habitat 
in Europae pratis." Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 
Anthus pratensis (Linnaeus), Yarrell, i, p. 575 ; Saunders, p. 133. 


DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Abundant throughout 
in open country, but majority leave higher and more northern 
situations in autumn and many emigrate. 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. Summer-residents from Hebrides and 
Highlands move south, chiefly down west coast, from about mid- 
Aug. to late Oct., and there is evidence of autumn-immigration 
in Ireland corresponding partly with this movement. Many, if 
not majority of, English breeding- birds pass south and west in 
autumn. Emigratory movements along south coast England 
from late Sept. to late Nov., and corresponding immigratory move- 
ments in south-east Ireland have been noticed. From early Sept. 
to late Oct. large numbers of immigrants, many of which winter 
with us, while some pass on, arrive in northern Scottish isles, and 
between mid-Sept, and Nov. on east coast from Forfar to Kent. 
Return passage from end Feb. to mid- April on south coast Ireland, 
and from mid-March to mid- April on whole south coast England. 
Considerable evidence that more northerly breeding-birds pass 
north along west coast or through western counties England, 
rather than east coast. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe from Iceland, the Fseroes, and 
North Cape to Pyrenees, Italy, and Carpathian Mountains, east- 
wards to west Siberia and north Turkestan. Migrant, wintering 
in the Mediterranean countries, north Africa, Syria, and Asia Minor. 


69. Anthus cervinus (Pall.) THE RED-THROATED PIPIT. 

MOTACILLA CERVINA Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-As., i, p. 511 (1827 Siberia). 
Anthus cervinus (Pallas), Saunders, p. 135. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Seven. One, Unst (Shetlands), May 
4, 1854. One St. Leonards (Sussex), Nov. 13, 1895 (Saunders, 
p. 135). One, Achill (Mayo), May 26th, 1895 (Bull. B.O.C., 
xii, p. 15, and Brit. B., I, p. 112). One Ninfield (Sussex), 
Nov. 26, 1901 (Bull. B.O.C., xn, p. 35, and Brit. B., i, p. 112). 
Two autumn, 1908, Fair Isle (Ann. S.N.H., 1909, p. 72, and Brit. B., 
n, p. 423). One Rother Marshes (Kent), April 29, 1909 (Hist. 
Birds Kent, p. 104, and Brit. B., in, p. 256). [Specimens 
from Brighton, 1884, and Rainham, 1880 (Saunders, p. 135) are 
A. pratensis (Brit. B., n, pp. 278-9), as also one from Donegal, 
Aug., 1898.] 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in high north of Europe and Asia. 
Migrant, wintering in India (in small numbers even in Malay Archi- 
pelago), south Arabia, Nubia, and Egypt to east Africa. Rare or 
irregular visitor to west Europe and north-west Africa. 



70. Anthus spinoletta spinoletta (L.) THE WATER-PIPIT. 

ALAUDA SPINOLETTA Linnseus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 166 (1758 Italy). 

Anthus spinoletta, Seebohm, Hist. Brit. B., n, p. 248. 

Anthus spipoletta (Linnaeus), Yarrell, i, p. 581 ; Saunders, p. 141. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Possibly regular migrant to 
Sussex coast and a vagrant elsewhere. There has been some 
confusion between the Water-Pipit and Scandinavian Rock-Pipit, 
but Mr. M. J. Nicoll has recently shown (Zool., 1906, p. 467) that 
it is fairly regular on passage in Sussex. The following appear 
satisfactory : Sussex, four, spring and autumn prior to 1900, one 
Feb., 1900, one Oct., 1902, four Oct., eight Nov., and one Dec., 
1904, four Feb., one April, and one Oct., 1905, and some spring, 
1906. Single birds, Isle of Wight, Sept., 1865 ; Lines., April, 1895 ; 
Carnarvon, April and Dec., 1897, Feb., 1898 ; Scilly Islands, May, 
1903 ; Oxon, Mar., 1903 ; Devon, Aug., 1904 ; Norfolk, Jan., 1905 ; 
Kent, Jan., 1905 (cf. Brit. B., i, pp. 113-114, n, p. 276, m, pp. 120, 
299). Ireland. One Rockabill (Dublin), June, 1861. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Mountains of central and south Europe 
generally, east to Asia Minor. Partly migrant, or vagrant, visiting 
plains of north Germany and elsewhere, and common in winter in 
south Europe, also occurring in north-west Africa. 

71. Anthus spinoletta rubescens (Tunst.) THE AMERICAN 

ALAUDA RUBESCENS Tunstall, Orn. Brit., p. 2 (1771 Ex Pennant, Brit. 
Zool., Birds, n, p. 239, who took his descr. from Edwards, Gleanings, 
pi. 297, where a bird from Pennsylvania is figured ; Edwards said he 
also found this bird near London.) 

Anthus ludovicianus Yarrell, i, p. 589 (in text) ; A. pennsylvanicus 
= ludovicianus, Saunders, p. 142 (in text). 

DISTRIBUTION. Scotland. One St. Kilda (O. Hebrides), Sept., 
1910 (W. Eagle Clarke, Ann. S.N.H., 1911, p. 52 ; cf. Brit. B., iv, 
p. 285). The specimen mentioned by Edwards (ut supra], and 
those recorded by MacGillivray (Man. Brit. Birds, p. 169), were 
probably A. s. littoralis (cf. Yarrell, i, p. 590). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in Arctic zone from north-east 
Siberia, north Alaska, north Mackenzie, on both sides of Davis 
Strait south to Great Slave Lake, north Quebec and Newfoundland, 
and from Aleutian Islands and Prince William Sound, as well as 
on high mountains south to California and mid-Mexico. Winters 
from south United States to Guatemala. Has occurred twice on 

D 2 


72. Anthus spinoletta obscurus (Lath.) THE ROCK-PIPIT. 

ALATJDA OBSCUBA Latham, Index Orn., n, p. 494 (1790 England). 

Alauda petrosa Montagu, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, iv, p. 41 (1798 


Anthus obscurus (Latham), Yarrell, i, p. 58G ; Saunders, p. 143. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Generally distributed on 
rocky shores throughout. Also on many flat shores in autumn and 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. Autumn immigration east coast Great 
Britain, and return-migration spring. There is evidence that some 
migrants pass on southward. No regular migration noted elsewhere. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Channel Islands, and coasts of north 
France. According to Collett (Nyt Mag. Naturv., xxin, p. 144, 
xxvi, p. 306) this form breeds on coasts of Norway, while A. 
spinoletta littoralis is the Baltic form. In winter vagrant, and found 
along the coasts to Spain, also occasionally inland. 

73. Anthus spinoletta littoralis Brehm* THE SCANDINA- 

ANTHUS LITTORALIS Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deutschl., p. 331 

(1831 Danish Isles). 

Anthus rupestris, Yarrell, I, p. 588 (in text) ; Saunders, p. 143 (in text). 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Since Booth noted its occurrence 
in Sussex in March and April very little is recorded. Has been 
observed in parts of Wales, Scilly Isles, Northumberland, Lines., 
Norfolk, Land's End, Kent (two). Said to pass along Yorks. 
coast in autumn, which is probable, but the bird is only distinguish- 
able from the Rock -Pipit in summer-plumage, when the throat 
is less spotted and has a rosy hue. Specimens recorded by 
Edwards near London and by MacGillivray near Edinburgh as 
" Alauda rubescens " (vide supra) were possibly of this race. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Coasts of Scandinavia (Baltic coasts only 
according to Collett), Danish Isles and, it is said, White Sea in 
north Russia. In winter farther south : Heligoland (common), 
coasts of Germany, Holland, Belgium, north France. 


74. Motacilla flava flava L. THE BLUE-HEADED WAGTAIL. 

MOTACILLA FLAVA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 185 (1758 " Habitat 
in Europa." Restricted typical locality : S. Sweden). 
Motacilla flava Linnaeus, Yarrell, i, p. 558 ; Saunders, p. 127 ; M . f. flava L., 
N. F. Ticehurst, Brit. B., i, p. 134 et seq. 

* The name rupestris refers only in part to this bird. E.H. 


DISTRIBUTION. England. Summer-resident in small numbers 
south-east Sussex and south-west Kent, arriving end April and 
departing August. Has bred several times Durham and Wilts., 
and possibly north Devon, Norfolk, Suffolk, north Kent, and Essex. 
Elsewhere often recorded as a straggler, but chiefly in south. 
Wales. Two Merioneth, one Carnarvon, and has occurred, and 
possibly bred, Brecon. Scotland. Has occurred at Edinburgh, in 
Haddington, Lanark, Dumfries, Shetlands, and Fair Isle. Possibly 
nested Aberdeen. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in most parts of Europe, from 
middle Scandinavia to Pyrenees, and (in small numbers) north 
Italy, eastwards throughout Russia (limits in south-east uncertain) 
and Hungary to Danube and Save. Winters in Africa. Repre- 
sented in north Europe, Mediterranean countries, south Russia, 
and various parts of north Asia by a number of other forms. 

75. Motacilla flava beema Sykes SYKES'S WAGTAIL. 

MOTACILLA BEEMA Sykes, Proc. Zool. Soc., London, 1832, p. 90 (Dekkan, 


Motacilla beema, Butterfield, Zool., 1902, p. 232 ; Saunders, Brit. B., i, 

p. 11 ; N. F. Ticehurst, t.c., i, p. 136. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. - - One. Male Rottingdean (Sussex), 
April 20, 1898 (ut supra}. [A male, Sussex, May 31, 1901, 
said to have been probably of this race, is a worn example of M . f. 
flava (N. F. Ticehurst, Brit. B., i, p. 136).] 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. West Siberia. Winters in India. Casual 
in Europe (Hungary). 

76. Motacilla flava thunbergi Billberg* THE GREY- 

MOTACILLA THUNBERGI Billberg, Synopsis Fauna Scand., i, 2, Aves, 
p. 50 (1828 Lapland). 

Motacilla viridis Gm. : M. borealis Sundev., Saunders, Brit. B., i, p. 10 ; 
M. f. borealis Sund., N. F. Ticehurst, t.c., i, p. 136. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. One probable, Penzance (Saun- 
ders, p. 128). One Yorks., spring, 1901. Possibly a pair bred Romney 
Marsh, June, 1906. Two, Sussex, May, 1903, one, May, 1904, one, 
May, 1907, one, spring 1869 or 1870, one, May, 1909. One possibly 
Dover (Kent), 1889. Pentland Skerries (Orkneys), one May, 1888, 
and one May, 1889. Fair Isle, " fair numbers " end May and 
early June and Sept., 1908, spring and autumn, 1909, and in 1910. 

* Billberg's name antedates Sundevall's borealis by 14 years, and has 
now been widely adopted. E.H. 


DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in north Scandinavia, Russia, 
and Siberia ; on migration throughout Europe, rarely to north- 
west and north-east Africa, not rare in India, Burmah, and 

77. Motacilla flava cinereocapilla Savi THE ASHY-HEADED 

MOTACILLA CINEREOCAPILLA Savi, Nuovo Giornale dei Letterati, no. 57, 

p. 190 (1831 Italy). 

Motacilla flava cinereocapilla Savi, N. F. Ticehurst, Brit. B., i, p. 137. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. One Penzance (Cornwall) ; one Shering- 
ham (Norfolk) about May, 1842 (ut supra}. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Spain, south France (Camargue), Sicily, 
Italy, east to Dalmatia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Montenegro. Also 
said to nest in north-west Africa, as well as occurring there on 
passage, wintering in northern tropical Africa. 

78. Motacilla flava melanocephala Licht. THE BLACK- 

MOTACILLA MELANOCEPHALA Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Zool. Mus. 
Berlin, p. 36 (1823 Nubia). 

Motacilla feldeggi of Michahelles, Butterfield, Bull. B.O.C., xm, p. 69 ; 
M. melanocephala Licht., Saunders, Brit. B., i, p. 10 : M. /. melano- 
cephala Licht., N. F. Ticehurst, i.e., i, p. 137. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Four. Male, Willingdon (Sussex), May 
13, 1903 (W. R. Butterfield, Zool, 1903, p. 420). Male, Lydd 
(Kent), June 3, 1908 (J. B. Nichols, Brit. B., n, p. 165). Male, 
Winchelsea (Sussex), May 23, 1909 (id., op.c., in, p. 256). Male, 
Romney Marsh (Sussex), May 26, 1909 (C. B. Ticehurst, I.e., 
p. 257). One (probable) seen Norfolk, June 17 and 19, 1910 
(op.c., iv, p. 92). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in Greece, Turkey, north to 
Bulgaria and south Dalmatia, Asia Minor, Caucasus, south Russia. 
Migrates south to Arabia and north-east Africa, straying occasionally 
northwards (Heligoland) and westwards to Italy, Tunisia, and 

79. Motacilla flava rayi (Bp.) THE YELLOW WAGTAIL. 

BUDYTES RAYI Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp. List of B. Europe and 

N. America, p. 18 (1838" British Islands "). 

Budytes neglectus Brehm, Vogelfang, p. 142 (1855 England, rarely in 


Motacilla raii (Bonaparte), Yarrell, i, p. 564 ; Saunders, p. 129 ; M. flava 

rayi (Bp.), Hartert, Brit. B., i, p. 212. 


DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Summer-resident. Arrives end 
March, April, and early May ; departs Sept. Distributed through- 
out England and Wales, but rarely breeds Devon, where, as 
Cornwall and west Wales, chiefly known as passage-migrant. In 
Scotland chiefly in south (but not Tweed area) and rarely as far as 
Inverness and Aberdeen on east side, and not beyond Clyde area 
in west, north of which a straggler. Said to have bred Orkneys. 
Occurred N. Rona (O. Hebrides), Shetlands, and Fair Isle (twice). 
Ireland. Very local, breeding on Loughs Neagh, Corrib, and Mask ; 
occurs autumn Dublin coast and three times Wexford Lights. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Appears to breed in small numbers in 
west Holland (Snouckaert van Schauburg, Avifauna Neerlandica, 
p. 27, 1908), west France, and perhaps Portugal, also, it is said, on 
Heligoland (Weigold, Orn. Monatsber., 1910, p. 158). Migrates 
through west Europe to west Africa. 


80. Motacilla boarula boarula L.* THE GREY WAGTAIL. 

MOTACILLA BOABULA Linnaeus, Mantissa Plantarum, p. 527 (1771 


Motacilla grisea Miiller, Natursystem Suppl., p. 175 (1776 Ex Edwards, 

who described and figured a bird killed near London. Miiller erroneously 

wrote " Amerika "). 

Motacilla sulphurea Bechstein, Yarrell, i, p. 552 ; Motacilla melanope 

(nee Pallas), Saunders, p. 125. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Breeds very sparingly 
in eastern half of England and only sparingly in south-eastern 
counties, most common in Wales, Ireland, and Scotland, but scarce 
in north Scotland, breeds Orkneys, but only a visitor to Shetlands 
and O. Hebrides. A movement from its breeding-places southwards 
occurs in autumn. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe from south Sweden to Mediter- 
ranean countries, east to Ural. Partial migrant, apparently only 
in small numbers south in winter to Senegambia and British East 
Africa. Replaced by a closely-allied form (M. b. melanope) in north 
Asia (in winter in tropics), and by another on Atlantic isles. (With 
regard to the form from the Canary Islands, see Hartert, Vog. pal. 
Fauna, i, p. 299). 


81 Motacilla alba lugubris Temm. THE PIED WAGTAIL. 

MOTACILLA LTJGUBRIS Temminck, Man. d'Orn., i, p. 253 (1820 Partim. 
Temminck mentions specimens from Siberia, Crimea, France, Egypt, 

* M . boarula of 1771 is, of course, the oldest name and melanope refers 
to an eastern form with longer tail. E.H. 


Hungary ! As the description agrees with our bird, and the name has 

been generally accepted, it may be allowed to stand). 

Motacilla Yarrellii Gould, B. Europe, List of Plates in Vol. n, p. 2 

(1837 Great Britain). 

Motacilla lugubris Temminck, Yarrell, i, p. 538; Saunders, p. 131 ; 

M. a. lugubris Temm., Hartert, Brit. B. i, p. 212. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident, generally distributed, but 
doubtful breeder Shetlands and only rare visitor O. Hebrides, where 
it has been confused with the White Wagtail (Ann. S.N.H., 1902, 
p. 144). Many of our breeding-birds migrate southwards in autumn 
and return in early spring. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in small numbers on west coast 
of France, Belgium, and Holland (once), and, according to Collett, 
near Stavanger and Bergen in Norway. Otherwise represented 
in Europe, north-west Africa, and northern parts of Asia by other 
forms. On migration in Heligoland and Denmark, winters in 
south France, Portugal, Spain, and Marocco. 

82. Motacilla alba alba L. THE WHITE WAGTAIL. 

MOTACILLA ALBA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 185 (1758 "Habitat 
in Europa." Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 
Motacilla alba Linnaeus, Yarrell, i, p. 548 ; Saunders, p. 123. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Spring and autumn passage-migrant. 
Has bred exceptionally in Devon, Isle of Wight, Kent, Sussex, 
Middlesex, Cambs., Suffolk, Hunts., Yorks., Carnarvon, Fair Isle 
(1909 and 1910), possibly Northants. and Ross. Also often recorded 
as interbreeding with Pied Wagtail, and although many records 
are no doubt based upon faulty identification, some are genuine. 

Passes through British Isles from mid-March to early June, 
being chiefly noticed coastal regions west sides Great Britain and 
Ireland, and especially frequent Welsh coast, in O. Hebrides, Shet- 
lands, and Fair Isle. On eastern side appears to pass through in 
smaller numbers, and seldom recorded south-east coast England, 
north-east coast Scotland, or east coast Ireland, but this is partly 
due to want of observation. In autumn returns from mid- Aug. 
to early Oct. along same routes. Occasionally inland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe, from Iceland and Scandinavia 
to Mediterranean, east to Ural. Has been observed on Jan May en 
and in south Greenland ; winters in tropical Africa, touches Azores 
(exceptionally), Madeira and Canary Islands ; is replaced as a 
breeding-bird in British Isles and north-west France by M. a. lugu- 
bris, and by other allied forms in north-west Africa and across 
Asia to Kuriles and Japan. 

[NOTE. An example of the AMERICAN YELLOW WARBLER, Dendroica 
cextiva cestiva (Gm.), picked up near Axwell Park (Durham), May, 1904 
(E. Bidwell, Bull. B.O.C., xv, p. 46), had, in our opinion, most probably 
escaped from captivity.] 



83. Certhia familiaris brittanica Ridgw. THE BRITISH 

CERTHIA BRITTANICA Ridgway, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., v, p. 113 (1882 


Certhia familiaris Linnaeus, Yarrell, i, p. 468 ; Saunders, p. 117 ; Certhia 

f. brittanica Ridgw., Hartert, Brit. B., i, p. 218. 

DISTRIBUTION. Confined to British Isles. Resident. Generally 
distributed in suitable localities, but absent from O. Hebrides and 
very rarely seen in Shetlands and Orkneys. 

84. Certhia familiaris familiaris L. THE NORTHERN TREE- 

CERTHIA FAMILIARIS Linnseus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 118 (1758 Europe. 
Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

DISTRIBUTION. Scotland. One. Male (exhausted) Fair Isle, 
Dec. 27, 1906 (W. Eagle Clarke, Ann. S.N.H., 1907, p. 72). 
Records of Tree-Creepers from Orkneys and Shetlands, especially 
from latter during a gale, Sept., 1859 and in Oct., 1882 with 
Great Spotted Woodpeckers, may relate to this form. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Scandinavia, north Russia and Poland, 
south to Carpathian Mountains, Siberia to sea of Ochotsk, also in 
east Germany. This form is replaced on mountains of Corsica, 
central and west Europe generally, the Caucasus, Persia, and many 
other parts of Asia by other races. In many parts of Europe we 
find side by side with a race of Certhia familiaris a race of another 
species (Certhia brachydactyla), and forms of this species take the 
place of C. familiaris in most parts of south Europe, Cyprus, north- 
west Africa, and apparently Asia Minor, or at least parts of it, as 
also in North America. 


85. Tichodroma muraria (L.) THE WALL-CREEPER. 

CERTHIA MURARIA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat.,ed. xn, i, p. 184 (1766 S. Europe). 
Tichodroma muraria (Linnseus), Yarrell, in, p. ix, ; Saunders, p. 119. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Four. One Stratton Strawless (Norfolk), 
Oct., 1792. One Sabden (Lanes.), May 8, 1872. One Winchelsea 
(Sussex) about 1886 (cf. Saunders, p. 119). Female near 
Hastings (Sussex), Dec. 26, 1905 (W. R. Butterfield, Bull. B.O.C., 
xvi, p. 44). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Mountain-ranges of central and south 
Europe, east to Mongolia, Turkestan, and Himalayas. Stragglers 


occasionally seen far away from their breeding-places (Germany, 
Brittany, Normandy, Alderney, etc.). 


86. Sitta europasa britannica Hart. THE BRITISH 

SITTA EUROP^A BRITANNICA Hartert, Nov. Zool., 1900, p. 526 (England). 
Sitta ccesia Wolf, Yarrell, i, p. 473 ; Saunders, p. 113 ; S. e. britannica 
Hartert, Brit. B., i, p. 218. 

DISTRIBUTION. Confined to Great Britain. Resident. Tolerably 
common south and central England, rarer west Cornwall and Wales, 
and very rare or unknown extreme south-west Cornwall and western 
Wales. In Isle of Wight unknown. Very local Cheshire and Yorks., 
north of which counties only a straggler, but has occasionally bred. 
In Scotland has occurred three times in south-east (said to have 
bred near Ednam (Roxburgh) about 1850), two were seen Skye, 
and is said to have occurred in Shetlands. In Ireland one seen 
Malahide (Dublin), March 26, 1911, was no doubt introduced (cf. 
Brit. B, v, pp. 28 and 229). 


87. Parus major major L. THE CONTINENTAL GREAT 

PARUS MAJOR Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 189 (1758 " Habitat in 
Europa." Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Great numbers Norfolk and Suffolk 
coasts Oct., 1910 (C. B. Ticehurst, Brit. B., iv, p. 247). Others at 
same time Kent andinScilly Isles in Nov. (N. F. Ticehurst, i.e., p. 228). 
One, Isle of May, Oct. 15, 1910 (E. V. Baxter and L. J. Rintoul, 
Ann. S.N.H., 1911, p. 3). One Fair Isle, Nov. 17, 1910, and one 
probable Shetlands, Oct. 25, 1910 (Brit. B., v, p. 200). In Oct., 1910, 
many, probably of this form, seen in Yorks., and apparently immi- 
grant Great Tits have often been noted in autumn on east coasts 
England, and particularly in 1878, 1883, 1884, 1886, 1889, and 1901 
(cf. Birds Yorks., i, p. 108), while what was deemed a return migra- 
tion was noted in Norfolk in Feb., 1848 (Birds Norfolk, i, p. 140), 
but no examples of these earlier immigrations have been identified. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe generally to Mediterranean, east 
to west Siberia and Altai. Replaced by allied forms on some 
Mediterranean islands and Greece, north-west Africa and many parts 
of Asia. 


88. Parus major newtoni Prazak THE BRITISH GREAT 

PARUS MAJOR NEWTONI Prazak, Orn. Jahrb., v, p. 239 (1894 England). 
Parus major Linnaeus, Yarrell, i, p. 479 ; Saunders, p. 103 ; P. m. newtoni 
Prazak, Hartert, Brit. B., i, p. 213. 

DISTRIBUTION. Confined to British Isles. England, Wales, and 
Ireland. Resident. Generally distributed. Scotland. Resident. 
Generally distributed in south and central portions ; becoming 
scarce and local Inverness and north Argyll, and very rare north of 
Loch Ness ; in north Sutherland, Caithness, Orkneys and Shetlands 
Great Tits (whether of this form or P. m. major not ascertained), 
are only occasional visitors ; breeds Islay, Jura, and Mull, but only 
rare visitor Skye, and unknown O. Hebrides. 


89. Parus caeruleus caeruleus L. THE CONTINENTAL 

PARUS CAERULEUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 190 (1758 " Habitat 
in Europa." Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Parus caeruleus cceruleus L., J. L. Bonhote, Bull. B.O.C., xxvn, p. 101 ; 
cf. Brit. B., v, p. 109. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. One, Peebleshire (ut supra}. Immi- 
grations of Blue Tits have been noted, especially in Yorks., where 
they appear to arrive in most seasons from mid-Sept, to mid-Nov., 
and large immigrations were recorded end Oct., 1878 (corresponding 
with a " rush " at Heligoland), in 1889, and Sept., 1901 (Birds Yorks., 
i, pp. 112-113). No specimens of these migrants have, however, 
been examined and identified as belonging to this form. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. From about lat. north 64 in Sweden 
and 60 in Russia, throughout continental Europe, but replaced by 
allied forms in Spain, on some of the Mediterranean islands and 
Canaries, north-west Africa, Persia, and apparently east Russia. 

90. Parus caeruleus obscurus Prazak THE BRITISH BLUE 

PARUS C^RULEUS OBSCURUS Prazak, Orn. Jahrb., 1894, p. 246 (England). 
Parus cceruleus Linnaeus, Yarrell, i, p. 483 ; Saunders, p. 109 ; P. c. 
obscurus Prazak, Hartert, Brit. B., i, p. 213. 

DISTRIBUTION. Confined to British Isles. England, Wales, and 
Ireland. Resident. Generally distributed. Scotland. Resident, 
Generally distributed, but becomes rare and very local in north- 
west, and apparently only occasional Caithness, and rare wanderer 


Orkneys and Shetlands ; well distributed most I. Hebrides, but rare 
Skye, and apparently unknown Eigg ; unknown O. Hebrides. 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. Generally considered subject only to 
local movements, but has occurred as a migrant at Isle of May in 


91. Parus ater ater L. THE CONTINENTAL COAL- 

PARUS ATER Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 190 (1758 "Habitat in 

Europa." Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Pams ater Linnaeus, Yarrell, i, p. 489 (part) ; Saunders, p. 105 (part). 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Said to be occasional visitor to east 
coast England, but we know of only two specimens (in Mr. J. H. 
Gurney's coll.), viz. : Northrepps (Norfolk), Jan. 15, 1866 ; Laken- 
ham, Norwich, spring, 1866 (cf. Birds Europe, in, p. 88). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe and north Asia, but replaced 
by allied races in Sardinia, probably Spain and Portugal, and in 
Marocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, Cyprus, Crimea, Caucasus, and parts 
of Asia. 

92. Parus ater britannicus Sharpe and Dresser THE BRITISH 

PARUS BRITANNICUS Sharpe and Dresser, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 4, 
vm, p. 437 (1871 England). 

Parus ater Linnaeus, Yarrell, i, p. 489 (part) ; Saunders, p. 105 (part). 
P. a. britannicus Sharpe & Dresser, Hartert, Brit. B., i, p. 213. 

DISTRIBUTION. Confined to Great Britain. England and Wales. 
Eesident. Generally distributed, more especially in wooded parts. 
Scotland. Resident. Generally distributed, except Caithness, 
where very rarely observed,* and in Shetlands, Orkneys, and 
O. Hebrides, where unknown. 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. Generally considered as subject to 
local movements only, but has been observed on autumn-migration 
at Isle of May and Bass Rock. 

93. Parus ater hibernicus Ogilvie-Grant THE IRISH COAL- 

PARUS HIBERNICUS Ogilvie-Grant, Bull. B.O.C., xxvn, p. 37 (31.xii.1910 

* Records from Wick (Caithness) in autumn may be referable to Parus 
a. ater. 


Parus hibernicus, Daily Mail (!) No. 4593, p. 3 (28.xii.1910 County 
Sligo, Ireland. Author not clearly stated, either "Natural History 
authorities," Louis Wain, or Sir William Ingram). 

DISTRIBUTION. Confined to Ireland. Resident, and generally 
distributed, more especially in wooded districts.* 


94. Parus cristatus scoticus (Prazak) THE SCOTTISH 

LOPHOPHANES CRISTATUS scoTicA Prazak, Journ. f. Orn., 1897, p. 347 


Parus cristatus Linnaeus, Yarrell, i, p. 499 ; Saunders, p. 1 1 1 ; P. c. scotica 

(Prazak), Hartert, Brit. B., i, p. 215. 

DISTRIBUTION. Confined to Scotland. Confined to Spey Valley, 
where resident over whole area of pine-tracts in Abernethy, Rothie- 
murchus and Dulnan, from base of Cairngorms to Ballindalloch. 
Vagrants, possibly of this form, have occurred Argyll, Perth, and 

95. Parus cristatus cristatus L. THE NORTHERN CRESTED 

PARUS CRISTATUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 189 (1758 " Habitat 

in Europa." Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Parus cristatus cristatus L., Witherby, Brit. B., v, pp. 109-10. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. One, Whitby (Yorks.), March, 1872 
(ut supra] . 

[Other examples (not examined) of Crested Tits, recorded as 
obtained, are : Thirsk (Yorks.), near Christchurch (Hants.), 1846, 
Grange, Melton (Suffolk), about 1873, Suffolk, about 1840. Others 
are recorded as seen.] 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Scandinavia, north Russia, Poland, and 
east Germany. Replaced in west Germany, central and west 
Europe by Parus cristatus mitratus Brehm, a much browner form. 

96. Parus cristatus mitratus Brehm CENTRAL EUROPEAN 

PARUS MITRATUS Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deutschl., p. 467 (1831 


Parus cristatus mitratus Brehm, Witherby, Brit. B., v, p. 110. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. One. Yarmouth (Isle of Wight) pre- 
vious to 1844 (ut supra}. 

* Some examples, especially from co. Down, are not separable from 
Parus a. britannicus. 


DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in central Europe, south to 
Pyrenees and Alps. In Italy south of Alps only from autumn 
to spring. Represented in north and north-east Europe, and 
apparently in Spain and Portugal, by closely-allied forms. 


97. Parus palustris dresseri Stejn. THE BRITISH MARSH- 

PARUS PALUSTRIS DRESSERI Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., ix, p. 200 
(1886 England). 

Parus palustris Linnaeus, Yarrell, i, p. 495 ; Saunders, p. 107 ; P. p. 
dresseri Stejn., Hartert, Brit. B., i, p. 214. 

DISTRIBUTION. Confined to Great Britain. England and Wales. 
Resident. Rather local and especially so in west Cornwall, Cumber- 
land and Westmorland. In northern parts of north Wales probably 
only accidental, and in Anglesey unknown. It may be replaced 
entirely by the Willow-Tit in some parts, and especially in the 
north. Scotland. Appears to be entirely replaced by the Willow- 
Tit. Ireland. Said to have occurred many years ago in counties 
Antrim, Kildare, Dublin, and Louth, but no specimens exist. Has 
been introduced Tipperary (Brit. B., v, p. 229). 


98. Parus atricapillus kleinschmidti Hellm. THE BRITISH 

PARUS MONTANUS KLEINSCHMIDTI Hellmayr, Orn. Jahrb., 1900, p. 212 
(England. Coalfall Wood, near Finchley). 

Parus atricapillus kleinschmidti Hellni., Rothschild, Brit. B., i, p. 44 ; 
Hartert, i.e., p. 214. 

DISTRIBUTION. Apparently confined to Great Britain. Distribution 
as yet little known, and in England and Wales we can only give 
counties where it has been identified, and in which it is present 
in small numbers with Parus palustris dresseri, viz.: Devon, Wilts., 
Hants., Sussex, Kent, Surrey, Berks., Oxon., Bucks., Herts., 
Middlesex, Cambs., Suffolk, Northants., Lines., Yorks., Lanes., 
Derb}^, Salop, Staffs., Worcester, Hereford, Brecon, Merioneth, 
Carnarvon (cf.Brit. B., i, pp. 47, 215, 359, iv, pp. 147, 248, 284, 337). 
Scotland. It would seem entirely to replace P. p. dresseri, but 
specimens have only been critically examined from Forth and Moray 
areas, Dumfries, Kirkcudbright, Renfrew, and Lanark, (cf. Brit. B., 
iv, pp. 159, 284 ; v, pp. 133, 256). Very local, but fairly well dis- 
tributed south of a line from Firth of Forth to Firth of Clyde, reach- 
ing to Loch Lomond and into Stirling and Perth in small numbers 
and very locally to a little north of Perth (town), with isolated 


record as far as Dunkeld. Also breeds in parts of Spey valley, but 
otherwise unknown in north, except for a few isolated records in 
Moray area. Unknown I. and O. Hebrides, Shetlands and Orkneys. 

99. Parus atricapillus borealis Selys. THE NORTHERN 

PARUS BOREALIS Selys-Longchamps, Bull. Ac. Bruxelles, x, 2, p. 28 
(1843 Iceland errore ! The type came from Norway). 
Pants borealis (Selys-Longch.), Grant, Bull. B.O.C., xxm, p. 34 ; id. 
Brit. B.,n, p. 277. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. One, Tetbury (Gloucester), March, 1907. 
Also thought to have been seen at Welwyn (Herts.), Jan. 12, 1908 
(ut supra}. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Scandinavia, north and north-west 
Russia, Russian Baltic provinces, and East Prussia. In winter, 
vagrant and appearing elsewhere (Poland, Orenburg, etc.). 


100. ^Egithalos caudatus caudatus (L.) THE NORTHERN 

PARUS CAUDATUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 190 (1758 " Habitat 

in Europa." Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Acredula caudata (Linnaeus), Yarrell, i, p. 504 (part) ; Saunders, p. 101 


DISTRIBUTION. England. One found dead Tynemouth (Northum- 
berland) Nov., 1852 (Hancock, Birds North. & Durham, p. 77). One 
said to have been obtained at Dover (Kent) prior to 1889, is at 
Rochester (Hist. Birds Kent, p. 76). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. North and east Europe to Siberia and 
north Japan ( Jesso) ; in winter vagrant and appearing in central and 
west Europe. Replaced in central and south Europe, Asia Minor, 
Caucasus, Crimea, Persia, China and south Japan by other races. 

1 01. iEgithalos caudatus roseus (Blyth) THE BRITISH 

MECISTURA ROSEA Blyth, in Gilb. White, Nat. Hist. Selborne, p. Ill 

(1836 England). 

Mecistura vagans Leach, Cat. Mamm. Birds Brit. Mus., p. 17 (1816 

Xo description). 

Mecistura longicauda MacGillivray, Hist. Brit. B., 11, p. 454 (part). 

Acredula caudata (Linnaeus), Yarrell, i, p. 504 (part) ; Saunders, p. 101 

(part) ; A. c. rosea (Blyth), Hartert, Brit. B., i, p. 217. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Generally distributed in 
most parts, but rare in some very barren districts and in Isle of 


Man; only once O. Hebrides ("company" Lewis, 1903), never 
Orkneys, only once (four seen April, 1860) Shetlands, very rare 
Caithness and extreme north-west Scotland, but common, if some- 
what local, in other parts. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Specimens from central Pyrenees appear 
to be indistinguishable from British ones. Probably this form 
occurs also in other parts of west France. 


102. Regulus regulus regulus (L.) THE CONTINENTAL 

MOTACILLA REGULUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 188 (1758 
' ' Habitat in Europa." Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 
Regulus cristatus K. L. Koch, Yarrell, i, p. 449 (part) ; Saunders, p. 57 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Very few migrant Goldcrests have 
been examined, but this form appears to be an autumn-immigrant 
(Sept. to Nov.) to east coast, possibly not occurring every year, 
but sometimes in great numbers, apparently occasionally reaching 
Ireland, but no specimens from Ireland identified. Returns March 
and April. Identified examples from coasts Yorks., Lines., Norfolk, 
Kent and Sussex, and Isle of May, Sept. and Oct., from Sussex 
Dec., and from St. Catherine's Light (Isle of Wight) and Yorks., 
Oct. and Nov. Autumn and spring- migrants in Orkneys and 
Shetlands are probably of this form. 

Abroad. Europe from Scandinavia and north Russia (as far 
as pine-forests reach) to Pyrenees, Italy, Macedonia, Caucasus, and 
Asia Minor. Resident and vagrant. Represented by allied forms 
in British Isles, Azores, Canary Islands, Corsica and Sardinia, 
Turkestan, Himalayas, and Japan. 

103. Regulus regulus anglorum Hart. THE BRITISH 

REGULUS REGULUS ANGLORUM Hartert, Bull. B.O.C., xvi, p. 11 (Great 
Britain and Ireland). 

Regulus cristatus K. L. Koch, Yarrell, i, p. 449 (part) ; Saunders, p. 57 
(part) ; R. r. anglorum Hartert, Brit. B., i, p. 218. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Generally distributed, 
except in extreme north-west Scotland, where local ; in O. Hebrides, 
where only once recorded as breeding (Stornoway, 1906) ; Shetlands, 
where it does not breed, and Orkneys, where only twice recorded 
as breeding. Goldcrests, possibly of Continental form, are however 
common as spring-and autumn- migrants in these three groups 
of islands. 


MIGRATIONS. British Isles. Few migrant specimens having been 
critically examined, it is impossible to define migrations of our birds, 
but there is no doubt a very considerable southward movement, 
in some years at all events, in autumn, and a return in spring along 
east coast Great Britain, although probably many individuals are 
residents subject only to local movements. Some perhaps pass in 
autumn from Great Britain to Ireland, where Goldcrests have been 
noted at Lights fairly frequently in Aug., while numbers occur in 
Sept. and Oct. ; those taken at Lights on south coast England may 
be leaving the country in autumn and returning in spring. 


104. Regulus ignicapillus ignicapillus (Temm.) THE FIRE- 

SYLVIA IGNICAPILLA Temminck, Man. d'Orn., ed. n, i, p. 231 (1820 

Ex Brehm MS. : France, Germany, etc.). 

Regulus ignicapillus (C. L. Brehm), Yarrell, i, p. 456 ; Saunders, p. 59. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Fairly frequent visitor from 
Oct. to April along coast from Cornwall to Kent, and considered 
as annual autumn-visitor near Dover (Kent) and Scilly Isles, and 
nearly so in east Kent and Cornwall. Also fairly frequent along 
east coast up to and including Yorks., and has occurred rarely in 
Berks., Oxon., Salop, and Surrey. One near Pwllheli (Carnarvon), 
March 24, 1878. A pair Brecon, Feb. 2 7, 1899. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Central and south Europe to north-west 
Africa and Asia Minor. Replaced by allied race in Madeira. 

[NOTE. Two examples of the AMERICAN RUBY-CROWNED WREN, Regulus 
calendula calendula (L.), now in the British Museum, said to have been shot 
near Loch Lomond in 1852, cannot be admitted, the evidence not being sufficient 
(Yarrell, i, p. 455 ; Saunders, p. 80).] 


105. Panurus biarmicus biarmicus (L.) THE BEARDED 

PARUS BIARMICUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 190 (1758 "Habitat 
in Europa." Ex Albin & Edwards, who state that they described Danish 
specimens, which probably came from Holstein ; cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. 
Fauna, i, p. 403). 
Panurus biarmicus (Linnaeus), Yarrell, i, p. 511 ; Saunders, p. 99. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Resident in Norfolk and perhaps north 
Suffolk Broads, and in one locality in Devon. Formerly bred 
Sussex, Kent, Essex, Cambs., Hunts., and Lines. To most south 
counties very rare vagrant, nearly always in winter, and has been 


recorded along Thames as far west as Gloucester ; also very rare 
vagrant to some midland counties and as far north as Yorks., where 
a few have occurred. Many reports of birds seen are not well 
authenticated. Introduced Yorks. 1911 (Brit. B., v, p. 108). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe, in east Spain, south France, 
Holland, Italy ; formerly in various parts of Germany, and replaced 
by an allied race in Hungary, Roumania, south Russia and Asia, 
from Asia Minor probably to Manchuria. 


106. Lanius minor Gm. THE LESSER GREY SHRIKE. 

LANIUS MINOR Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, i, p. 308(1788 "Habitat in 
Italia, Hispania, Russia." Restricted typical locality : Italy). 
Lanius minor J. F. Gmelin, Yarrell, i, p. 205 ; Saunders, p. 149. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Fourteen. Most Sept. and Oct. but 
also Nov. (one), Jan. (one), April (three), May (two), June (one) ; 
from following counties : Yorks. (one), Norfolk (three), Beds. 
(one), Kent (two), Sussex (three), Hants, (two), Devon (one), and 
Scilly Isles (one). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. South and central Europe, north to 
Livonia and west Siberia, east to Asia Minor, Persia, and Russian 
Turkestan to Altai Mountains, but absent from Spain. Migrant, 
wintering in tropical Africa. 


107. Lanius excubitor excubitor L. THE GREAT GREY 

LANIUS EXCUBITOR Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 94 (1758 " Habitat 

in Europa." Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Lanius excubitor Linnaeus, Yarrell, i, p. 199 ; Saunders, p. 147. 

Lanius major Pallas, Yarrell, in, p. viii. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Annual autumn and winter- 
visitant along east side, generally singly, but periodically in fair 
numbers. Much more irregular spring and only occasional summer. 
Noted Fair Isle on both passages, and often occurs Orkneys, 
but apparently much rarer Shetlands. Elsewhere irregular, 
especially in west, and very rare casual to west Wales and 
Hebrides. Ireland. Rare casual, most frequently in north. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe from north Russia and Scandi- 
navia to Pyrenees and Alps, and east to Hungary and River Ob. 
On migration farther south, but not to Africa. Replaced in south 
France, Spain and Portugal, on Canary Islands, in north-west 
Africa, north-east Africa, south-east Europe, and parts of Asia 
and North America, by a number of other forms. 


1 08. Lanius excubitor meridionalis Temm. THE SOUTH 

LANIUS MERIDIONALIS Temminck, Man. d'Orn.,ed. n., i, p. 143 (1820 

S. Italy, Dalmatia, S. France, etc. Restricted typical locality : Provence). 
Lanius meridionalis, J. B. Nichols, Brit. B., v, p. 75. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. One. Male near Pett (Sussex), Jan. 2, 
1911 (ut supra}. [The specimen recorded from near Norwich, 
Dec., 1890 (J. H. Gurney, Trans. Norf. & N. Nat. Soc., vm, pt. iii, 
pp. 352-3, and Brit. B., I, p. 124), was wrongly identified (Brit. B., 
v,p. HI).] 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Spain, Portugal, south France, once at 
Gien on the Loire. Casual in Italy from the Riviera to Rome. 


109. Lanius senator senator L. THE WOODCHAT SHRIKE. 

LANIUS SENATOR Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 94 (1758 "Habitat 
in Tndiis." Errore. Rhine fixed as typical locality by Hartert, Vog. pal. 
Fauna, i, p. 434). 

Lanius auriculatus P. L. S. Miiller, Yarrell, i, p. 215 ; Lanius pomeranus 
Sparrman, Saunders, p. 153. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Some forty at intervals, mostly in 
south, and east as far north as Norfolk ; very rarely elsewhere. Not 
recorded from : Lines., Rutland, Hunts., Beds., Bucks., Gloucester, 
Salop, Staffs., Leicester, Warwick, and Middlesex, nor from Wales. 
Said to have twice nested Isle of Wight. Scotland. One, Isle of 
May (Forth), Oct. 19, 1911. Ireland. One, Blackwater Lightship 
(Wexford), Aug. 16, 1903. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. North-west Africa and Mediterranean 
countries generally, north to north Germany, Holland, and Belgium, 
east to south Russia, Caucasus, and Asia Minor. Migrant, south in 
winter to Sahara, Senegambia, Niger, and Haussaland. Replaced 
in Corsica and Sardinia, Persia and Palestine, by closely-allied 

no. Lanius senator badius Hartl. THE CORSICAN WOOD- 

LANIUS BADIUS Hartlaub, Journ. f. On., 1854, p. 100 (Gold Coast). 
Lanius senator badius Hartl., C. B. Ticehurst, Bull. B.O.C., xxv, p. 76 ; 
id., Brit. B.,III, p. 369. 

* This species is rather unfortunate in its names. Until 1871 it was 
almost universally called L. rufus, or sometimes ruftceps or rutilus. Then 
Mr. Dresser introduced auriculatus, and this alteration of a well-known, time- 
honoured name was unblushingly accepted by Saunders in the same year, and 
by Gadow, but in 1883 Saunders adopted pomeranus, which had to give way 
to senator, since the adoption of the 10th edition of Linnneus, 1758. E,H. 

E 2 


DISTRIBUTION. England. One, Romney Marsh (Kent), June 29, 
(ut supra). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Corsica and Sardinia, wintering in west 
Africa (Gold Coast, Nigeria), passing through Tunisia. 


in. Lanius nubicus Licht. THE MASKED SHRIKE. 

LANIUS NUBICUS Liechtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Mus. Berlin, p. 47 (1823 


Lanius nubicus, Nicoll, Bull. B.O.C., xvi, p. 22 ; Saunders, Brit. B., i. 

p. 11. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. One, adult male, Woodchurch (Kent), 
July 11, 1905 (ut supra). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in south-west Persia, Asia Minor, 
Cyprus and Syria, formerly also in Greece. Winters in north-east 
Africa, and south Arabia. 


112. Lanius collurio collurio L. THE RED-BACKED SHRIKE. 

LANIUS COLLURIO Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 94 (1758 "Habitat 
in Europa." Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 
Lanius collurio Linnaeus, Yarrell, i, p. 209 ; Saunders, p. 151. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Summer-resident (early May 
to late August). Also autumn and spring passage- migrant. Irregu- 
larly distributed throughout south and central England and in 
Wales, chiefly in wooded districts. On west side of Pennine chain 
breeds very rarely in Cheshire and as far north as Cumberland, but 
on east side now only nests irregularly in Yorks., except near 
Sedburgh (north-west) where it is annual. In Durham and 
Northumberland only a casual visitor. Scotland. Occasional 
visitor to south-east (the records of its having nested are discredited, 
cf. Brit. B., n, p. 410). Very rare beyond Forth, and very rare or 
unknown in west. Has occurred twice Shetlands (the record of its 
having bred cannot be substantiated), once and possibly twice 
Orkneys, several times and possibly regularly in May and Sept. 
Fair Isle, and once O. Hebrides (Flannan Isles), Sept. 14, 1909. 
Ireland. Three. Near Belfast (Down), Aug. 10, 1878 ; Wicklow 
Head Light, Sept. 1, 1908 ; Fastnet Rock Light (Cork), Sep. 26, 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. From about lat. 64 north, throughout 
Europe, south to Cantabrian Mountains and Pyrenees, Italy and (?) 
Sicily, Greece, Asia Minor, and north Syria. Migrant, wintering in 


tropical and south Africa. Replaced in Corsica and Sardinia, in 
Transcaucasia, Persia and west Turkestan, by closely-allied forms 
which require further study. 


113. Ampelis garrulus (L.) THE WAXWING. 

LANIUS GARRULUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 95 (1758 "Habitat 

in Europa." Typical locality : Sweden). 

Ampelis garrulus Linnaeus, Yarrell, i, p. 523 ; Saunders, p. 155. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Irregular visitor from Oct. to 
March, but generally in winter- months, very occasionally April, 
very rarely May, and twice July (Yorks.). Sometimes occurs in 
considerable numbers, as in winters 1686, 1834-5, 1849-50, 1866-7, 
1872-3, 1892-3, 1901-2, and 1903-4. Most frequent on eastern side. 
Has occurred in most counties but rarely in west England and 
Scotland, and still more rarely in Wales and north Scotland (includ- 
ing Orkneys and Shetlands), and only twice in 0. Hebrides. 
Ireland. Rare and irregular winter- visitor chiefly in east and north. 
Occasionally in some numbers, as in 1903-4. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Arctic regions of eastern and western 
hemispheres. In Europe, north Scandinavia, north Finland, and 
north Russia. In winter farther south, regularly as far as East 
Prussia, rarely to Italy. 

[XoTE. The example of the SOUTH AFRICAN BULBUL (Pycnonotus capensis, 
or one of its subspecies) shot near Waterford, Ireland, Jan., 1838, had no 
doubt escaped from captivity (Yarrell, i, p. 247 ; Saunders, p. 144).] 


114. Muscicapa striata striata (Pall.) THE SPOTTED 

MOTACILLA STRIATA Pallas, Vroeg's Cat. Verzam. Vogelen, etc., Adum- 

bratiuncula, p. 3 (1764 Holland). 

Muscicapa grisola Linnaeus, Yarrell, i, p. 220 ; Saunders, p. 157. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Summer-resident (May or late April 
to Sept.). Generally distributed except in O. Hebrides, where only 
two vagrants (Flannans, June 14, 1905, and Sept. 23, 1909) ; in 
north Sutherland where it breeds rarely, and in Caithness where 
doubtful breeder, but occurs as migrant in Orkneys, where bred 
for a year or two about 1867, but otherwise known only as occasional 

* Since the rediscovery of the rare work quoted (only three copies appear 
to be known, but a reprint has been made of the " Adumbratiuncula ") its 
new names have been adopted, and under these circumstances striata of 1764 
antedates grisola of 1766. E.H. 


visitor, as in Shetland s ; in Fair Isle recorded on both migrations, 
but chiefly from late May to mid- June. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in Europe from Archangel and 
Tromso to Mediterranean and in Atlas Mountains in north-west 
Africa. Winters in central and south Africa. Replaced by very 
closely-allied forms in west Asia and, perhaps, Corsica. 


115. Muscicapa latirostris Kaffl. THE BROWN FLY- 

MUSCICAPA LATIROSTBIS Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, xin, 2, p. 312 
(1821 Sumatra). 

Alseonax latirostris Raffl., Nicoll, Bull. B.O.C., xxm, p. 93 ; Muscicapa 
latirostris, id., Brit. B., in, p. 112. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. One, a male, near Lydd (Kent), May 21, 
1909 (ul supra). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. East Siberia to Lake Baikal, Corea, 
Japan, northern parts of China and eastern Himalayas. In winter 
in India, Ceylon and other islands east to the Greater Sunda 
Islands and Philippines. 


1 1 6. Muscicapa hypoleuca hypoleuca (Pall.) THE PIED 

MOTACILLA HYPOLEUCA Pallas, in Vroeg's Cat. Verzam. Vogelen, etc., 

Adumbratiuncula, p. 3 (1764 Holland). 

Muscicapa luctuosa MacGillivray, Hist. Brit. B., in, p. 524. 

Muscicapa atricapilla Linnaeus, Yarrell, I, p. 229 ; Saunders, p. 159. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Summer-resident (late April 
and early May to late Aug. and Sept.). Breeds regularly in con- 
siderable numbers north and central Wales ; very small numbers 
Devon and Salop ; locally north Lanes. ; more commonly West- 
morland and Cumberland ; occasionally Lines. ; locally north and 
west Ridings of Yorks. and in Durham and Northumberland. Has 
also bred exceptionally in many other counties, including some 
southern ones. Scotland. Breeds very locally in Dumfries., and 
has bred exceptionally in Kirkcudbright., Ayr., Midlothian, Had- 
dington, Roxburgh, Peebles, and Inverness. Ireland. Nine. One 
co. Sligo, three Tuskar Light (Wexford), four Fastnet Light (Cork), 
one Tearaght Light (Kerry) ; one April, rest autumn. 

* As Linnasus's name atricapilla dates from 1766, Pallas 's name 
hypoleuca has priority, and must therefore be adopted. E.H. 


MIGRATIONS. Great Britain. As a passage-migrant in autumn 
(mid-Aug. and Sept.) and spring (end April and May), appears in 
considerable numbers, especially in autumn, along east coast from 
Yorks. to Kent. North of Yorks., and especially in north of 
Scottish mainland more irregular, though passing through Orkneys 
fairly commonly and noted on both passages in Fair Isle, but much 
more rarely seen in Shetlands. In most other English counties 
and in south and east Scotland appears as occasional straggler, gener- 
ally in May, but seems particularly rare as migrant in Cornwall 
and Devon, though noted with some regularity in Somerset, and 
nearly every autumn at St. Catherine's Light (Isle of Wight). 
It is as yet uncertain by what routes our breeding-birds reach their 
quarters. In west Scotland (except Dumfries, and Kirkcudbright) 
only recorded once or twice, and in 0. Hebrides a rare vagrant. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe from lat. 69 or 70 north in 
Scandinavia, and from 65 in Finland and 60 in Russia to Spain, 
Italy, and Sardinia. In east apparently to Urals, south-west to 
Austria. In winter in Africa. Replaced by other races in north- 
west Africa, Caucasus, Asia Minor, Persia, and Greece. 


117. Muscicapa collaris Bechst. THE COLLARED FLY- 

MUSCICAPA COLLARIS Bechstein, Gemeinn. Nat. Deutschl., iv, p. 495 
(1795 Europe and Germany : Thiiringerwald). 
Muscicapa collaris Bechst., J. B. Nichols, Brit. B., v, p. 238. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Two, males, near Winchelsea (Sussex), 
one May 12, one May 13, 1911 (ut supra}. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Island of Gotland in Baltic, Austrian 
Poland, Austria, Hungary, south Russia, south Germany (locally 
common in Bavaria), parts of middle, and very rare north, Germany, 
south-east Europe generally, but in Greece apparently only migrant, 
very local France, Belgium, Holland, also Italy ; possibly on some 
Mediterranean islands, and Spain (?). On passage in most parts 
of Europe, Persia, Asia Minor, Palestine, Egypt, Tripoli and Tunisia ; 
winter- quarters probably in central Africa. 


118. Muscicapa parva parva Bechst. THE RED-BREASTED 

MUSCICAPA PARVA Bechstein, Latham's allg. Uebers. d. Vogel, n, p. 356, 

fig. on title-page (1794 Thiiringerwald). 

Muscicapa parva Bechstein, Yarrell, i, p. 224 ; Saunders, p. 161. 


DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Irregular passage-migrant, chiefly 
Sept. and Oct., but occasionally Nov., once Jan. (Cornwall), and once 
June (Cheshire). England, nineteen obtained and others seen ; 
Norfolk, eleven and two others seen ; Lines., one ; Yorks., one and 
three others said to have been seen; Northumberland, one ; Cheshire, 
one ; Cornwall, one and another seen ; Scilly Isles, three. Scotland, 
seven obtained and others seen : Fair Isle, four and others seen ; 
O. Hebrides, one and two seen ; Bell Rock (Fife), one ; Isle of 
May (Forth), one. Ireland, five obtained at Lights : Wexford, 
two ; Cork, one ; Kerry, one ; Donegal, one. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in Europe from St. Petersburg, 
Riigen, and Denmark to Alps, apparently eastwards to west Siberia. 
On migration occasionally in south Sweden, more often in Heligoland, 
Holland and elsewhere in west Europe. In winter in western parts 
of India ; also observed at Cairo, and will probably be found in 
winter in parts of tropical Africa. Replaced by other races in east 
Siberia, and Himalayas. 


119. Phylloscopus collybita collybita (Vieill.) THE CHIFF- 

SYLVIA COLLYBITA Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., xi, 
p. 235 (1817 France). 

Phylloscopus collybita (Vieillot), Yarrell, i, p. 437 ; Phylloscopus rufus 
(Bechstein), Saunders, p. 67. 

DISTRIBUTION. England, Wales, and Ireland. Summer-resident 
from mid-March to Sept., but occasionally a few winter in south 
England, especially Cornwall and Devon, and in Ireland. Weil 
distributed, but rare or local in Norfolk, Lanes., and north-west 
Yorks. Also a passage- migrant. Scotland. Except in south-west 
(Sol way and Clyde) and south-east (Tweed), where it is local summer- 
resident, in Forth, where it is extremely local, and in some I. Hebrides, 
where it has nested (Arran, Bute, Mull), it is a somewhat rare passage- 
migrant occurring in small numbers up east side, and still more 
rarely in Orkneys, Fair Isle, and Shetlands. On west side from 
Argyll northwards practically unrecorded, but has been noted as 
fairly common near Loch Maree (Ross.) (A. H. Evans, Ann. S.N.H., 
1896, p. 94) ; only a rare vagrant to 0. Hebrides. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeding in central, west, and south 
Europe. Winters in Mediterranean countries, especially in north- 
west Africa. Replaced by closely- allied forms in east and north 
Europe, Siberia, and central Asia, and on Canary Islands. 

* The name " rufus " has been erroneously used for the Chiff chaff. It 
was first introduced by Gmelin, but his Motacilla rufa does not refer to a 
Phylloscopus at all. The first certain name is collybita. E.H. 


120. Phylloscopus collybita abietinus (Nilss.) THE SCANDI- 

SYLVIA ABIETINA Nilsson, Kgl. Vet.-Akad. Handl., 1819, p. 115 (Sweden). 
Phylloscopus collybita abietina (Nilss.), Bonhote, Bull. B.O.C., xxm, p. 21 ; 
id., Brit. B., n, p. 233. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. One, a female, St. Catherine's Light 
(Isle of Wight), April 15, 1907 (ut supra}. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Generally north and east Europe, but 
difficult to distinguish, therefore distribution not well known, and 
requiring further study. 

121. Phylloscopus collybita tristis Blyth THE SIBERIAN 

PHYLLOSCOPUS TRISTIS Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, xn, p. 966 (1843 


Phylloscopus tristis, Clarke, Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist., 1907, p. 15 ; id., Bull. 

B.O.C., xix, p. 18 ; Saunders, Brit. B., i, p. 8. 

DISTRIBUTION. Scotland. About a dozen obtained and others 
seen as follows : One, Sule Skerry Light (Orkneys), Sept. 23, 1902 ; 
four obtained and others seen, Fair Isle (Shetlands), Oct. 21 and 24, 
1907 ; one obtained and another seen, Kirkwall (Orkneys), Feb. 5, 
1908, had been observed since Jan 25 (cf. W. E. Clarke, Ann. S.N.H., 
1907, p. 15, 1908, p. 80 ; and Brit. B., i, pp. 8, 382). One, Fair Isle, 
autumn, 1909 (op.c. iv, p. 289), and several autumn, 1910 (op.c., v. 
p. 200). One obtained Isle of May, Oct. 16, 1910 (E. V. Baxter 
and L. J. Rintoul, Ann. S.N.H., 1911, p. 3). One obtained Shetlands 
Oct. 28, 1910. and others seen (J. S. Tulloch, i.e., 1911, p. 115 ; 
cf. Brit. B. } iv, p. 318, v, pp. 28, 200). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeding from Petchora and Ural to 
Lake Baikal, migrating through Turkestan, and wintering in India, 
In Oct., 1846, obtained in Heligoland. 


122. Phylloscopus trochilus trochilus (L.) THE WILLOW- 

MOTACILLA TROCHILUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 188 (1758 
Ex cit., Willughby, etc. Restricted typical locality : England ; cf. 
Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, i, p. 507). 
Phylloscopus trochilus (Linnaeus), Yarrell, i, p. 432 ; Saunders, p. 69. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Summer-resident (early April to 
mid-Sept.). Abundant and widely distributed, but somewhat 
local Cornwall, rare north Caithness, local Skye, but common in 


other I. Hebrides ; has nested very rarely 0. Hebrides and Shet- 
lands, but is seen on spring and autumn passage in these islands, 
as well as Fair Isle and Orkneys. Also abundant passage-migrant 
on south and east coasts England, and east coast Scotland. Occa- 
sionally stays winter in south England and in Ireland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. From Lapland, Finland, Scandinavia, 
and north Russia throughout west, central, and south Europe, except 
in Balkan Peninsula. In winter in Africa, in small numbers in 
Mediterranean countries. Replaced in north-east Russia and 
Siberia by P. t. eversmanni. 

123. Phylloscopus trochilus eversmanni (Bp.) - THE 

PHYLLOPNEUSTE EVERSMANNI Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., i, p. 289 
(1850 Ex Eversmann, Addenda. Actual typical locality : Kazan 
and Orenburg). 

Phylloscopus trochilus eversmanni (Bonap.), C. B. Ticehurst, Bull. B.O.C., 
xxm, p. 20 ; cf. Brit. B., n, pp. 234, 342, v, p. 28). 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Passage-migrant, having been 
detected in small numbers in spring (end April and May) in Isle of 
Wight, Sussex, Kent, Norfolk, Yorks, Isle of May, and Shetlands, 
once in Sept. and Oct. in Norfolk, and once in Sept. in Yorks. 
(ut supra). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. North-east Russia and Siberia, at least 
to River Kolyma. Once obtained in Bering Sea. On migration 
in Roumania, and apparently wintering in Africa. Often difficult 
to distinguish, therefore distribution not well known. 


124. Phylloscopus nitidus viridanus Blyth THE GREENISH 

PHYLLOSCOPUS VIRIDANUS Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, xn, p. 967 

( 1843 Calcutta and Nepal). 

Phylloscopus viridanus Blyth, Saunders, p. 65. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. One, a female, North Cotes (Lines.), 
Sept. 5, 1896 (G. H. Caton-Haigh, Bull. B.O.C., vi, p. viii). [A 
second record, Sule Skerry Light., afterwards shown to be Phyllo- 
scopus b. borealis, vide infra, No. 126.] 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds from Baltic Provinces of Russia 
(possibly north-east Russia) throughout central Russia to west 
Siberia and north Turkestan. Winters in India. Replaced by 
P. n. nitidus in Caucasus, Transcaspia and Persia, and by another 
form in east Siberia and other parts of Asia. 



125. Phylloscopus sibilatrix sibilatrix (Bechst.) - THE 

MOTACILLA SIBILATRIX Bechstein, Naturforscher., xxvii, p. 47 (1793 

Thiiringian mountains). 

Phylloscopus sibilatrix (Bechstein), Yarrell, i, p. 427 ; Saunders, p. 71. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Summer-resident (mid-April 
to Sept.). Widely distributed in well-wooded districts, but local, 
being abundant in some parts (especially those heavily-woooded 
with beech and oak) and rare or unknown in treeless districts. 
Has been observed Isle of Man. Scotland. Fairly common, but 
local in south, becoming more thinly distributed northwards to 
Loch Broom (Ross), north of which on west side unknown as nester. 
On east side fairly common in south-east Sutherland (as far west as 
Lairg), but very rare further north. Single birds Fair Isle (June and 
Aug., 1907, and May, 1909), and one Sule Skerry (Sept., 1906), 
but otherwise unknown Orkneys and Shetlands. A summer- 
resident in most I. Hebrides and said to have occurred once in 
O. Hebrides. Ireland. Extremely scarce, nesting small numbers 
Galway and Queen's co., and Wicklow. Vagrants have been taken 
in Donegal, Fermanagh, Mayo and Dublin, and seen in Sligo, 
Londonderry, Antrim and Wexford. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe from Upsala, south Finland 
and Archangel to France, Alps, and Austria-Hungary. Replaced 
by an ill-defined subspecies, apparently with different song, in the 
Mediterranean countries, probably also in north-west Africa. 


126. Phylloscopus borealis borealis (Bias.) EVERSM ANN'S 

PHYLLOPNEUSTE BOREALIS Blasius, Naumannia, 1858, p. 313 (Sea of 


Phylloscopus borealis (Blasius), Clarke, Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist., 1909, p. 1. 

DISTRIBUTION. Scotland. The first, Sule Skerry Light (Orkneys), 
Sept. 5, 1902, was erroneously recorded as P. n. viridanus (cf. 
Saunders, Bull. B.O.C., xm, p. 12, W. E. Clarke, Ann. Scot. Nat. 
Hist., 1903, p. 22), and subsequently correctly identified (id., op.c., 
1909, p. 114, and cf. Brit. B., n, p. 408). Second, Fair Isle (Shet- 
lands), Sept. 28, 1908 (W. E. Clarke, Ann. S.N.H., 1909, p. 1, and 
cf. Brit. B. } n, p. 310). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. North Norway and north Russia to east 
Siberia, in winter in southern parts of Asia and its islands as far 


as the Moluccas, Alor. and Sumba. Keplaced by a closely-allied 
form on Kurile Islands, Jesso, and perhaps other Japanese islands, 
and in Kamtschatka. 


127. Phylloscopus superciliosus superciliosus (Gm.) THE 

MOTACILLA SUPERCILIOSA Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, p. 975 (1788 " Russia "). 
Phylloscopus superciliosus (J. F. Gmelin), Yarrell, i, p. 443 ; Saunders, 
p. 61. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Previously considered rare vagrant, 
has lately been so often recorded on east coasts Great Britain and 
in Fair Isle that it may now be considered as an almost regular 
passage- migrant in very small numbers (more numerous some years 
than others) along east coast from mid- Sept. to late Oct. Has 
also occurred very rarely in west and once in Ireland. Two seen in 
spring (Kent, April 15, 1899, Dumfries., April 11, 1909). Following 
recorded : England. Twenty obtained and two seen, viz., Scilly 
Isles, three ; Gloucester., one ; Kent, one seen: Suffolk, one seen ; 
Norfolk, six ; Lines., four ; Yorks., five ; Northumberland, one. 
Scotland Thirty-eight recorded, viz. : Dumfries., one seen ; Isle 
of May (Forth), seventeen ; east Ross., two ; Fair Isle (Shetlands), 
sixteen ; Sumburgh Head (Shetlands), one ; Skerry vore Light 
(0 . Hebrides) , one. Ireland. One. Tearaght Light (Kerry) . 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in Siberia, migrates through 
greater part of Asia, and winters in southern China and India. 
Appears not rarely in Europe, from Orenburg and west Russia to 
Heligoland, Germany, and Holland. Replaced by allied forms in 
Altai, Tian-shan, Himalayas, and mountains south of Brahmaputra. 


128. Phylloscopus proregulus proregulus (Pall.) PALLAS 'S 

MOTACILLA PROREGULUS Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., i, p. 499 (1827 


Phylloscopus proregulus (Pallas), Saunders, p. 63. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. One, a female, Cley (Norfolk), Oct. 31, 
1896 (T. Southwell, ZooL, 1896, p. 466). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in east Siberia ; Sarudny found it 
passing through quite regularly near Orenburg (Ural), and it has 
been shot on Heligoland. Winters in south China. Replaced by 
allied form in Himalayas. 



129. Herbivocula schwarzi (Radde) - RADDE'S BUSH- 

SYLVIA SCHWARZI Radde, Reise Siiden v. O. Sibirien, n, p. 260, pi. ix 
(1863 Tarei Nor and Bureja Mountains). 
Lusciniola schwarzi (Radde), Saunders, p. 73*. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. One, a young bird, North Cotes (Lines.), 
Oct. 1, 1898 (G. H. Caton-Haigh, Bull. B.O.C., vm, p. vi.). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. East Siberia, wintering in south China, 
Pegu, and Tenasserim. 


130. Cettia cetti cetti (Marm.) CETTI'S WARBLER. 

SYLVIA CETTI Marmora, Mem. Accad. Torino, xxx, p. 254 (1820 


Cettia cetti, Nicoll, Bull. B.O.C., xiv, p. 84 ; Saunders, Brit. B., I, p. 9. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Two. A male, Battle (Sussex), May 12, 
1904 (ut supra}. A female, Whatlington (Sussex), Sept. 1, 1906 
(J. B. Nichols, Brit. B., i, p. 185). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. South France, Spain and Portugal, 
Mallorca, Italy, Sicily, Corsica and Sardinia, north-west Africa, 
south-east Europe and Asia Minor to Syria, and apparently Caucasus 
and Crimea. Replaced by paler form in Khirgiz Steppes and east 
Persia to Turkestan. 


131. Locustella luscinioides luscinioides (Savi) SAVI'S 

SYLVIA LUSCINIOIDES Savi, Nuovo Giorn. Letter., vn, p. 341 (1824 Pisa). 
Acrocephalus luscinioides (Savi), Yarrell, i, p. 389 ; Locustella luscinioides 
(Savi), Saunders, p. 91. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Formerly regular summer-resident in 
small numbers fens of Norfolk, Cambs , and Hunts., but has not 
appeared since 1856. A bird thought to be of this species seen in 
Humber district May 24, 1897, and another said to have been seen 

* H. schwarzi is wrongly placed in the genus Lusciniola. It is apparently 
most closely allied to the genus Phylloscopus, but differs from the latter in 
sufficiently striking peculiarities to be separated generically. The genus 
Herbivocula was established by Swinhoe in 1871. E.H. 


in Bucks. Scotland. One, Fair Isle, spring, 1908 (W. E. Clarke, 
Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist., 1909, p. 73 ; cf. Brit. B., n, p. 423). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Spain, parts of France, Holland, and near 
Geldern in the Rhenish Provinces, Italy, Sicily, Galizia, Poland, 
parts of Russia, Hungary, and valley of Danube, also Egypt, and 
probably north-west Africa. Winter-quarters not precisely known. 
Replaced by paler race in Transcaspia and Turkestan. 


132. Locustella certhiola (Pall.) PALLAS 'S GRASSHOPPER- 

MOTACILLA CERTHIOLA Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., i, p. 509 (1827 


Locustella certhiola Pall., Grant, Bull. B.O.C., xxm, p. 18 ; Harrington, 

Brit. B., n, p. 230. 

DISTRIBUTION. Ireland. One. Kale, Rockabill Light (Dublin), 
Sept. 28, 1908 (ut supra}. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Siberia and Altai to Pacific, wintering 
in India, Greater Sunda and Natuna Islands. Once Heligoland. 


133. Locustella naevia ncEvia (Bodd.) THE GRASSHOPPER- 

MOTACILLA N.EVIA Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Enl., p. 35 (1783 ex Daubenton 
pi. 581, 3 : Italy). 

Acrocephalus ncevius (Boddaert), Yarrell, i, p. 384 ; Locustella ncevia 
(Boddaert), Saunders, p. 89. 

DISTRIBUTION. England, Wales, and Ireland. Summer-resident 
(mid- April to Sept.) local, but fairly evenly distributed in suitable 
localities, rare Cornwall and very local Wales. Scotland. Local 
and thinly distributed in south-west and Clyde area, scarcer north- 
wards, but breeding at wide intervals as far north as Arisaig (south- 
west Inverness.) and Skye. On east side breeds locally as far as 
Perth, and has been recorded as nesting at Pitlochry (Perth.), and 
even as far north as Elgin, north of which on mainland not noted 
even as vagrant, but has occurred once (May 29, 1907) Fair Isle. 
Has once occurred as far west as Skerry vore (off Tiree), but not in 
0. Hebrides. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Middle and south Europe generally, 
north to south Norway and Finland, south to north Spain, middle 
Italy, and Slavonia, wintering in north-west Africa, and probably 
south Spain. Replaced by L. n. straminea from Caucasus and Oren- 
burg to Altai and Turkestan. 



134. Locustella lanceolata (Temm.) THE LANCEOLATED 

SYLVIA LANCEOLATA Temminck, Man. d'Orn., ed. n, iv, p. 614 (1840 
Mainz ? Erroneous locality. Typical locality : Russia). 
Locustella lanceolata, Caton-Haigh, Brit. B., in, p. 353. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Three. Male, North Cotes (Lines.), 
Nov. 18, 1909 (ut supra] ; one Pentland Skerries (Orkneys), 
Oct. 26, 1910, and one Fair Isle, Sept. 9, 1908 (W. E. Clarke, 
Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist., 1911, p. 71 ; cf. Brit. B., iv, p. 368). 

DISTRIBUTION Abroad. From Kamtschatka and north Japan to 
west Siberia, rare in Russia (Onega R.), wintering in south China, 
Borneo, Andamans, and India. 


135. Acrocephalus arundinaceus arundinaceus (L.) THE 

TURDUS ARUNDINACEUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 170 (1758 
ex Klein : Danzig). 

Acrocephalus arundinaceus (Linnseus), Yarrell, i, p. 364 ; Acrocephalus 
turdoides (Meyer), Saunders, p. 83. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. About ten authentic occurrences besides 
other unsubstantiated records. Newcastle (Northumberland). May 
28, 1847 ; Sittingbourne, May 4, 1853, and Wingham (Kent), Sept. 
14, 1881 ; Godalming (Surrey), spring, 1858 ; Ellesmere (Salop), 
about 1886 ; Ringwood, June 3, 1884, and Christchurch (Hants), 
May 10, 1900 ; St. Leonards, Sept. 25, 1903, and Sept. 12, 1906, 
and Bexhill (Sussex), May 1, 1905 ; one seen Horning (Norfolk), 
May 1, 1906. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Middle and south Europe to north-west 
Africa, eastwards at least to the Ural and (locally) west Siberia, 
north to Baltic and Russian Baltic provinces, rare visitor to south 
Sweden. Winters in tropical Africa south to Natal ; in Persia on 
migration. Replaced by another race from Volga delta eastward 
to Transcaspia and Turkestan and by third form in south-east 
"Siberia, north China, Japan, and Corea. 


136. Acrocephalus streperus streperus (Vie ill.) THE REED- 

SYLVIA STREPERA Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., xi, p. 182 
(1817 France). 

Acrocephalus arundinaceus (Brisson nee Newton), Seebohm, Hist. Brit. B., 
i, p. 367 (erroneous). (See also Fleming, Selby, and others.) 
Acrocephalus streperus (Vieillot), Yarrell, i, p. 369 ; Saunders, p. 79. 


DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Summer-resident (late April 
to Sept.). By nature of its habitat local, but fairly distributed 
throughout south and midland England, except in north Devon, 
Cornwall, and Scilly Isles, where very rare. In south Wales very 
local (numerous only at Llangorse Lake), and not found in Pembroke, 
and in north Wales very local and rare except on Salop border, 
and not recorded Anglesey. In Derby breeds only in extreme 
south, but ranges further north on each side, being found in Lanes, 
and Yorks, but very locally, especially in north, where it is rare, but 
breeds in small numbers as far as Craven district, Nidd Valley and 
Ripon (once in Wensleydale) in west, and Redcar in east. Has 
been recorded as nesting once or twice in Lake District and Durham, 
but otherwise unknown north of Yorks. Scotland. Two, Fair 
Isle, Sept. 24, 1906, and autumn, 1909. Ireland. One, Rockabill 
Light (Dublin), Oct. 20, 1908. [One said to have been shot 
near Dublin 1843, and another to have been heard on the 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. South Sweden and Russian Baltic 
Provinces to Mediterranean and north-west Africa, wintering in 
Africa. Replaced by closely- allied form from Lower Volga to 


137. Acrocephalus palustris (Bechst.) THE MARSH- 

SYLVIA PALUSTRIS Bechstein, Orn. Taschenb., p. 186 (1803 Germany). 
Acrocephalus palustris (Bechstein), Yarrell, i, p. 373 ; in, p. viii ; Saunders, 
p. 81. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Summer-resident arriving late May or 
early June. Apparently very scarce and local, but distribution 
very little known. Has been recorded as nesting in : Somerset, 
several districts regularly ; Wilts., once, 1900 ; Hants., 1907 
and twice previously ; Sussex, once, 1903 ; Kent, twice, 1905 
and 1909 ; Surrey, once, 1907 ; Gloucester, frequently ; Oxon., 
annually for several years ; Bucks., twice in 1909 ; Cambs., 
1909 and once previously ; Norfolk, possibly once about 1880 ; 
Warwick, 30 or 40 years ago ; Worcester, in some num- 
bers. Scotland. One St. Kilda (O. Hebrides), Sept. or early 
Oct., 1910. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe from Denmark and Russian 
Baltic Provinces to south Spain (?), Italy, Montenegro, and 
Bulgaria, probably also north-west Africa, east to Ural (Oren- 
burg) and Caspian Sea. Winters in Africa, south to Natal and 



138. Acrocephalus dumetorum Blyth BLYTH'S REED- 

ACROCEPHALUS DUMETORUM Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, xvin, p. 815 
(1849 New name for the Sylvia montana or Acrocephalus montanus of 
Indian authors, which had been erroneously identified with Horsfield's 
Sylvia montana India). 

Acrocephalus dumetorum Blyth, W. E. Clarke, Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist., 1911, 
p. 70 ; cf. Brit. B., iv, p. 362. 

DISTRIBUTION. Scotland. One Fair Isle, Sept., 1910 (ut supra). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Central Asia from Himalayas north- 
ward, east to Transcaspia, Altai, Turkestan, west Siberia, and 
parts of European Russia. Winters in India, south to Ceylon. 


139. Acrocephalus schcenobaenus (L.) THE SEDGE- 

MOTACILLA SCHCENOB^NUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 184 (1758 

" Habitat in Europa." Restricted typical locality : S. Sweden). 

Acrocephalus phragmitis, Seebohm, Hist. Brit. B., i, p. 352 ; also older 


Acrocephalus schcenobcenus (Linnaeus), Yarrell, i, p. 376 ; Saunders, 

p. 85. 

DISTRIBUTION. England, Wales, and Ireland. Summer-resident 
(late April to late Sept). Generally distributed. Occasionally 
occurs in Oct. (probably on passage) and exceptionally in winter. 
Scotland. Generally distributed, but rarer in north, and very rare 
north-west ; scarce Orkneys ; unknown Shetlands, but of double 
passage Fair Isle ; scarce breeder in some I. Hebrides, but absent 
from others ; very rare vagrant 0. Hebrides (Barra). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. From about lat. 70 north in Sweden, 
the Murman Coast and Archangel, Ob and Yenisei throughout 
north Siberia and Altai Mountains, Russia and Europe, but rare or 
absent from Spain and Greece, wintering in Asia Minor and Africa. 


140. Acrocephalus aquaticus (Gm.) - - THE AQUATIC 

MOTACILLA AQUATICA Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, ii, p. 953 (1789 No locality 
given. Ex Scopoli, who described birds from Carniola or Venetia). 
Acrocephalus aquaticus (J. F. Gmelin), Yarrell, i, p. 380 ; Saunders, p. 87. 



DISTRIBUTION. England. Seventeen authentic examples obtained, 
and several others seen, chiefly Sept., but also Aug. and Oct., as 
follows : Cornwall (Eddystone), one ; Hants, two ; Isle of Wight, 
three ; Sussex, five and several seen ; Kent, one ; Norfolk, four and 
one seen ; Leicester one. Ireland. One Bull Bock Light (Cork) 
Sept. 20, 1903. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Central and south Europe (but absent 
from south of Balkan Peninsula), and north-west Africa. In south- 
east Europe and Egypt on migration ; appears to occur in winter in 
north-west Africa, but winter- quarters not known for certain. 


141. Hypolais icterina (Vieill.) THE ICTERINE WARBLER. 

SYLVIA ICTERINA Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., xi, p. 194 
(1817 France). 

Hypolais hypolais, Seebohm, Hist. Brit. B., i, p. 381 ; and others. 
Hypolais icterina (Vieillot), Yarrell, i, p. 360 ; Saunders, p. 75. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Fourteen obtained and a few others 
seen, mostly Sept., but three June, two May, and one April. Isle 
of Wight (St. Catherine's Light), one ; Sussex, two ; Kent, two 
obtained, one seen (Kentish Knock Light) ; Norfolk, seven pro- 
cured, two seen (all north coast) ; Yorks., one taken, another seen ; 
Northumberland one. Scotland. One Fair Isle, 1908, one Lerwick 
(Shetlands), May 15, 1910. Ireland. One, Dunsinea (Dublin), 
June 8, 1856. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Greater part of Europe (except extreme 
north, west France, Spain, and Greece), and north-west Africa 
(north Algeria) ; wintering in tropical Africa. 


142. Hypolais polyglotta (Vieill.) - - THE MELODIOUS 

SYLVIA POLYGLOTTA Vieillot, Nouv. Diet., nouv. ed., xi, p. 200 (1817 


Hypolais polyglotta (Vieillot), Saunders, p. 77. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Only three obtained. Male, Burwash 
(Sussex), April 30, 1897 (Saunders, p. 77). Male, Ninfield (Sussex), 
May 10, 1900 (W. R. Butterfield, Ibis, 1900, p. 569; cf. Brit. B., i, 
p. 83). Male near Sandplace, Looe (Cornwall), May 12, 1905 
(J. Clark, ZooL, 1907, p. 282; cf. Brit. B., i, p. 127). This, or the 
Icterine, several times reported as seen and heard singing, notably 
in Pembroke in summer 1886, and in south-east Devon near Lyme 


Regis in May, 1897, and in some numbers in May, 1898, when they 
were said to be nesting. Eggs, apparently of this, but possibly of 
preceding species, were taken at Lancing (Sussex) about 1893, and 
near Croydon (Surrey) in 1884. Ireland. One, Old Head Light, 
Kinsale (Cork), Sept. 23, 1905 (R. M. Barrington, Irish Nat., 1906, 
p. 157 ; cf. Brit. B., i, p. 83). One said to have been seen and heard 
singing at Coollatin (Wicklow), May, 1886. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. France, with exception of northernmost 
departments (north of Somme), south-west Europe and north-west 
Africa, Italy. Rare visitor to Belgium, Heligoland, and parts of 
Austrian Empire. Winters in west Africa. 


143. Sylvia nisoria nisoria (Bechst.) THE BARRED 

MOTACILLA NISORIA Bechstein, Gem. Naturg. Deutschl., iv, p. 580 (1795 

Middle and N. Germany). 

Sylvia nisoria (Bechstein), Yarrell, in, p. ix ; Saunders, p. 51. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Twenty-three England, over seven 
Scotland, and two Ireland. Most on east coast and in Sept., but 
also in Aug., Oct., and Nov., and once in April. In recent years 
one or two on east coast in most autumns. England. Kent, two ; 
Norfolk, nine ; Lines., five ; Yorks., four ; Cambs., one ; Oxon., one; 
Lanes., one. Scotland. Broadford (Skye), one ; Dhuheartach 
Light (Argyll.), one ; Barra (0. Hebrides), one ; Isle of May 
(Forth), two ; Fair Isle (Shetlands), several. Ireland. Bellmullet 
(Mayo), one ; Rockabill Light (Dublin), one. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe from south Sweden, Denmark, 
and Gulf of Finland, throughout Russia, locally in Germany (with 
exception of west, where rare visitor only, as it is in France), Austria 
and Hungary, to Dobrudsha, Bulgaria, Montenegro, Dalmatia, and 
north Italy. Winters in north-east Africa. Replaced by very 
closely- allied form in west Siberia and Turkestan. 


144. Sylvia hortensis hortensis (Gm.) THE ORPHEAN 

MOTACILLA HORTENSIS Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, ii, p. 955 (1789 France and 


Sylvia orphea Temminck, Yarrell, i, p. 423 ; Saunders, p. 45. 

* As explained by Hartert and others, Gmelin undoubtedly described 
the Orphean Warbler as S. hortensis, as a glance at his description shows. It 
is the oldest name, and must therefore be adopted. 



DISTRIBUTION. England. Four obtained. Female shot and 
another said to have been seen near Wetherby (Yorks.), July 6 3 1848 
(thought to have been nesting). Young bird, said to have 
been unable to fly, caught near Holloway (Middlesex), June, 1866 
(Saunders, p. 45). Female shot near St. Leonards (Sussex), Oct. 7, 
1903 (W. R. Butterfield, Bull. B.O.C., xiv, p. 16). Young bird 
picked up near same place Sept. 16, 1905 (C. B. Ticehurst, op.c., 
xvi, p. 35 ; cf. Brit. B., i, p. 56). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. South-west Europe and north-west 
Africa, through central parts of France in small numbers, north to 
Luxembourg and Metz, west Switzerland, Italy, and Sicily. Winter- 
quarters must be Africa, but not actually known. Replaced by a 
closely-allied form in Asia Minor, Turkestan, Afghanistan, Persia to 
Gilgit, west to Dalmatia, Herzegovina, Montenegro and Greece, 
wintering in India, Arabia, and north-east Africa. 


145. Sylvia borin (Bodd.) THE GARDEN-WARBLER. 

MOTACILLA BORIN Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Enl., p. 35 (1783 ex Daubenton, 
PI. Enl. 579, 2 France). 

Sylvia salicaria (Linnaeus), Yarrell, i, p. 414; Sylvia hortensis nee 
Bechstein, Saunders, p. 49. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Summer-resident (end April 
to Sept.). Generally distributed, but rather local and not known 
to breed in west Cornwall (rare casual visitor to Scilly Isles), nor 
in parts of Pembroke, and rare Anglesey and west Carnarvon. 
Scotland. Rather local in Solway area, common in Clyde and 
Forth areas, and in south Perth., north of which not known to breed, 
and has rarely occurred. In Shetlands one obtained and another 
record doubtful. In Fair Isle fairly common on both spring- and 
autumn-passages, and in Orkneys occurs frequently in autumn 
and has occurred once in spring. In O. Hebrides, one seen 
Flannans and two obtained Barra (Nov. 25, 1895, Oct. 24, 1898). 
Ireland. Very local, unknown in most districts, but nests in various 
localities in all four provinces, but chiefly near the Shannon. 

MIGRATIONS. Great Britain. From mid-Sept, to second week of 
Oct. there is a passage down east coast. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe generally (except extreme north) 
as far south as Spain, and north-west Africa (Atlas) in west, and 
Albania in east ; from Russia eastwards to Persia, Transcaspia, and 
west Siberia. Winters in Africa. Breeding in Syria is asserted, 
but requires confirmation. 

* Sylvia hortensis of many authors, but S. hortensis is clearly the Orphean 
Warbler ; this name not being available for the Garden- Warbler, the name 
borin must be adopted. E.H. 



146. Sylvia atricapilla atricapilla (L.) THE BLACKCAP. 

MOTACILLA ATRICAPILLA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 187 (1758 
" Habitat in Europa." Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 
Sylvia atricapilla (Linnaeus), Yarrell, i, p. 418 ; Saunders, p. 47. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Summer-resident (about end 
April to Sept. and often later, and occasionally winter). Some- 
what local, but fairly well distributed. Rare Anglesey and Lleyn 
(Carnarvon). Scotland. Generally distributed, but local west side 
as far north as Argyll., where becomes scarce, but breeds Jura ; 
north of Ardnamurchan only once recorded (West Ross. Nov. 23, 
1905). On east side frequent nester as far north as Dunkeld (Perth.), 
and further north breeds locally in Kincardine and Spey Valley. 
In other parts of north-east chiefly known as autumn migrant, but 
has bred once Loch Ness and near Beauly (Moray Firth). In 
Orkneys, Fair Isle, and Shetlands fairly regular autumn- migrant, 
(Sept.-Oct.). In Shetlands once attempted to breed, and has 
probably also bred Orkneys. In O. Hebrides rare straggler. Has 
often occurred even in north in Nov. and two or three times in 
Dec. Ireland. Has a wide range, breeding in many counties, 
but in most it is scarce and even rare, being most numerous in Wick - 
low. Fairly often occurs in winter. 

MIGRATIONS. Great Britain. From third week Sept. to mid-Oct. 
a well-marked passage down east coasts. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe generally from about lat. 66 
north in Scandinavia to Mediterranean, west to Azores and Cape 
Verde Islands, south to Marocco, Algeria and Tunisia, north of 
Atlas, east to Asia Minor, Syria and Persia, in west Siberia near 
Omsk. Winters in Africa and in small numbers in south Europe. 
Replaced in Madeira and Canary Islands by closely- allied form. 


147. Sylvia communis communis Lath. THE WHITE- 

SYLVIA COMMUNIS Latham, Gen. Syn. Suppl., i, p. 287 (1787 England). 
Sylvia ru/a (Boddaert), Yarrell, i, p. 406 ; Sylvia cinerea Bechstein, 
Saunders, p. 41. 

DISTRIBUTION. England, Wales, and Ireland. Summer-resident 
(April to Sept.). Generally distributed. Scotland. Generally dis- 

* This species has also been unfortunate with regard to its names. It 
has often been called Sylvia rufa, but that name was based on an unrecog- 
nizable figtire, and more commonly S. cinerea, but Latham clearly described 
the'English bird as Sylvia communis sixteen years before Bechstein. E.H. 


tributed in south, locally common in centre, thinly distributed and 
local in north, apparently not breeding in north Sutherland or 
Caithness. In Orkneys, Fair Isle, and Shetlands noted recently 
as fairly frequent passage- migrant in autumn and in spring, and 
has possibly once nested Orkneys. In I. Hebrides well known, but 
to 0. Hebrides a somewhat rare passage- migrant, but occasionally 
seen in summer and bred once Lewis (1881) and once Barra (1900). 

MIGRATIONS. Great Britain. A well-marked passage from early 
Sept. to early Oct. down west coasts England and Wales and east 
coasts Scotland and England. Also some evidence of immigration 
from east on east coast during same period. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe from 65 north lat. in Scandinavia 
to Mediterranean, also north Algeria and north Tunisia. Winters 
in Africa and in small numbers in Canary Islands. Replaced from 
Caucasus, Syria and Persia to west Siberia by Sylvia communis 


148. Sylvia curruca curruca (L.) THE LESSER WHITE- 

MOTACILLA CURRUCA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat.,ed. x, i, p. 184 (1758 " Habitat 

in Europa." Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Sylvia curruca (Linnaeus), Yarrell, i, p. 410 ; Saunders, p. 43. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Summer-resident (April to Sept.). 
Generally distributed except in extreme south-west (where it nests 
in Somerset and Devon, but is only a casual autumn- migrant to 
Cornwall, and has occurred only once in Scilly Isles) and in north, 
being local in Cumberland and Westmorland, and very rare in 
Durham and Northumberland. Wales. Fairly well distributed 
in eastern parts, but very rare or unknown in coastal counties on 
west side. Scotland. All nesting-records doubtful, but those from 
Dumfries, Ross, and Stirling may possibly be authentic, otherwise 
only known as a passage- migrant, rare and occasional in Solway 
and Clyde areas, once south-west Inverness, but not known else- 
where on west side ; on east coast seems fairly regular in very small 
numbers on autumn- passage, having been observed for several years 
at Isle of May (Forth), but on mainland very rarely recorded. 
Orkneys (Sule Skerry) once, Sept. 17, 1902 ; Fair Isle small numbers 
in May (occasionally April and June) and in autumn (Aug. to Oct.) ; 
Shetlands occurrence doubtful ; O. Hebrides three times, viz. : 
Flannan Isles (Sept. 23, 1904, and May 21, 1905), Barra (Oct. 24, 
1898). Ireland. Two. Tearaght Light (Kerry) Oct. 1, 1890, 
Inishtrahull Light (Donegal) Oct. 10, 1899. 


DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in Europe from about 64 - 65 
in Scandinavia and north Russia to Mediterranean, east to Ural 
and apparently to Caucasus, Asia Minor and Persia, but absent from 
Spain. Winters principally in north-east Africa. Replaced by 
other races in Siberia and central Asia, and Khirgiz Steppes. 


149. Sylvia melanocephala melanocephala (Gm.) THE 

SYLVIA MELANOCEPHALA Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, ii, p. 970 (1789 Sardinia). 
Sylvia melanocephala, C. B. Ticehurst, Bull. B.O.C., xix, p. 105 ; T. 
Parkin, Brit. B., i, p. 86 ; Saunders, p. 46 (in text). 

DISTRIBUTION. Englatid. One, male, near Hastings (Sussex), June 
3, 1907 (ut supra}. A bird seen at Exmouth (Devon) April 16, 1890, 
may possibly have been of this species (cf. Saunders, p. 46). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in south Europe, Asia Minor, 
and north-west Africa, and winters partly in same countries, partly 
in Sahara, Palestine, and Nubia. Replaced by allied races in 
western Canaries, and Syria, the latter race also wintering in Nubia 


150. Sylvia cantillans cantillans Pall. THE SUB ALPINE 

SYLVIA CANTILLANS Pallas, in Vroeg's Cat. Verzam. Vogelen, etc., Adum- 

bratiuncula, p. 4 (1764 Italy). 

Sylvia subalpina Bonelli, Saunders, p. 53. 

DISTRIBUTION. Scotland. Two. One St. Kilda (0. Hebrides) 
June 14, 1894 (Sharpe, Bull. B.O.C., iv, p. ix.). One Fair Isle 
(Shetlands) 1908 (W. E. Clarke, Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist., 1909, p. 72, 
and cf. Brit. B., n, p. 422). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Italy, Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily, southern 
Alps to Savoy, south-east France, Spain, and Portugal. Replaced 
in north-west Africa, and in south-east Europe, and Asia Minor, by 
allied races. 

* With the unfortunately unavoidable acceptance of the names in 
Vroeg's Catalogue, rediscovered some years ago by Mr. Sherborn, it becomes 
necessary to adopt the name cantillans, which has 56 years priority over 
subalpina ! E.H. 



151. Sylvia undata dartfordiensis Lath.* THE DARTFORD 

SYLVIA DARTFORDIENSIS Latham, Ind. Orn., n, p. 517 (1790 Bexley 

Heath, near Dartford). 

Melizophilus provincialis, Selby, Brit. Orn., i, p. 219 (1833) ; Seebohm, 

Hist. Brit. B., i, p. 414. 

Melizophilus undatus (Boddaert), Yarrell, i, p. 398 ; Sylvia undata 

(Boddaert), Saunders, p. 55. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Resident. Very local. Main nesting- 
haunts in Hants., extending into Isle of Wight and Dorset and 
possibly Wilts., and Surrey, extending into Berks, and Sussex ; 
also breeds small numbers in Cornwall, Essex, east Suffolk and 
probably Oxon. ; a pair or two recorded as breeding tolerably 
regularly at one locality in Salop. Some evidence that a pair 
bred Cannock Chase (Staffs.) about 1870, and formerly bred in 
Kent. Middlesex, and Devon, but now extinct in these counties. 
Recorded breeding in Somerset and Herts, requires confirmation. 
Rare vagrant to other counties in southern half of England. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Channel Islands and north-west France. 
Replaced by closely- allied races in south-west Europe and north- 
west Africa. 


152. Agrobates galactotes galactotes (Temm.) THE RUFOUS 

SYLVIA GALACTOTES Temminck, Man. d'Orn., ed. n, i, p. 182 (1820 

S. Spain). 

Aedon galactodes (Temminck), Yarrell, i, p. 355 ; Saunders, p. 73. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Four. One near Brighton (Sussex) 
Sept. 16, 1854. One Start (Devon) Sept, 25, 1859. One 
Slapton (Devon) Oct. 12, 1876. One Old Head of Kinsale (Cork) 
Sept., 1876. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. South Spain and Portugal, north Africa, 
south Syria. Stray birds have been observed in Italy. Appears 
in winter in oases of Great Desert, 

* The Dartford Warbler had been in the undisturbed possession of the 
name provincialis for over 60 years, when Gray, and later Newton and Dresser, 
correctly adopted undata ; and as the British race is darker and smaller it must 
be called S. u. dartfordiensis. The generic separation of Melizophilus is not 
tenable. E.H. 

f The generic name " Aedon " has erroneously been accepted for the 
Rufous Warblers. This name was first introduced by Forster, 1817, for the 
Nightingales; Boie's use of the same name for the Rufous Warblers, in 
1826, is therefore null and void. E.H. 


1 53- Agrobates galactotes syriacus (Hempr. & Ehr.) THE 

CURRUCA GALACTODES VAR. SYRiACA Hemprich and Ehrenberg, Symb. 
Phys., fol. bb (1833 Syria [Beirut]). 

Aedon familiaris, J. B. Nichols, Brit. B., i, p. 257 ; A. F. Griffith, Bull. 
B.O.C., xxvn, p. 29. A. g. syriacus, Witherby, Brit. B., iv, p. 310. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Two. Male, Hythe (Kent), July 15, 
1907. Male, Ninfield (Sussex) May 13, 1910 (ut supra}. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. From south Herzegovina and south 
Dalmatia throughout Greece and Ionian Islands to Asia Minor and 
north Syria. Winters in south Arabia, Somaliland, and east Africa 
(Mombasa). Replaced in south Caucasus, Persia, Mesopotamia, 
Transcaspia, Turkestan, Afghanistan, and Baluchistan by A. g. 
familiaris, which winters in north-west India, Sindh, and Raj- 
putana, and has been recorded once from Heligoland. 


154. Turdus dauma aureus Hoi.* WHITE'S THRUSH. 

TURDUS AUREUS Holandre, Fauna dep. Moselle, in Ann. Moselle 1825, 

p. 60 (Metz). 

Turdus Whitei Eyton, Rarer Brit. B., p. 92 (1836 Christchurch). 

Turdus varius Pallas, Yarrell, i, p. 251 ; Saunders, p. 11. 

T. d. aureus, Hartert, Brit. B., iv, p. 129. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Vagrant. Since the first, near Christ- 
church (Hants.) Jan. 24, 1828, authentic examples have been 
recorded, almost all in winter, from Cornwall, Devon, Somerset, 
Gloucester, Salop, Suffolk, Norfolk, Yorks. (five), Durham, Warwick. 
In Scotland one, Hardacres (Berwick) Dec., 1878. In Ireland 
three, near Bandon (Cork), Ballymahon (Longford), and Westport 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. East Siberia and Japan. Winters in 
south China and Formosa. Occasionally observed in Philippine 
Islands, in Pegu, Assam, west Siberia, and various parts of Europe 
from Urals and Scandinavia to Belgium. France, and Italy. Replaced 
by other subspecies on Loo Choo (Liu Kiu) Islands, in mountains 
of Java and Lombok, Himalayas (T. dauma dauma}, and south 

[NOTE. An example of the SIBERIAN THRUSH, Turdus sibiricus sibiricus 
Pal., is said to have been shot in Surrey (winter 1860-61) and another to have 
been picked up at Bonchurch, Isle of Wight (winter 1874), but the evidence 
is not considered sufficient (c/. Saunders, p. 12). It inhabits Siberia, wintering 
in eastern India, Andamans, south China, and Greater Sunda Islands. Has 
been obtained in Germany, Belgium, Holland, France, and Bulgaria.] 

* Holandre's name is two years earlier than Pallas's varius. E.H. 



155. Turdus pilaris L. THE FIELDFARE. 

TURDUS PLLAKIS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 168 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Turdus pilaris Linnaeus, Yarrell, i, p. 272 ; Saunders, p. 7. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Winter-visitor (Sept. to April, some- 
times May and exceptionally later). Generally distributed. 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. From Shetlands to Wash small numbers 
arrive Sept. and early Oct., followed by large immigrations until 
Nov., and spread west and south-west to winter- quarters. Smaller 
streams, probably after an overland flight, pass down west coast 
Scotland and through the isles, the latter reaching winter- quarters 
in Ireland. Some of those passing down either coast are passage- 
migrants, and leave the country from western half of southern 
seaboard. Southward " weather- movements " occur in winter. 
Passage- migrants arrive on south coast England from late March 
through April to early May. These join our winter- visitors, which 
leave much as they arrived throughout April to early, and sometimes 
mid, May. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. North Europe and north Asia, east to 
Lena, south to parts of Germany and Austria-Hungary, wintering 
in central and south Europe, in small numbers to north-west Africa 
and north-west India. 


156. Turdus viscivorus viscivorus L. THE MISTLE-THRUSH. 

TURDUS VISCIVORUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 168 (1758 Europe. 
Restricted typical locality : England ; cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, i, 
p. 647, note). 
Turdus viscivorus Linnaeus, Yarrell, i, p. 258 ; Saunders, p. 1. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Kesident. Generally distributed 
except in higher mountains and treeless districts, and only thinly 
distributed in north-west Scotland, breeds in most I. Hebrides, 
but unknown in O. Hebrides except Stornoway (Lewis), where bred 
1906 and possibly since 1902 ; rare Orkneys, but has bred ; scarce 
passage- migrant Fair Isle, and rare vagrant Shetlands. First seen 
in Ireland about 1800 ; has been spreading ever since. 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. Many, apparently, of our breeding- 
birds move southwards in late Aug. From mid-Sept, to mid-Nov. 
small rushes of immigrants at considerable intervals occur from 
Fife to Norfolk, and probably further north and further south, but 
apparently less regularly (in Fair Isle and Caithness they appear, 
however, to be regular). A migration also noted from I. Hebrides 


to Cornwall and is probably somewhat like that of Fieldfare, but 
is not well recorded, and it seems uncertain if Ireland is reached. 
Emigrations along whole south coast England noted in Oct. and 
Nov. Winter " weather- movements " sometimes occur. From mid- 
Feb. to early April a return immigration is noted on south coast 
England, but records from elsewhere are insufficient to enable the 
migrations to be traced. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. North and central and mountains of 
south Europe, east to Ural and west Siberia. Winters in Mediter- 
ranean countries. Replaced in north-west Africa and central Asia, 
and perhaps west Mediterranean isles, by allied forms. 


157. Turdus philomelus philomelus Brehm--THE CON- 

TURDUS PHILOMELOS Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deutschl.,p. 382 (1831 

Middle Germany). 

Turdus musicus (non Linnaeus, 1758 !), Yarrell, i, p. 264 (part) ; Saunders, 

p. 3 (part). 

Turdus philomelos, Hartert, Brit. B., iv, p. 131. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Migrant, having been identified 
from late Sept. to early Nov. on coasts of Yorks., Lines., Norfolk 
and Suffolk, and Isle of May (Forth), in April at Dorset Light, 
and in April as well as autumn at St. Catherine's Light (Isle of 
Wight), also on night of March 30-31 at Mull of Galloway Light 
(Miss A. C. Jackson in Hit.). Little so far recorded of this form 
from identified examples (cf. Brit. B., iv, pp. 246, 291), but there 
cannot be much doubt that it arrives annually with the first Red- 
wings from late Sept. throughout Oct., followed by stragglers to mid- 
No v. on east coast from extreme south of Shetlands to Norfolk. 
Many afterwards appear to proceed along coasts to winter- quarters 
in Ireland and the Continent, others remain as winter-residents, 
sometimes performing further migratory journeys along same routes 
as their forerunners, when compelled by unfavourable weather con- 
ditions. In spring this form occurs with T. p. clarkei amongst 
returning migrants on south coast in late March and during April, 
and appears to continue up east coast, and finally depart by route 
followed in autumn. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe generally, west Siberia to Lake 
Baikal, but absent from south Spain, south Italy, and Greece. 
Wintering in south Europe and north Africa. 

* Generally called Turdus musicus, but Linnaeus described, in 1758, 
under this name the Redwing ! His diagnosis ' ' alis subtus ferrugineis, 
linea superciliari albicante " leaves no doubt. The next oldest name for the 
Song-Thrush is T. philomelos Brehm, 1831. E.H. 


158. Turdus philomelus clarkei Hart. THE BRITISH 

TURDUS PHILOMELOS CLARKEI Hartert, Bull. B.O.C., xxin, p. 54 (1909 

Great Britain) ; id., Brit. B., iv, p. 131. 

Turdus musicus Linnseus, Yarrell, i, p. 264 (part) ; Saunders, p. 3 (part). 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Generally distributed, 
but rare in Shetlands. 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. In late July and throughout August 
many, especially breeders in elevated districts, pass south gradually 
along all coasts. In Sept. and Oct. emigration more pronounced, 
and " rushes " occur in late Oct. Later on emigratory movements 
dependent on weather also occur. In Sept. and Oct. also a certain 
proportion of Irish birds emigrate. Many British Song -Thrushes 
winter in Ireland as well as further south. The return migration 
begins on south coasts England and Ireland during Feb., and lasts 
throughout March, and into April. Irish winter -residents return 
about late March. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. According to a note by Baron R. 
Snouckaert van Schauburg. the British form also inhabits Holland 
(Orn. Monatsber., 1910, p. 158; cf. Brit. B., v, p. 223). 


159. Turdus musicus L. THE REDWING. 

TURDUS MUSICUS Linnseus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 169 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Turdus iliacus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. xn, i, p. 292 (1766 non Linnaeus 

1758 ! The latter is a hopeless mixture, while the name musicus is 


Turdus iliacus Linnaeus, Yarrell, i, p. 268 ; Saunders, p. 5. 

Turdus musicus, Hartert, Brit. B., iv, p. 130. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Winter-visitor (mid-Aug. to April 
and May). Generally distributed. 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. Similar to those of the Fieldfare. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeding in north Europe and north 
Asia, including Iceland, south in Europe to north-east corner of 
East Prussia, wintering in south Europe and north-west Africa, 
Persia, and north-west India. 

* As stated under T. philomelus, the name musicus, as first published, 
refers to the Redwing, and was only afterwards transferred to the Song-Thrush. 
The name iliacus was, in the first instance, an inextricable mixture of Song- 
Thrush, Redwing, and Mistle-Thrush, and could not be employed for the 
Redwing for this reason, as well as because the latter was already called 
musicus. E .H. 



1 60. Turdus fuscatus Pall. THE DUSKY THRUSH. 

TURDUS FUSCATUS Pallas, Zoogr. Ross-Asiat., i, p. 451, pi. xn (1827 


Turdus fuscatus = T. dubius, Musters, Bull. B.O.C., xvi, p. 45 ; Saunders, 

Brit. B., i, p. 5. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. One near Gunthorpe (Notts.), Oct. 
13, 1905 (ut supra}. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Siberia, wintering in China, north-west 
India to Assam. Occasionally in Europe : Italy, south France, 
Russia, probably Germany, Heligoland (once), Belgium, Holland, 


161. Turdus ruficollis atrogularis Temm. THE BLACK- 

TURDUS ATROGULARIS Temminck, Man. d'Orn., i, p. 169 (1820 Austria 

and Silesia). 

Turdus atrigularis Temminck, Yarrell, i, p. 276 ; Saunders, p. 9. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Four. Male Lewes (Sussex), Dec. 
23, 1868. One (said to have been with another) near Perth, Feb., 
1879 (Saunders, p. 9). Male, Newenden (Kent), Jan. 30, 1909 
(T. Parkin, Bull. B.O.C., xxm, p. 57 ; Brit. B., n, p. 378). Male 
Wittersham (Kent) March 15, 1911 (N. F. Ticehurst, Bull. B.O.C., 
xxvii, p. 94 ; Brit. B., v, p. 50). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. West Siberia to Altai Mountains and, 
according to Sewertzow, in Turkestan. On passage or in winter 
in Turkestan, Afghanistan, Persia, Baluchistan, Himalayas, and 
north-west India. Once obtained in south Arabia, casual in 
Europe : Finland, Norway, Denmark, Germany, Austria, rarer in 
west. Replaced by T. ruficollis ruficollis in east Siberia. 

[NOTE. Several examples of the AMERICAN ROBIN, Turdus migratorius 
migratorius L., which inhabits eastern and northern North America, and in 
winter migrates to Florida, Texas, Bermudas, and exceptionally Cuba, have 
been taken in the British Isles, but they had no doubt escaped from captivity. 
Recently an attempt at introduction has been made at Guildford (Surrey).] 


162. Turdus torquatus torquatus L. THE RING-OUZEL. 

TURDUS TORQUATUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 170 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Turdus torquatus Linnaeus, Yarrell, i, p. 287 ; Saunders, p. 15. 


DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Summer-resident (late March 
and April to Sept. and Oct.), occasionally staying throughout winter. 
Nests regularly in hilly districts of Cornwall, Devon and Somerset, 
Wales and Welsh border, in Pennine backbone and spurs from north 
Staffs., Derby., and east Cheshire northwards to Cheviots, and on 
moors of north-east Yorks. A few breed Isle of Man. Said to have 
nested exceptionally in Hants., Kent, Suffolk, Norfolk, Warwick, 
and other counties. Has visited most counties on migration. 
Scotland. On mainland generally distributed in summer (occasion- 
ally staying winter) ; breeds in higher districts and in some localities 
down to sea-level, but most common from 1,000 to 1,600 feet, and 
seldom nests above 2,000 feet. Rarely breeds Orkneys, but occurs 
spring and autumn, as in Shetlands, where does not breed. Nests 
in most I. Hebrides, but only sporadically Skye, and not Tiree ; 
in 0. Hebrides a very rare visitor. Ireland. Thinly distributed 
summer-resident in wilder mountain-districts of each province, and 
occasionally near sea-level. Occasionally remains winter. 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. British breeding-birds probably reach 
summer-quarters by a westerly route, arriving in extreme south- 
west England. Passage-migrants occur in small numbers from mid- 
April to mid-May east of line from Isle of Wight to Wash. Occurs 
in most counties on autumn-passage, but the route down east coast 
is very well marked, and probably includes both British-bred birds 
and passage-migrants. Also indications of a west coast route in 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Scandinavia, migrating through Europe 
and wintering in Mediterranean countries. Replaced by allied 
forms in mountain-systems of central and south Europe, and in 
Caucasus, east to north Persia and Transcaspia. 

163. Turdus torquatus alpestris (Brehm) THE ALPINE 

MERULA ALPESTRIS Brehm, Isis 1828, p. 1,281 (nomen nudum !) ; id., 
Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deutschl., p. 377 (1831 Tirol). 

DISTRIBUTION. England. One or more. Male, Guestling (Sussex), 
May 23, 1911 (M. J. Nicoll, Brit. B., v, p. 72). One said to have been 
of this form obtained in Yorks. early in 1893, and another in Norfolk 
Sept. 18, 1894 (ZooL, 1895, pp. 56, 99). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in mountains of central and south 
Europe, from Pyrenees to Alps, higher mountain-ranges of south 
Germany, east to Balkans and Carpathians. On passage obtained 
in Asia Minor, where it possibly breeds. 



164. Turdus merula merula L. THE BLACKBIRD. 

TURDUS MERULA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 170 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Turdus merula Linnaeus, Yarrell, I, p. 280 ; Saunders, p. 13. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Generally distributed, 
but in 0. Hebrides and Shetlands a scarce and local breeder, though 
more common in Orkneys and I. Hebrides, and much more common 
in all these islands as winter-visitor. In Ireland has extended 
breeding-range to extreme west of mainland, and to Achill Island 
and Aran Isles. 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. Many home-bred birds migrate in 
autumn and return in spring, especially in north Scotland and 
exposed places elsewhere. A large autumn (late Oct. and Nov.) 
immigration in northern isles and down both sides of Great Britain, 
as well as in Ireland. Some of these immigrants pass on and leave 
the country, others stay winter. A reverse movement in spring 
(late Feb. to early April). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. The whole of Europe, except Spain, 
where replaced as in north-west Africa, the Atlantic islands, south- 
east Europe to Persia, Syria, Turkestan to Mongolia, Himalayas 
and China by more or less closely-allied forms. 


165. Monticola saxatilis (L.) THE ROCK-THRUSH. 

TURDUS SAXATILIS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. xn, i, p. 294 (1766 " Habitat 

in Helve tiae, Austrise, Borussiae montibus." Restricted typical locality : 


Monticola saxatilis (Linnaeus), Yarrell, i, p. 292 ; Saunders, p. 17. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Five or more. One Therfield 
(Herts.) May 19, 1843 (Saunders, p. 17). Male obtained and another 
seenPentland Skerries Light (Orkneys) May 17, 1910 (W. E. Clarke, 
Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist., 1910, p. 148, 1911, p. 135 ; cf. Brit. B., iv, 
p. 117, v, p. 200.) Male and female (young) Pett (Sussex) Sept. 1 
and 2, 1911 (H. W. Ford-Lindsay, Brit. B., v, p. 130). [One said 
to have been seen near Whitby (Yorks.) June, 1852, and another 
said to have been shot at Cobham (Kent).] 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. North-west Africa, south and middle 
Europe, east to south Siberia and north China, wintering in tropical 
Africa, north India and China. 



1 66. CEnanthe oenanthe oenanthe (L.) THE WHEATEAR. 

MOTACILLA OENANTHE Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 186 (1758 

Europe. Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Saxicola oenanthe (Linnaeus), Yarrell, i, p. 347 ; Saunders, p. 19 (part). 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Summer-resident (March to Oct.) ; 
said to winter occasionally. Widely distributed, though local. Also 
passage-migrant, arrivals on south coast England in May and move- 
ments in various parts in late Oct. and Nov. being no doubt of such 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Whole of Europe to north (and possibly 
south) Spain, east to north and central Asia ; wintering in tropical 
Africa. (See Hartert's Vog. pal. Fauna, i, pp. 680-81, on geographical 
and other variations.) 

167. CEnanthe oenanthe leucorrhoa (Gm.) THE GREEN- 

MOTACILLA LEUCORHOA Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, ii, p. 966 (1789 Senegal). 

Saxicola oenanthe (L.), Saunders, p. 19 (part). 

Saxicola oenanthe leucorrhoa (Gmelin), C. B. Ticehurst, Brit. B., n, p. 271. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Passage-migrant (April-May and 
Sept. -Oct.) through Great Britain and Ireland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Greenland and north-east America west 
of Davis Strait to Labrador, and apparently Iceland, though a 
series from there should be re-examined, as they appear to be, 
at least partly, intermediate. Migrates through north-west Africa, 
Canaries, and Azores to Senegambia, in America to New York, New 
Brunswick, Ontario, Colorado, and Louisiana. 


1 68. CEnanthe deserti deserti (Temm.) THE WESTERN 

Saxicola deserti Temminck, PI. Col. 359, fig. 2 (1825 Egypt). 

? Saxicola deserti (Temminck), Yarrell, in, p. viii ; S. deserti Riippell, 

Saunders, p. 25 (? part). 

* The Wheatears have, for a long time, been called Saxicola without due 
consideration of facts, and it has even been stated that Motacilla cznanthe 
is the genotype " by subsequent designation " of Gray, 1841. This designa- 
tion, however, was anticipated by Swainson, who, in 182 7, designated Motacilla 
rubicola as the genotype. Thus the name Saxicola must be used for the 
Chats, which is lucky in so far as the usual name Pratincola is not available, 
because of its use for the Pratincoles in 1798, eighteen years before. By the 
method of elimination Saxicola also becomes the generic title for the Chats, 
and not for the Wheatears. The next oldest name for the latter is CEnanthe 
Vieillot, 1816, type by tautonymy Motacilla oenanthe L. E.H. 


DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Female Holderness coast (Yorks.) 
Oct. 17, 1885 (Saunders, p. 25), is of this form. Other Desert- 
Wheatears which we have not examined, are : male, near Alloa 
(Clackmannan), Nov. 26, 1880 ; male, near Arbroath (Forfar), 
Dec. 28, 1887 (Saunders, p. 25) ; male " near the sea " (Norfolk), 
Oct. 31, 1907 (J. H. Gurney, Zoo!., 1908, p. 132). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Sahara. Once obtained in Italy. 

169. CEnanthe deserti albifrons (Brandt)* THE EASTERN 

SAXICOLA ALBIFRONS Brandt, Bull. Acad. St. Petersburg, n, p. 139 (1844 

W. Siberia). 

Saxicola deserti atrogularis Blyth, Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, i, p. 684. 

DISTRIBUTION. Scotland. Male Pentland Skerries Light (Orkneys), 
June 2, 1906 (W. E. Clarke, Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist., 1906, p. 138) 
is of this form. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. From Khirgiz Steppes to Saissansk, 
Dsungaria, Nan-Shan, Ala-Shan, Ordas, and south Kuku-Nor. 
(Specimens obtained on Heligoland probably belong to this form.) 
On migration through south-west Asia to south Arabia, Sokotra, 
and north-east Africa. 


170. CEnanthe hispanica hispanica (L.) THE WESTERN 

MOTACILLA HISPANICA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 186 (1758 
" Hispania." Typical locality : Gibraltar). 

Saxicola stapazina (Vieillot), Yarrell, i, p. viii ; Saunders, p. 23 ; 
S. stapazina (Linnaeus) nee Vieillot, id., Brit. B., i, p. 6 ; S. occidentalis, 
id., I.e., p. 7 ; S. h. hispanica, Hartert, op.c., TV, p. 131. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Six obtained and one seen, viz. : 
male (black-throated) near Bury (Lanes.) May 8, 1875 ; male 
(black-throated) seen Spurn (Yorks.) Sept. 18, 1892 (Saunders, p. 23) ; 
male near Polegate (Sussex) May 28, 1902; male near Hooe (Sussex) 
May 22, 1905 ; male (black-throated) near Lydd (Kent) May 22, 
1906 (Saunders, Brit. B., i, pp. 6, 7) ; male Winchelsea (Sussex) 
May 2, 1907 (J. B. Nichols, i.e., i, p. 185) ; male (black-throated) 
Fair Isle Sept. 25, 1907 (W. E. Clarke, Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist., 1908, 
p. 81 ; cf. Brit. B., i, p. 382). 

* The name albifrons has hitherto been overlooked, and was only dis- 
covered by Hartert after the appearance of the first volume of his book on 
Palae arctic birds. 

f Clearly described in 1758 as Mot. hispanica. As the black-throated 
and white- throated birds (stapazina and aurita of former times) are only 
dimorphisms of the same species, hispanica takes the place of both. E.H. 



DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Western Mediterranean countries, south 
of the Alpine range and south Tyrol. Passing through the western 
Sahara and observed as far south as Senegambia. Has been shot 
on Heligoland. Replaced in eastern Mediterranean countries, 
east to Asia Minor and Syria, by (E. hispanica xanthomelcena. 
((E. h. gaddi from west Persia is as yet insufficiently known.) 

171. CEnanthe hispanica xanthomelaena (Hempr. & Ehr.)* 

SAXICOLA XANTHOMELAENA Hemprich & Ehrenberg, Symb. Phys., Aves, 
fol. c, aa, no. 6 (1833 Egypt. Description of the autumn-plumage of 
the black-throated form). 

Saxicola amphileuca Hemprich & Ehrenberg, t.c., fol. bb, no. 4 (1833 
Syria. Description of the white- throated form in summer-plumage). 
Saxicola stapazina Linn. (=S. aurita Temm.), M. J. Nicoll, Bull. B.O.C., 
xvi, p. 22 ; Saxicola stapazina (Linn.), nee Vieillot, Saunders, Brit. B., 
i, p. 6. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. One. Adult male near Pett, Sussex, 
Sept. 9, 1905 (ut supra}. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds from Asia Minor and Palestine 
westwards throughout Greece, Turkey, Bulgaria, Roumania, south 
Russia (Crimea) to Montenegro, Croatia and Dalmatia, and perhaps 
in south Italy (Apulia, Calabria, Sicily ?). Migrates through Egypt 
and Nubia and winters in eastern Sudan and Abyssinia. On passage 
not very rare in Italy, rare in Tripoli, Tunisia, and Algeria. 


172. CEnanthe pleschanka pleschanka (Lepech.) THE PIED 

MOTACILLA PLESCHAKKALepechin, Nov. Comm. Petr., xiv, p. 503, pi. 24 
(1770 or 1771 Saratow on the Volga ; translation in Hase, Lepechin's 
Reise, i, p. 229). 

Saxicola pleschanka, E. V. Baxter and L. J. Rintoul, Ann. Scot. Xat. 
Hist., 1910, p. 2 ; c/. Brit. B., in, p. 290. 

DISTRIBUTION. Scotland. Female, Isle of May (Forth) Oct. 19, 
1909 (ut supra}. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. South Russia to Crimea, Dobrudscha, 
Caucasus, Transcaspia, Turkestan, Persia, Afghanistan, west Tibet, 
north to south-east Siberia, and north China, also in Gilgit and north 
Kashmir. On passage in north-east Africa and Arabia, also casual 
in Italy and perhaps Algeria, also on Heligoland. Replaced by 
smaller race in Cyprus. 

* Hemprich and Ehrenberg gave a number of names to the eastern 
black- and white-throated and black-eared Wheatears, the first of which is 
xanthomelcvna. E.H. 



173. CEnanthe isabellina (Cretzschm.) THE ISABELLINE 

SAXICOLA ISABELLINA Cretzschmar, Atlas zu Riippells Reise, Vogel, 

p. 52, pi. 34, b (1826 Nubia). 

Saxicola isabellina Riippell, Saunders, p. 21. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Two. Female, Allonby (Cumberland) 
Nov. 11, 1887 (H. A. Macpherson, Ibis, 1888, p. 149). Male, Rye 
Harbour (Sussex) April 17, 1911 (N. F. Ticehurst, Brit. B., v, p. 74). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. From steppes of south-east Russia, Asia 
Minor and Syria to Turkestan, Tibet, Mongolia, east Siberia, and 
north-west China ; wintering in north-east and east Africa, south 
Arabia, and west India. Casual in south-east Europe, a few times 
observed in Tunisia and Algeria. 


174. CEnanthe leucura leucura (Gm.) THE BLACK 

TURDUS LEUCURUS Gmeliri, Syst. Nat., i, ii, p. 820 (1789 Gibraltar). 
Saxicola leucura (Gm.), N. F. Ticehurst, Brit. B., m, p. 289. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Male and female near Rye Harbour 
(Sussex) seen Aug. 31, 1909, and shot Sept. 2 and 16 respectively 
(ut supra}. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Portugal and Spain, Riviera, and, ap- 
parently, in Sicily, but not in Greece. Replaced by a closely- 
allied form in north-west Africa. 


175. Saxicola rubetra rubetra (L.) THE WHINCHAT. 

MOTACILLA RUBETRA Linnseus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 186 (1758 Europe. 

Retricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Pratincola rubetra (Linnseus), Yarrell, i, p. 344 ; Saunders, p. 27. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Summer-resident (April to Oct.), 
somewhat local, but widely distributed and in many parts very 
numerous. Rare Cornwall, very local Orkneys, a rarely observed 
migrant only in Shetlands ; spring and autumn migrant Fair Isle ; 
breeds very sparingly O. Hebrides. Ireland. Breeds locally through- 
out Ulster and in north-east Mayo, Leitrim, Sligo, Roscommon and 
Longford, scarcer in Louth, Dublin, Wicklow, and Clare; elsewhere 
a rare migrant. Winters on rare occasions. 

* The usual name Pratincola dates from Koch, 1816, but cannot be used 
because Schrank introduced it for the Pratincoles in 1798. (See note under 
CEnanthe cenanthe. ) E .H. 

G 2 


DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeding in Europe, from about lat. 70 
north in Scandinavia to Mediterranean (in Greece and south Spain 
only on passage), wintering in tropical Africa. Replaced by 
paler forms in south Dalmatia and north-west Africa ( ? breeding), 
in the Caucasus (perhaps also parts of Persia and Asia Minor), and 
west Siberia. 


176. Saxicola torquata hibernans (Hart.) THE BRITISH 

PRATINCOLA TORQUATA HIBERNANS Hartert, Journ. f. Orn., 1910, p. 173 


Pratincola rubicola (Linnaeus), Yarrell, i, p. 339 ; Saunders, p. 29 ; 

P. t. hibernans, Hartert, Brit. B., m, p. 315. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident, widely distributed, but 
local and uncertain, often abandoning a locality after a few years. 
Most numerous in coastal regions. Very local in midland plain of 
England, in Pennines, and in south-west Scotland, but more common 
northwards and eastwards in Scotland. Breeds sparingly 0. Hebrides, 
rarely Orkneys, and only occasional visitor to Fair Isle and Shetlands. 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. A considerable movement to coast 
and southwards takes place in autumn, and probably some indi- 
viduals leave the country in winter. In many districts, especially 
inland, it is only a summer-resident. Passage-movements noted 
in O. Hebrides and Fair Isle may refer to the Continental race, 8. t. 
rubicola (L.). 

177. Saxicola torquata indica (Blyth) THE INDIAN 

PRATINCOLA INDICA Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, xvi, p. 129 (1847 


Pratincola maura (nee Pallas), Saunders, Brit. B., i, p. 7. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Male near Cley (Norfolk) Sept. 2, 1904 
(Saunders, Bull. B.O.C., xvi, p. 10, and Brit. B., i, p. 7 ; cf. Hartert, 
Vog. pal. Fauna, i, p. 708). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. West Siberia, Russian Turkestan to 
south Ural and western Himalayas, wintering in India generally. 
Represented by S. t. hibernans in British Isles, by 8. t. rubicola* 
in continental Europe from south Sweden to Mediterranean, east 
to south Russia and north-west Africa, and passing through northern 
Sahara on migration, by 8. t. maura in Caucasus, and by other forms 
in various parts of Asia and Africa. 

* This form has not yet been proved to occur in the British Isles so far as 
we are aware. 



178. Phoenicurus phcenicurus phoenicurus (L.) THE RED- 

MOTACILLA PHCENICURUS Linnseus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 187 (1758 
" Habitat in Europa." Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 
Ruticilla pho&nicurus (Linnseus), Yarrell, i, p. 329 ; Saunders, p. 31. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Summer-resident (late March 
to Oct.), widely distributed, but local. Uncommon as nester west 
of Exeter (Devon) and unusual in Cornwall. Scotland. Widely 
distributed but local. Rare as nester in extreme north of mainland, 
has not bred Orkneys and only once Shetlands (1901), but is well 
known in these islands and Fair Isle as spring and autumn migrant. 
Breeds in Mull, but not elsewhere in I. Hebrides, but occurs regularly 
on double passage at Skerryvore. Rare autumn-visitor to 
O. Hebrides. Ireland. Very rare, a few pairs breeding regularly 
in Wicklow and occasionally in Tyrone. Very scarce on migration 
at Lights. 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. Spring and autumn passage-migrant 
along whole east coast from Kent to Shetlands. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe from North Cape to Mediterranean, 
but in Spain only north of Cantabrian mountains, in Italy only in 
mountains, and in Greece on passage ; Russia with exceptions of 
Steppes, Tundras and Crimea ; in Siberia to Irkutsk and Lake 
Baikal. Wintering in west and north-east Africa. Replaced by 
allied races in Atlas mountains, and in Crimea, Caucasus, Trans- 
caucasia, Asia Minor, Persia, and Bochara. 


179. Phoenicurus ochrurus gibraltariensisf (Gm.) THE 

MOTACILLA GIBRALTAKIENSIS Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, 2, p. 987 (1789 


Ruticilla titys (Scopoli), Yarrell, i, p. 333 ; Saunders, p. 33. 

P. o. gibraltariensis, Hartert, Brit. B., iv, p. 132. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Passage-migrant (Oct.- 
Nov. and March-April and sometimes May) and winter-visitor. 
Regular but generally in very small numbers along south and east 

* The generic name Phcenicurus antedates Ruticilla. E.H. 

f The time-honoured name titys is erroneously used for the Black Redstart. 
Linnseus described under that name an old female of the Redstart, and not 
a Black Redstart. Therefore gibr altar iensis must be used, and as the Black 
Redstart of the Caucasus is a subspecies (geographical representative) of it, 
the name of the latter, being older, becomes the specific name of the Black 
Redstarts. E.H. 


coasts England as far as Yorks., north of which, as well as on west 
side England north of Bristol Channel and in Wales, it is rarely 
observed. In southern counties of England, and especially in 
Cornwall and Devon, winters regularly, but elsewhere only rarely 
found in winter. Reports of breeding are not substantiated. 
Scotland. Rare and irregular passage-migrant to east coast as far 
north as Pentland Skerries (Orkneys) (twice), Orkneys (twice), 
and Fair Isle (five times). On western side rare straggler: 
Sol way (twice), Clyde (once). In 0. Hebrides, four times 
Flannans and once South Uist. Once Tiree. Ireland. Fairly 
regular autumn and occasional spring passage -migrant in south 
and south-east. Rare elsewhere. Occasionally in winter. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe from Baltic to Mediterranean, 
east to Roumania and Bulgaria. Wintering partly in Europe, 
but mostly in Africa. Casual in Scandinavia, once Finland. Re- 
placed by a number of rather different forms in Caucasus, Armenia, 
Persia, Syria, Transcaspia to Turkestan, Altai and Sayan Moun- 
tains, central Asia generally and parts of the Himalayas to Tibet 
and Mongolia. 


1 80. Luscinia megarhyncha megarhyncha Brehm - THE 

LTJSCINIA MEGARHYNCHOS Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deutschl., p. 356 

(1831 Germany). 

Daulias luscinia* (Linnaeus), Yarrell, i, p. 312 ; Saunders, p. 39. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Summer-resident (April to 
mid-Sept.). Generally distributed in suitable places and locally 
numerous south and east of a line joining Wash and Severn, except 
in Cornwall and extreme w r est Somerset, where it is absent, and in 
Devon, where it is confined to river-valleys a short distance inland 
from south coast as far west as the Dart. In Hereford, Monmouth, 
and Glamorgan confined to southern river- valleys. North and west 
of above-mentioned line becomes rapidly scarce, and is only 
regular and at all numerous in river-valleys, and is sporadic and 
uncertain in south Staffs., Salop, and south Derby., and only 
occasional in Cheshire and the extreme east of Brecon, Montgomery, 
Denbigh, and Flint. On east side locally not uncommon in Leicester, 
Notts., and Lines., but thins out northwards and breeds irregularly 
in southern parts of the eastern and south-eastern portions of West 
Yorks., and sporadically in eastern half of North Yorks. Records 
of vagrants from Carmarthen, Cardigan, Lanes. (?), Durham, and 
Northumberland (cf. Brit. B., v, pp. 2-21). Scotland. One, Isle 

* The specific name luscinia originally referred to the Thrush-Nightingale 
or Sprosser, and cannot, therefore, be used for our Nightingale ! See, among 
others, Sharpe, Handlist, iv, p. 153. E.H. 


of May (Forth), May 9, 1911 (Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist., 1911, p. 132; 
cf. Brit. B., v, p. 83). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe from shores of North Sea to 
Mediterranean, and Black Sea, north-west Africa, Asia Minor, and 
Cyprus, wintering in Africa. Replaced by other races in Persia, 
Turkestan, and Khirgiz Steppes. Recently Corsican form has been 
separated (Orn. Monatsber., 1910, p. 155). 


181. Luscinia luscinia (L.) THE THRUSH-NIGHTINGALE. 

MOTACILLA LUSCINIA Linnseus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 184 (1758 
" Europa." Restricted typical locality: Sweden. Linnaeus expressly 
says that he did not observe the small Nightingale). 

Luscinia luscinia, W. E. Clarke, Scot. Nat., 1912, p. 9 ; cf. Brit. B., v, 
p. 240. 

DISTRIBUTION. Scotland. One Fair Isle (Shetlands), May 15, 
1911 (ut supra). [One at Smeeth (Kent) Oct. 22, 1904 (M. J. Nicoll, 
Bull. B.O.C., xv, p. 20) was considered an unlikely genuine migrant 
owing to the late date (cf. Hartert, i.e., p. 47 ; Saunders, Brit. B., I, 
p. 8). Another said to have been taken Norfolk, June 5, 1845, 
was not identified until many years afterwards (L. A. C. Edwards, 
Brit. B., v, p. 224).] 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. South and middle Sweden, south Finland, 
Denmark, a narrow belt along the Baltic in north Germany, north- 
east Germany generally, Galizia, Transylvania, Roumania, Russia, 
east to the Ural (Orenburg) and south-west Siberia to the Altai. 
Casual and rare in west Europe. Wintering in east Africa. 

[NOTE! Two examples of the SIBERIAN RUBY-THROAT, Luscinia calliope 
(Pallas), are said by Mr. J. P. Nunn to have been observed by him near 
Westgate-on-Sea (Kent) in Oct., 1900 (cf. Saunders, Brit. B., i, p. 8), but on 
this evidence the bird cannot be admitted. It breeds from Siberia to 
Kamtschatka, Mongolia and north China, wintering in the Philippines, south 
China and India, and has been observed in the Urals, Caucasus, south France (2) 
and Italy (4).] 


182. Luscinia svecica gaetkei (Kleinschm.)f THE NOR- 

ERITHACUS GAETKEI Kleinschmidt, Journ. f. Orn., 1904, p. 302 (Norwegian 
Alps, but type a migrant from Heligoland). 

Ruticilla suecica (Linnaeus), Yarrell, i, p. 321 ; Cyanecula suecica (Linnaeus), 
Saunders, p. 35. 

* No structural character appears to exist by which the Nightingales, 
Bluethroats, and some other birds not occurring in the British Isles can be 
separated ; they must therefore be placed in the same genus. E.H. 

t This form and its distribution require further study. It differs from 
the Lapland form by a more pointed wing, larger size, and deeper brown 


DISTRIBUTION. England. Regular autumn passage-migrant (Aug.- 
Oct.) and probably a regular, but seldom observed, spring -migrant 
along east coast. Rare straggler south coast ; elsewhere not 
recorded. Scotland. On mainland only once autumn (Elgin, 
Sept. 15, 1890), and twice spring (off Aberdeen, May 16, 1872, 
Carmyle, Clyde, May 14, 1910). In Fair Isle and Isle of May 
regularly in recent years in autumn as well as spring 1909 in Fair 
Isle. Three Unst (Shetlands) Sept., 1902, one Monach Island 
Light (O. Hebrides) Oct., 1890, and one Pentland Skerries (Orkneys) 
May 12, 1890. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Norwegian high mountains. Passes in 
numbers over Heligoland, through Holland, and apparently north- 
west Germany, France, and Spain. Replaced by allied forms in 
Lapland and Sweden, and north Asia. 

183. Luscinia svecica cyanecula (Wolf) THE WHITE- 

SYLVIA CYANECULA Wolf, in Meyer & Wolf's Taschenb. d. deutsch. 
Vogelk., i, p. 240 (1810 Germany). 

Cyanecula leucocyana Brehm, Yarrell, i, p. 323 (in text) ; Cyanecula 
wolfi C. L. Brehm, Saunders, Brit. B., i, p. 7. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Seven males. Near Scarborough 
(Yorks.), April 12, 1876 (J. G. Tuck, Zool., 1876, p. 4976, cf. Birds 
Yorks., p. 38, and Brit. B., i, p. 228). Dungeness Light (Kent) 
Oct. 6, 1902 (M. J. Nicoll, Bull, B.O.C., xn, p. 14). Near Hastings 
(Sussex) Sept. 1, 1905 (C. B. Ticehurst, op.c., xvi, p. 34). Fair Isle 
(Shetlands) presumably spring 1909 and in 1910 (W. E. Clarke, 
Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist., 1910, pp. 67, 196; cf. Brit. B., m, p. 417, v, 
p. 200). Two, Pett Level (Sussex), May 15 and 17, 1911 (i.e., v, 
H. W. Ford-Lindsay, p. 23, J. B. Nichols, p. 106).* 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Middle Europe from France to west 
Russia. Migrates through more western parts of Europe to north- 
west Africa, also in lesser numbers to north-east Africa. Replaced 
by closely-allied forms in south Russia generally, Persia, Kashmir 
(Ladakh), the Karakoram, Pamir and Altai Mountains, and east 

* A bird said to have been a Bluethroat was seen by Captain Hadneld at 
Bonchurch, Isle of Wight, from about Feb., 1865, to Sept., 1867, and is 
said to have had a spotless blue throat in the month of November, 1865 ! In 
Jan., 1866, another Bluethroat was recorded from the same place by the 
same observer. No Bluethroats have been observed elsewhere in Great 
Britain in winter. 



184. Dandalus rubecula rubecula (L.) THE CONTINENTAL 

MOTACILLA RUBECULA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat.,ed. i, p. 188 (1758 "Europa." 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Erithacus rubecula (Linnaeus), Yarrell, i, p. 305 (part) ; Saunders, p. 37 


DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Few identified specimens have 
been recorded. In spring has been noted St. Catherine's Light 
(Isle of Wight) between March 25 and April 23. In autumn on 
east coast from Yorks. to Suffolk between Sept. 14 and Nov. 4, in 
Sussex in Oct., and at St. Catherine's Light between Oct. 23 and 
Dec. 11. In Scotland has been noted on spring and autumn passages 
in Fair Isle (Shetlands), where it also winters in small numbers. 
Has also occurred Mull of Galloway, Nov., and Isle of May, Oct. 
The Robins occurring often in great numbers on passage in 
Shetlands are probably also of this form. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe generally up to 68* north from 
France to Urals, west Siberia and west Turkestan, Madeira, Azores, 
some of the Canaries, wintering in Persia, and Mediterranean 
countries to oases of Sahara. Replaced by allied forms in Sardinia 
and Corsica, in north-west Africa, on Tenerife and Gran Canaria, 
north Persia and Caucasus. 

185. Dandalus rubecula melophilus (Hart.) THE BRITISH 

ERITHACUS RUBECULA MELOPHILUS Hartert, Nov. Zool., 1901, p. 317 
(British Isles). 

Erithacus rubecula (Linnaeus), Yarrell, i, p. 305 (part) ; Saunders, p. 37 
(part) ; E. r. melophilus, Hartert, Brit. B., i, p. 219. 

DISTRIBUTION. Confined to British Isles. British Isles. Resident. 
Generally distributed, but scarce in extreme north of Scottish 
mainland and in Orkneys, and apparently absent from Shetlands 
(passage-migrants in Shetlands are probably D. r. rubecula} ; sparingly 
distributed North Uist and Lewis, and has bred Barra since 1892, 
but not in other O. Hebrides. (Single birds, of which race not 
recorded, have occurred occasionally Flannan Isles, spring and 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. A considerable movement of 
individuals, southward in autumn and northward in spring, occurs, 

* If the Robins are separated generically their name must be Dandalus, 
as Erithacus cannot be used, the genotype of the latter being Motacilla erithacus, 
which is the Redstart ; moreover Cuvier's name in this case must be regarded 
as a nomen nudum. E.H. 


especially in Scotland and northern parts of England and along 
east coast. In some seasons a few leave south coast in late Oct. 
and early Nov., and probably return during March, but so few actual 
migrants have been examined that it is impossible to say anything 
more definite at present ; both races occur together at Lights 
on south coast. 


1 86. Prunella collaris collaris (Scop.) THE ALPINE 

STUKNTJS COLLARIS Scopoli, Annus i, Historico-Natur., p. 131 (1769 


Accentor alpinus, Seebohm, Hist. Brit. B., i, p. 501 (also MacGillivray, 

Hewitson, etc.). 

Accentor collaris (Scopoli), Yarrell, i, p. 296 ; Saunders, p. 95. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Twenty obtained or satisfactorily 
identified between Aug. and Jan. (once in March) in following 
counties : Cornwall (1), Devon (4), Somerset (1), Gloucester (1), 
Hants. (1), Surrey (1), Sussex (2), Essex (1), Cambs. (2), Suffolk (2), 
Yorks. (1), Warwick (1), Carnarvon (1), Fair Isle (Shetlands) (1). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Mountain-systems of south and central 
Europe, but replaced by an allied race in south-east Europe (Dalmatia 
to Greece), and by others in Caucasus and Asia Minor, and parts of 


187. Prunella modularis modularis (L.) THE CONTINENTAL 

MOTACILLA MODULARIS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 184 (1758 
" Habitat in Europa." Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. One only so far identified, Spurn 
(Yorks.), Sept. 7, 1882 (Hartert, Brit. B., in, p. 314), but Hedge- 
Sparrows observed in Shetlands and Fair Isle in spring (twice in 
great numbers in April) and autumn were probably of this form, 
which will perhaps be found to be regular spring and autumn passage - 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe from about lat. 70 north to 
Mediterranean, east to Black Sea and Urals, in south Spain and 
south-east Europe only winter-visitor. Partly migratory, visiting 
(rarely) north-west Africa, Asia Minor, and Syria. 

* Prunella is the correct name for this genus, since Accentor had been 
previously used for the Dippers. E.H. 


1 88. Prunella modularis occidentalis (Hart.) THE BRITISH 

ACCENTOR MODULARIS OCCIDENTALIS Hartert, Brit. B., in, p. 313 (March, 

1910 British Isles). 

Accentor modularis (Linnaeus), Yarrell, i, p. 301 ; Saunders, p. 93. 

DISTRIBUTION. Confined to British Isles. British Isles. Resident. 
Generally distributed, but scarcer (though increasing of recent 
years) in extreme north of Scottish mainland, scarce in Orkneys, 
does not breed Shetlands, common Stornoway (Lewis), but scarce 
elsewhere in 0. Hebrides. 

MIGRATIONS. 1 British Isles. A migration soutwards in autumn 
and northwards in spring is recorded on east coasts, and although 
some have been identified as the British form, some, like those 
observed in Shetlands and Fair Isle, are probably P. m. modularis. 


189. Troglodytes troglodytes troglodytes (L.) THE WREN. 

MOTACILLA TROGLODYTES Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 188 (1758 
Europe. Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Troglodytes parvulus K. L. Koch, Yarrell, i, p. 460 (part) ; Saunders, 
p. 115 (part). 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Generally distributed, 
except where replaced by local forms (ut infra}. 

MIGRATIONS.' British Isles. A migration, possibly of continental 
origin, in autumn and spring is noticed on east coasts England and 
Scotland (Isle of May), while the frequency of records (although not 
annual) points to an autumn passage through the western isles of 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe from north Scandinavia to 
Urals in east, and shores of Mediterranean, but replaced by allied 
forms on some islands in north Atlantic Ocean, in Mediterranean, 
north-west Africa, Caucasus and Persia, Turkestan, and other parts 
of north and east Asia to Japan and Kuriles, as well as North 

* There has been much diversity of opinion and discussion about the 
generic name of the European Wrens, which have been called Anorthura and 
Olbiorchilus, but as there is no sufficient reason for a generic separation of the 
so-called typical (American) Troglodytes and the others, the name Troglodytes 
can be preserved. E.H. 


190. Troglodytes troglodytes hirtensis Seeb. THE ST. KILDA 

TROGLODYTES HIRTENSIS Seebohm, Zoologist, 1884, p. 333 (St. Kilda). 
Troglodytes parvulus K. L. Koch, Yarrell, i, p. 460 (part) ; Saunders, 
p. 115 (part) ; T. t. hirtensis Seeb., Hartert, Brit. B., i, p. 219. 

DISTRIBUTION. Confined to St. Kilda (0. Hebrides), where it is 

191. Troglodytes troglodytes zetlandicus Hart. THE SHET- 

p. 777 (1910 Shetland Islands). 

Troglodytes parvulus K. L. Koch, Yarrell, i, p. 460 (part) ; Saunders, 
p. 115 (part) ; T. t. zetlandicus, Hartert, Brit. B., iv, p. 134. 

DISTRIBUTION. Confined to Shetlands, where it is resident. The 
Wren inhabiting Fair Isle appears to differ from this form. 


192. Cinclus cinclus cinclus (L.) THE BLACK-BELLIED 

STURNTJS CINCLUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 168 (1758 " Habitat 

in Europa." Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Cinclus melanog aster, Yarrell, i, p. 244 (in text) ; Saunders, p. 97 (in text). 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Vagrant. Has occurred several times 
in Norfolk and Yorks. from Oct. to Feb. Examples said to have 
been of this form have also been recorded from Suffolk, Notts., 
and Salop, and from Spiggie (Shetlands). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Scandinavia and north Russia, Russian 
Baltic Provinces and apparently to East Prussia. In winter in 
small numbers in north-east Germany and east Russia. Replaced 
by allied races in Germany, the Pyrenees, Spain, Alps and Italy, 
Corsica and Sardinia, north-west Africa, south-east Europe, the 
Caucasus, west and central Asia and Siberia. 

193. Cinclus cinclus britannicus Tschusi THE BRITISH 

CINCLUS CINCLUS BRITANNICUS Tschusi, Orn. Jahrb., xin, p. 69 (1902 
Great Britain). 

Cinclus aquaticus Bechstein, Yarrell, i, p. 241 (part) ; Saunders, p. 97 
(part) ; C. c. britannicus Tsch., Hartert, Brit. B., i, p. 220. 

DISTRIBUTION. Confined to Great Britain. England and Wales. 
Resident in west and north England and in Wales, where there are 
quickly running rocky streams, but only a rare vagrant to counties 
east of Dorset, Somerset, Gloucester, Hereford, Salop, Staffs., and 
Derby. Also very scarce in east Yorks., and Durham. Scotland. 
Generally distributed except in Orkneys, where only twice occurred, 


and in Shetlands, where not yet recorded ; in O. Hebrides breeds 
in Harris, Lewis, and Barra. 

194. Cinclus cinclus hibernicus Hart. THE IRISH DIPPER. 

CINCLUS CINCLUS HIBERNICUS Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, i, p. 790 (1910 
co. Cork, Ireland). 

Cinclus aquaticus Bechstein, Yarrell, i, p. 241 (part) ; Saunders, p. 97 
(part) ; C. c. hibernicus, Hartert, Brit. B., iv, p. 136. 

DISTRIBUTION. Confined to Ireland, where it is resident and 
generally distributed in suitable localities. 


195. Chelidon rustica rustica (L.) THE SWALLOW. 

HIRUNDO RUSTICA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 191 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Hirundo rustica Linnaeus, Yarrell, n, p. 340; Saunders, p. 163. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Summer-resident (mid-March to 
mid-Oct., individuals often in Nov., sometimes Dec., and occasion- 
ally throughout winter). Generally distributed, but breeds rarely 
in extreme west of Ireland, north-west of Scotland and Orkneys, and 
very rarely Shetlands and 0. Hebrides (Barra, 1896, and probably 
on occasions in Uists and Lewis). 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. Passage-migration lasts from late 
April till (sometimes) mid-June, with maximum about mid-May. 
These passage-migrants form bulk of later south coast immigrants. 
Northward movement almost entirely confined to east coast and 
North Sea is crossed before northern limit of mainland is reached, 
very few indeed passing through Orkneys and Shetlands. Small 
numbers pass north up east coast of Ireland and west coast of 
England and Wales, going through the Hebrides during first three 
weeks of May, probably to Faeroes and Iceland, and possibly northern 
Europe. Autumn passage-migration lasts from mid-Sept, to mid- 
Oct. Pronounced on east coast of mainland, but little noticed 
elsewhere. On arrival birds mingle with our own, and movements 
cannot be separated. Departures all take place from south coast, 
and probably passage-migrants form bulk of later departing birds. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe, north-west Africa and western 
parts of Asia. Wintering in tropical and south Africa, India and 
its islands. Replaced by allied forms in Syria ( ? Asia Minor), Egypt, 
north Asia to Japan, and North America, all being migrants, winter- 
ing far south. 

* Chelidon Forster, 1817, was used for the Swallows and not for the 
Martins ! Forster separated our three genera for the first time, naming the 
Swallows Chelidon, the Martins Hirundo, the Sand-Martins Riparia, and this 
must be accepted (c/. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, i, pp. 799, 800 ; also Brit. B., 
iv, pp. 136, 230, 259). E.H. 



196. Chelidon daurica rufula (Temm.) THE RED-RUMPED 

HIRUNDO RUFULA Temminck, Man. d'Orn., 2, ed. in, p. 298 (1835 

Egypt, Sicily, S. Africa, Japan. S. Africa ex Levaillant, whose locality 

is not trustworthy. Japan erroneous. Restricted typical locality : 


Hinindo rufula, W. E. Clarke, Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist., 1906, p. 205, 1908, 

p. 203 ; Saunders, Brit. B., I, p. 11. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Two obtained and two seen. 
One shot (and picked up dead ten days later) and two others seen, 
Fair Isle (Shetlands), June 2, 1906 (ut supra}. Adult female Jury 
Gap, Romney Marsh (Kent), May 16, 1909 (M. J. Nicoll, Bull. 
B.O.C., xxm, p. 93, and Brit. B., m, p. 122). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Turkestan, Persia, Baluchistan, Afghan- 
istan, Syria, Egypt ( ? only as migrant), Asia Minor, Cyprus, Greece, 
also Marocco and (rare or casual) Algeria, and Tunisia. Sometimes 
seen in Italy, perhaps breeding in Sicily and south Italy, has occurred 
once Heligoland, and south France. Replaced by allied races in 
east Siberia, Mongolia, and north China (once [two specimens] in 
June in Assam), in the mountains south of the Brahmaputra, 
India, south China, and the East Indian Archipelago (probably 
only in winter). 


197. Hirundo urbica urbica L. THE MARTIN. 

HIRUNDO URBICA Linnseus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 192 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Chelidon urbica (Linnseus), Yarrell, n, p. 349 ; Saunders, p. 165. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Summer-resident (late March to 
mid-Oct., often Nov., and sometimes Dec.). Generally distributed, 
but more local, especially in Ireland, than Swallow. Scarce 
breeder Orkneys, only occasionally nests and not common migrant 
Shetlands, and rare vagrant (about eight times) to O. Hebrides. 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. Movements of passage -migrants have 
not yet been worked out in detail, but probably they follow very 
closely those of the Swallow, and the two species often migrate in 
company, particularly in autumn. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe, from lat. 70 north in Scandi- 
navia to Mediterranean, east to Yenisei and Turkestan. Wintering 
in south-east Africa and Mossamedes, and in north-west India. 
Replaced by short-winged form in north-west Africa and apparently 
south-west Persia and Greece, and in central and east Siberia, 
Mongolia, Manchuria and north China, Kashmir, south China and 



198. Riparia riparia riparia (L.) THE SAND-MARTIN. 

HIRTJNDO RIPARIA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 192 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Cotile riparia (Linnaeus), Yarrell, n, p. 355 ; Saunders, p. 167. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Summer-resident (late March to 
Sept. and Oct., and exceptionally Nov.). Widely distributed, but 
local. In Ireland more frequent than Martin. Scarce in extreme 
north of Scotland and 0. Hebrides, rare breeder Orkneys, and 
scarce migrant, once recorded nesting, Shetlands. 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. Movements of passage -migrants have 
not yet been worked out in detail, but probably they are very similar 
to those of preceding two species, with which they often travel in 
company, particularly in autumn. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe generally from 70 north, south to 
Tunisia and Algeria, east to Siberia, Syria, Palestine, but limits not 
well known, also North America. Wintering in east and south 
Africa, India, also in South America. Replaced by other forms 
(limits in Asia imperfectly known) in Siberia, north-west India, 
Turkestan, and Nile Valley. 

[NOTE. The AMERICAN PURPLE MARTIN, Progne subis subis (L.), said 
to have been shot near Kingstown, Ireland, in 1840 (Yarrell, 11, p. 361 ; 
Saunders, p. 166), and the AMERICAN TREE-SWALLOW, Tachycineta bicolor 
(Vieill.), said to have been killed at Derby in 1850, cannot be admitted.] 


199. Apus melba melba (L.) THE ALPINE SWIFT. 

HIRUNDO MELBA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 192 (1758 Gibraltar). 
melba (Linnaeus), Yarrell, n, p. 372 ; Saunders, p. 263. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. England. Rare vagrant. About 
twenty-five satisfactorily identified from April to Oct. in various 
parts, but chiefly in southern half, but seven Yorks. and one North- 
umberland. Wales. One, Pembroke, Nov. 20, 1908. Ireland. 
Four. Scotland None. 

* There has been much discussion about the generic name of the Swifts, 
but since 1897 the name Apus has been adopted by most advocates of priority. 
It has been rejected by some on account of the name Apos, employed in the 
same book by the same author some pages previously for a genus of Crustaceans. 
As the author (Scopoli) wrote nearly all his books in Latin, and was a great 
Latin scholar, we cannot consider this as an "error of transcription," but 
must suppose that he purposely used these two different spellings, in order to 
distinguish between the two names. If the name Apus is rejected, then 
Micropus comes into use, as employed in the Catalogue of Birds. E.H. 


DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. North-west Africa, south Europe to 
Pyrenees, Alps and Crimea, islands in Mediterranean, Asia Minor 
to Caucasus, Persia to Turkestan, Himalayas and high mountains 
of Indian Peninsula, Ceylon. Winter- quarters uncertain ; observed 
in south Arabia and northern Sahara on migration. Replaced by 
allied races in mountains of tropical and south Africa. 


200. Apus apus apus (L.) THE SWIFT. 

HIRUNDO APUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 192 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Cypselus apus (Linnaeus), Yarrell, n, p. 364 ; Saunders, p. 261. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Summer-resident (end April to end 
Aug., Sept., and Oct., exceptionally later). Generally distributed 
except in north-west Scotland, where does not breed ; I. Hebrides, 
where rarely breeds ; O. Hebrides, Orkneys and Shetlands, where 
does not breed and is an uncommon, though fairly regular, migrant. 
These last must be passage-migrants, but there is practically no 
other evidence of passage-migration. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe generally from about lat. 70 in 
Scandinavia and Archangel in north Russia southwards, in winter 
as far as south Africa and Madagascar. Replaced by somewhat 
doubtful forms in south Europe and north-west Africa, and by more 
distinct ones in various parts of west, north, and middle Asia. 


201. Chaetura caudacuta caudacuta (Lath.) THE NEEDLE- 

HIRUNDO CAUDACUTA Latham, Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. Ivii, (1801 


Acanthyllis caudacuta (Latham), Yarrell, n, p. 371 (footnote), in, p. ix ; 

Saunders, p. 265. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Two. One Great Horkesley (Essex) 
July 8, 1846 (Zool., 1846, p. 1492). One (said to have been with 
another) Ringwood (Hants) July 26 or 27, 1879 (Proc. Zool. Soc., 
1880, p. 1 ; Zool., 1880, p. 81). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. East Siberia, Mongolia, Manchuria, Sac- 
halin, and Japan, in winter in Australia and Tasmania. Replaced 
by G. caudacuta nudipes in the Himalayas. 


202. Caprimulgus europaeus europaeus L. THE NIGHTJAR. 

CAPRIMULGUS EUROPAEUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 193 (1758 

' ' Europe and America," the latter a mistake. Restricted typical locality : 


Caprimulgus europceus Linnseus, Yarrell, n, p. 377 ; Saunders, p. 267. 


DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Summer-resident (May to Sept., 
occasionally Nov.). Generally distributed in suitable localities, 
except Orkneys and Shetlands, where only a vagrant, and 0. 
Hebrides, where only twice occurred (Ghlaiss, Aug. 14, 1897, N. 
Uist, June 2, 1907). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe from about lat. 63 north, south- 
wards in winter in Africa. Replaced in Spain, Corsica and Sardinia, 
parts of Italy, south-east Europe north to Hungary, Crimea, and 
south-east Russia, Asia Minor, north-west Africa, and various 
parts of Asia by other races. 


203. Caprimulgus aegyptius segyptius Licht.* THE 

CAPRIMULGUS .^GYPTIUS Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl., p. 59 (1823 

Typical locality : Egypt). 

Caprimulgus cegyptius (Licht.), Yarrell, in, p. ix ; Saunders, p. 270. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. One Rainworth, near Mansfield (Notts.) 
June 23, 1883 (J. Whitaker, ZooL, 1883, p. 374). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Ranges from Turkestan, Afghanistan, 
Baluchistan, Mesopotamia, and east Persia to Egypt, and is partly 
migratory. A less greyish, more reddish-isabelline form inhabits 
the Sahara, south Algeria, south Tunisia, Libyan Desert to Egypt 
on west side of Nile. 


204. Caprimulgus ruficollis desertorum Erl.t THE 

p. 521, pi. xi (Tunisia). 

Caprimulgus ruficollis Temminck, Yarrell, n, p. 386, in, p. ix, ; Saunders, 
p. 269. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. One Killingworth, near Newcastle 
(Northumberland), Oct. 5, 1856 (Hancock, Ibis, 1862, p. 39.) 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Tunisia and Algeria, but not breeding 
south of Atlas mountains. Replaced by darker form in south Spain, 
Portugal, and Marocco south to south-western Atlas. 

* It is more likely that the true C. cegyptius cegyptius has occurred in 
Europe than the Saharan form C. ce. saharce, but it would be desirable to 
compare the specimen in Mr. Whitaker's collection. 

t I have carefully examined the specimen from Killingworth ; it is rather 
faded, but, taking this into full consideration, there seems no doubt that it 
belongs to the desert form, and not to the darker C. ruficollis ruficollis from 
Spain and north Marocco, which one would have expected. E.H. 



205. Merops apiaster L. THE BEE-EATER. 

MEROPS APIASTER Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 117 (1758 " Habitat 

in Europa australi, Oriente "). 

Merops apiaster Linnaeus, Yarrell, n, p. 435 ; Saunders, p. 283. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Vagrant. England. Over forty 
obtained and many others seen, chiefly south of Derby, but seven 
in Yorks. Scotland. Five or six seen or obtained on mainland, 
and one Shetlands. Ireland. Over twenty seen or obtained. 
Generally appears in spring, but also in autumn ; often two or three 
together, and flocks of six or seven have been reported from Ireland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. South Europe and Mediterranean islands, 
Africa north of Sahara, north to Camargue in south France, Danube 
in Hungary, and south Russia, eastwards to Transcaspia, Turkestan 
and west Siberia, Asia Minor, Syria, Persia, Afghanistan, and Kash- 
mir. During migration and in winter in tropical Africa south to 
Cape Colony (where also said to nest), and north-west India. Often 
strays north of its regular range and has nested at least three times 
in Germany, once found in Lapland, several times in central and 
even north Russia, and in Scandinavia and Denmark, Heligoland, 
Germany, Belgium, Holland, north France, and Luxemburg. 

[NOTE. The BLUE -TAILED BEE-EATER, Merops philippinus L., recorded 
from near Seaton Carew in 1862, cannot be admitted (Yarrell, n, p. 442 ; 
Saunders, p. 284).] 


206. Upupa epops epops L. THE HOOPOE. 

UPUPA EPOPS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 117 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Upupa epops Linnaeus, Yarrell, n, p. 419 ; Saunders, p. 285. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Passage -migrant, regular in 
spring but less frequent in autumn, on south and south-east coasts 
England. North of Thames on east coast frequent, but less regular ; 
elsewhere a vagrant, rare in north Wales (six only), midlands and 
north-west England. Has nested from time to time in all south 
coastal counties (perhaps most frequently Hants.) as well as Surrey 
and Wilts. Has occurred in winter in various counties even in 
north. Scotland. Vagrant. Has occurred in most parts, including 
I. and O. Hebrides, Orkneys, Fair Isle, and Shetlands. Ireland. 
Almost annual passage-migrant in spring and autumn on south 
coast, but has never nested. Vagrant elsewhere. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe, more frequent in south. East- 
wards to west Siberia and west Turkestan, breeding apparently alsoin 
north-west India. In winter in Africa as far as Gambia, Haussaland 


Abyssinia and Galla countries, and south India. Replaced 
by other forms in east Siberia and Mongolia, Egypt, tropical and 
south Africa, Madagascar, India, Ceylon, south China, and Hainan. 


207. Coracias garrulus garrulus L. THE ROLLER. 

CORACIAS GARRULUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 107 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Coracias garrulus Linnaeus, Yarrell, n, p. 428 ; Saunders, p. 281. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Vagrant. Over one hundred have 
occurred in most parts, chiefly autumn, but fairly often spring. Most 
often in south and east England (24 Norfolk), rarely in north Wales 
and north-west England and Scotland (but examples recorded as 
far as Caithness, Orkneys, and St. Kilda). Ten obtained in Ireland 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe from 61 north in Scandinavia 
and latitude of St. Petersburg to Mediterranean and north-west 
Africa, eastwards to west Siberia. Replaced by allied form in 
Transcaspia, north Persia, etc. In winter in tropical and south 
Africa to Cape Colony, also in India. Single specimens observed in 
north Norway, on Fseroes and Canaries. 

[NOTE. The recorded occurrences of two ABYSSINIAN ROLLERS, Coracias 
abyssinicus Bodd., near Glasgow about 1857 (Yarrell, n, p. 434; Saunders, 
p. 282), and of an INDIAN ROLLER, Coracias benghalensis L., said to have been 
shot near Louth (Lines.), Oct., 1883, cannot be admitted.] 


208. Alcedo ispida ispida L. THE KINGFISHER. 

ALCEDO ISPIDA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 115 (1758 "Habitat 
in Europa, Asia." Restricted typical locality : Europe). 
Alcedo ispida Linnaeus, Yarrell, n, p. 443 ; Saunders, p. 279. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Resident. Generally distri- 
buted on slow-flowing streams, often moving to coasts in autumn 
and severe weather. Occasional appearance at Lights in autumn 
and spring may indicate passage-movements. Scotland. Resident. 
Generally distributed in south, but becoming irregular and rare north 
of Grampians. Not noted Caithness or Shetlands, and only once 
Orkneys and 0. Hebrides (Barra, July 25, 1892). Ireland. 
Resident but scarce in all counties. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe generally, from south Scandinavia 
to Mediterranean, replaced by closely -allied forms in north Africa 
and Asia. 

[NOTE. The two AMERICAN BELTED KiNGFiSHERSjCer^e alcyon (L.), said 
to have been obtained in Meath and Wicklow in autumn 1845 (Yarrell, n, 
p. 452 ; Saunders, p. 280 (in text) ) cannot be admitted, as the records were 
undoubtedly due to a fraud. The bird inhabits North America and has 
occurred in Holland and on the Azores.] 

H 2 



209. Picus viridis pluvius Hart. THE BRITISH GREEN 

Picus VIRIDIS PLUVIUS Hartert, Brit. B., v, p. 125. 

Gecinus viridis (Linnaeus), Yarrell, n, p. 457 ; Saunders, p. 273. 

DISTRIBUTION. Confined to British Isles. England and Wales.- 
Resident. Fairly generally distributed but local, rare Lanes, and 
extreme west and north-west Yorks., and only occasional Westmor- 
land, Cumberland, Durham, and Northumberland. Scotland. Rare 
vagrant. Three Dumfries., one Clyde area, one Roxburgh, one 
" Forth," several " Tay," and one Orkneys, but most records not 
entirely satisfactory. Ireland. Rare vagrant. Three recorded as 
obtained, one in 1847 and one in 1854, but no specimens exist. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Replaced by a closely-allied form in 
Europe generally, north to Lapland, east to Caucasus and Asia 
Minor, and by others in Spain and Persia. 


210. Dryobates major major (L.) THE NORTHERN GREAT 

Picus MAJOR Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 114 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Dendrocopus major (Linnaeus), Yarrell, n, p. 470 (part) ; Saunders, p. 275 


DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Winter-visitor. Apparently fairly : 
regular in small numbers Sept. to Nov. east coast Great Britain j 
from Norfolk northwards, often visiting Shetlands and Orkneys, i 
and occasionally west side Scotland and even 0. Hebrides, also | 
sometimes occurs inland in England (e.g. Northants, 1889), and 
south of Norfolk. In Ireland about forty occurrences in all proba- c 
bility of this form. Periodically occurs in considerable numbers, 
as in 1861, 1868, 1886, 1889, 1898, 1901, 1903, 1909. Very fewg 
specimens have yet been critically examined, but evidence for above, 
statement is strongly presumptive. Examples have been deter-e 
mined as follows : Co. Down winter 1886-7 ; Northants, Dec., 1889 ; 
Perth, Oct., 1891 ; Forfar, Nov., 1892 ; Lines., Oct., 1898 ; Sussex, 

* According to recent investigations made in America, the usual name 
Dendrocopus (originally spelt Dendrocopos) was published in July, 1816, and 
thus was anticipated by Dendrocopus of Vieillot published in April of the same 
year. These names spelt with us and os at the end cannot both stand : they 
obviously have the same meaning, and are only differently transliterated 
from the Greek. The case thus differs from that of Apus and Apos, which 
were created by the same author in the same book, and were probably both 
spelt thus differently in order to distinguish them. The name Dryobates 
has been in undisputed use in America for the last 25 years. E.H. 


Nov., 1903 ; Northumberland, Nov., 1904 ; Berwick, March, 1906 ; 
Yorks. and Forth, Sept., 1909 ; East Ross, Oct., 1909 ; Aberdeen, 
Dec., 1909 ; Sussex, Nov., 1910. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. North Europe, as far south as East 
Prussia, north and middle Russia and Siberia. In winter somewhat 
vagrant, thus appearing sometimes out of its range. Replaced by 
allied forms in central, west, and south Europe, Canaries, north-west 
Africa, and many parts of Asia. 

211. Dryobates major anglicus (Hart.) THE BRITISH 

DENDROCOPUS MAJOR ANGLICUS Hartert, Nov. Zool., 1900, p. 528 (Eng- 
land) ; id., Brit. B., I, p. 221. 

Dendrocopus major (Linnaeus), Yarrell, 11, p. 470 (part) ; Saunders, p. 275 

DISTRIBUTION. Confined to British Isles. England and Wales. 
Resident. Fairly distributed in wooded parts, but scarce Lanes, 
and rare Westmorland and Cumberland, and very scarce north of 
Durham. Scotland. Became extinct about middle of nineteenth 
century, but since 1887, when bred in Berwick., has gradually 
increased in south Scotland and is now fairly well spread, but very 
scarce, though increasing, in south-eastern half as well as Dumfries., 
and has nested since 1907 as far north as Dunkeld (Perth.) and even 
once in Aberdeen (1903).* 


212. Dryobates minor comminutus (Hart.) THE BRITISH 

DENDROCOPUS MINOR COMMINUTUS Hartert, Brit. B., i, p. 221 (1907 

England. Type : Wingrave in Bucks.). 

Dendrocopus minor (Linnseus), Yarrell, n, p. 477 ; Saunders, p. 277. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Resident. Local but common 
in some places in south England and midlands, becoming extremely 
local Yorks., very rare Lanes., and only vagrant northwards, though 
has nested once Cumberland. In eastern Wales fairly distributed, 
but in west practically unknown, though nested Merioneth 1908. 
Scotland. One recorded Dumfries. 1865, and two others said 
obtained Solway district, but reported occurrences elsewhere 
extremely doubtful. Ireland. Six or seven recorded, but none 
since a very doubtful record in 1857 ; no specimen can be traced, 
and Mr. Ussher places species in square brackets (List of Irish Birds, 

* Many winter occurrences of stray birds in north England and north and 
west Scotland are no doubt referable to the northern form, as are probably the 
examples recorded from Ireland. 


DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. The Lesser Spotted Woodpecker of 
Holland appears to be the same as that of Great Britain. In 
other parts of Europe, north-west Africa, and north Asia, replaced 
by allied races. 

[NOTE. Numerous supposed occurrences of the BLACK WOODPECKER, 
Dryocopus m. martins (L.), have been recorded (Yarrell, n, p. 482 ; Saunders, 
p. 278), but none are sufficiently authenticated to admit of its inclusion. 
No specimens have been produced, while caged birds are known to have been 
turned out on one occasion at least. Its distribution abroad is : Europe 
from Archangel in north Russia and Scandinavia to Cantabrian mountains, 
Alps and Balkan Peninsula, Caucasus and Siberia to Kamtschatka and 
Sachalin in the east, and Ussuriland in the south. Replaced by allied form 
in Kham (south-west Tibet).] 

[NOTE. Examples of the AMERICAN HAIRY WOODPECKER, Dryobates 
villosus (L.) or subspecies, are said to have been obtained in Yorks. (Yarrell, 
11, p. 485 ; Saunders, p. 276). An example of the AMERICAN DOWNY WOOD- 
PECKER, Dryobates pubescens (L.), or one of its forms, is said to have been killed 
in Dorset in 1836 (Yarrell, n, p. 485 ; Saunders, p. 278), and others have been 
recorded, but all these, as well as a specimen of the AMERICAN GOLDEN-WINGED 
WOODPECKER, Colaptes auratus (L.) or one of its subspecies (Yarrell, n, p. 486 ; 
Saunders, p. 278) said to have been shot in Wilts, in 1836, were no doubt 
due to importation. Donovan's statement in 1809 that an example of the 
THREE-TOED WOODPECKER, Picoides tridactylus (L.) or subspecies, had been 
shot in Scotland is unsubstantiated (Yarrell, n, p. 486 ; Saunders, p. 278).] 


213. Jynx torquilla torquilla L. THE WRYNECK. 

JYNX TORQUILLA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 112 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Jynx torquilla Linnaeus, Yarrell, n, p. 487 ; Saunders, p. 271. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Summer-resident (mid-March 
to end Sept.). Chiefly south-east England, scarce south-west, rare 
Wales (especially in north), very scarce Cheshire, north Staffs., and 
Derby., very local Yorks. and Durham, rare vagrant Northumberland, 
as now in Lanes, and Cumberland, where it formerly bred. Scotland. 
Very scarce passage-migrant on east side and most often noted 
in northern isles. Very rare vagrant to south-west, has not occurred 
from Argyll, northwards or in I. or 0. Hebrides. Ireland. Six. 
One in May, five in autumn at or near coast. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe and temperate north Asia, passing 
through the Sahara and Egypt, and wintering in tropical Africa and 
India. Replaced by closely-allied forms in the far east, Sardinia 
and Algeria. 


214. Cuculus canorus canorus L. THE CUCKOO. 

CUCULUS CANORUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 110 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Cuculus canorus Linnaeus, Yarrell, n, p. 387 ; Saunders, p. 287. 


DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Summer-resident (early April, strag- 
glers occasionally late March, to Sept. and Oct., very occasionally 
Nov. (latest co. Down, Nov. 26, 1900), adults leaving by Aug.). 
Generally distributed, but rare in Shetlands. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe from within the Arctic Circle 
to north-west Africa, and a great part of Asia. In winter in Africa 
and parts of south Asia. On Canaries only on passage. Replaced 
by allied forms in parts of Asia, and in south-west Europe and 
north-west Africa. 


215. Clamator glandarius (L.) THE GREAT SPOTTED 

CUCULUS GLANDARIUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. Ill (1758 

North Africa and South Europe). 

Coccystes glandarius (Linnaeus), Yarrell, n, p. 408 ; Saunders, p. 289. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Four. One Omey Isle (Galway) 
about March, 1842. One seen Skellig Rock (Kerry) April 30, 1897. 
One near Bellingham (Northumberland) Aug. 5, 1870. One Yar- 
mouth (Norfolk) Oct. 18, 1896 (Saunders, p. 289). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. During breeding -season in north Africa 
and south-west Europe, rare in Greece, east to Asia Minor, Cyprus 
and Persia, casual in Bulgaria and Dalmatia, also in Italy, three 
times observed in Germany. Wintering in tropical and south 
Africa. Either this or closely-allied form breeds also in tropical and 
south Africa. 


216. Coccyzus americanus americanus (L-)t THE 

CUCULUS AMERICANUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. Ill (1758 


Coccyzus americanus (Linnaeus), Yarrell, n, p. 414 ; Saunders, p. 290 

(in text). 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Rare vagrant. About twelve as 
follows : England and Wales. Pembroke, autumn, 1832. Corn- 
wall about 1835. Cardigan, Oct. 29, 1870. Lundy Is. (Devon), 
Oct., 1874. Dorset, Oct. 5, 1895. Isle of Wight, Oct., 1896. 

* The name Clamator antedates Coccystes by 15 years. See Stejneger, 
Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, xv, p. 37. E.H. 

f Both the American Cuckoos must be admitted, in our opinion, as rare 
vagrants to Europe. 


Carnarvon, Nov. 10, 1899. Somerset, Oct. 6 ; 1901. Hants., 
Oct. 30, 1901. Scotland. Colonsay Isle (Argyll), Nov. 6, 1904. 
Ireland. Cork, autumn, 1825. Dublin, autumn, 1832 (cf. Yarrell, 
Saunders, and Brit. B., I, p. 284, iv, p. 126). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in south parts of North America, 
migrates through West Indies and Central America, and winters in 
South America. Rare straggler to Europe (Italy, Belgium). 


217. Coccyzus erythrophthalmus (Wilson) THE AMERICAN 

CCTCTJLUS ERYTHROPHTHALMUS Wilson, Amer. Orn., iv, 1811, 16, pi. 28, 
fig. 2 (1811 Typical locality probably near Philadelphia). 
Coccyzus erythrophthalmus Yarrell, n, p. 415 (footnote) ; Saunders, p. 290 
(in text). 

DISTRIBUTION. Ireland. One Killead (Antrim), Sept. 25, 1871 
(Zool 1872, p. 3022 ; Proc. Zool. Soc., 1872, p. 661 ; Yarrell, 
Saunders, and Birds Ireland, p. 401). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in eastern half of North America, 
from south-east Alberta, south Manitoba, south Quebec, south to 
Arkansas, North Carolina, and mountains of Georgia. Winters in 
South America and has occurred as a vagrant in Italy and the 


218. Nyctea nyctea (L.) THE SNOWY OWL. 

STRIX NYCTEA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 93 (1758 " Habitat in 
Europa et America septentrionali." Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 
Nyctea scandiaca (Linnaeus), Yarrell, i, p. 187 ; Saunders, p. 303. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Almost regular winter-visitor to 
Shetlands and frequent Orkneys and Hebrides, often on mainland 
of Scotland and in Ireland, where nearly forty recorded, chiefly 
in north and north-west, and most numerously Mayo. In 
England three taken in Northumberland, one and several seen 
Yorks., ten Norfolk, one Suffolk, some five Devon, one Somerset, 
one Scilly Isles. Occurs from Sept. to April, and one (Mayo) 
July 21, 1906. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Circumpolar, some birds migrating into 
the temperate zone in winter, in Europe occasionally as far south as 
France, Switzerland, Caspian and Black Seas. 

* Linnseus's name scandiaca cannot be accepted, because he referred to 
an owl with long ears, and thus could not have meant the Snowy Owl. E.H. 



219. Surnia ulula ulula (L.) THE EUROPEAN HAWK-OWL. 

STRIX ULULA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 93 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Surnia funerea (Linnaeus), Yarrell, i, p. 183 (part) ; Saunders, p. 305 


DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. One Unst (Shetlands) winter 1860-1 , 
probably this form. One Amesbury (Wilts.), prior to 1876. One 
Aberdeen., Nov., 1898 (Saunders, pp. 305, 756). One Northants., 
Oct. 19, 1903, not definitely assigned to either form (J. H. Gurney, 
ZooL, 1904, p. 214). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Northern parts of Old World, casual 
Alaska, in winter vagrant and slightly more to south. Replaced 
by allied forms in North America (S. ulula caparoch) and in parts 
of Asia. 

220. Surnia ulula caparoch (Miiller) THE AMERICAN 

STRIX CAPAROCH P.L.S. Miiller, Natursystem, Suppl., p. 69 (1776 
Ex Edwards " Europa " by mistake ! Typical locality : Hudson Bay). 
Surnia funerea (Linnaeus), Yarrell, i, p. 183 (part) ; Saunders, p. 305 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Four. One off Cornwall, March, 
1830. One Yalton (Somerset), Aug., 1847. One near Glasgow 
(Renfrew), Dec., 1863. One near Greenock (Renfrew), Nov., 1868 
(Saunders, p. 305). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Northern North America, in winter in 
small numbers as far south as Washington, Nebraska, Indiana, 
Ohio, New York, Massachusetts, and Maine. 


221. ^Egolius tengmalmi tengmalmi (Gm.)* TENGMALM'S 

STRIX TENGMALMI Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, i, p. 291 (1788 Sweden). 
Nyctala tengmalmi (J. F. Gmelin), Yarrell, i, p. 154 ; Saunders, p. 299. 

* In the A.O.U. Checklist, ed. in, p. 171, Tengmalm's Owl is called 
Cryptoglaux funerea funerea. Nyctala Brehm, 1828, is a nomen nudum, 
therefore rightly rejected. dSgolius Kaup, 1829, has been rejected on account 
of ^Egolia Billberg, 1828, but this is contrary to the International Rules of 
Zoological Nomenclature. With regard to the specific name, we cannot 
accept funerea L. (which was principally based on a figure of Billberg repre- 
senting Tengmalm's Owl), for its author says that it has the size of a 
Crow, while Tengmalm's Owl is about half that size. Moreover, Linnaeus 
quoted as a doubtful synonym a figure of the Short-eared Owl. E.H. 


DISTRIBUTION. England. Rare vagrant. About twenty authentic 
records chiefly in Yorks. (twelve), Northumberland, Norfolk, and 
Suffolk, also one or two so far south as Kent and Somerset, Salop 
(one), Northants. (one), Lanes, (one), Cumberland (one). (In Oct. 
and Nov., 1901, it occurred in Suffolk (two), Norfolk, Yorks. and 
Shetlands.) Scotland. Tour. Cramond Is. (Forth) Dec., 1860. 
Peterhead (Aberdeen), Feb., 1886. Shetlands, Nov., 1901, and 
January, 1908 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. North Europe, mountain-forests of cen- 
tral and east Europe, Siberia ; in winter and autumn, vagrant. 
Replaced by allied forms in north-east Siberia, Caucasus, and North 


222. Athene noctua noctua (Scop.) THE LITTLE OWL. 

STRIX NOCTUA Scopoli, Annus i, Historico-Xat., p. 22 (1772 Carniola ; 
description bad, perhaps doubtful, but Retzius, Faun. Suec., p. 84, 1800, 
gave a clear description of the Little Owl, adopting the same name). 
Carine noctua (Scopoli), Yarrell, I, p. 178 ; Athene noctua (Scopoli), 
Saunders, p. 301. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Now resident as an introduced 
bird. About twenty early recorded examples may have been 
genuine vagrants, but since Waterton turned out five in Yorks. in 
1843, large numbers have been introduced, notably by Lord Lilford 
at Oundle, Northants., some years previous to 1889, and by Mr. 
E. G. B. Meade-Waldo near Edenbridge, Kent, about 1874. From 
Oundle they have spread greatly and now breed in Northants., 
Leicester, south Derby , Rutland, Lines, (probably Yorks.), Hunts., 
Cambs., Beds., Herts., and Berks., and have occurred in Staffs., 
Salop, Warwick, Worcester., Hereford., Gloucester., Oxon., Wilts., 
Essex, Suffolk, Norfolk, Notts. From Edenbridge they have spread 
and breed through west half Kent and much of Sussex and Surrey, 
while a record of breeding at Portsmouth may be due to this intro- 
duction. Examples recorded from Anglesey, Ireland, and Scotland 
were probably escapes. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe from North Sea (once in South 
Sweden) to Mediterranean. Replaced by allied forms in north Africa 
and parts of west Asia. 

* The generic name Athene has been rejected on account of the previous 
Athena of Hiibner for a genus of moths ; but no explanation of the meanings 
of either name being given, both may stand. Otherwise Carine would have 
to be adopted. E.H. 



223. Bubo bubo bubo (L.) THE EAGLE-OWL. 

STRIX BUBO Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 92 (1758 Europe. Restricted 

typical locality : Sweden). 

Bubo ignavus T. Forster, Yarrell, i, p. 168 ; Saunders, p. 309. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Very rare vagrant. Being fre- 
quently kept in captivity, suspicion rests upon a good many recorded 
occurrences. Specimens have been taken in Yorks., Lines., Oxon., 
Derby, Salop, Sussex, Hants., Wilts., Shetlands, Orkneys, and 
Argyll., and a good many others recorded as seen. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe from Scandinavia and north 
Russia to Mediterranean. According to Loche in Algerian Atlas. 
Replaced by more or less different races in Spain, south-east Europe, 
Asia Minor, Turkestan, Siberia and other parts of Asia to Japan 
and north Africa. 


224. Asio otus otus (L.) THE LONG-EARED OWL. 

STRIX OTUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 92 (1758 Europe. Re- 
stricted typical locality : Sweden). 
Asio otus (Linnaeus), Yarrell, i, p. 158 ; Saunders, p. 293. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Generally distributed in 
wooded localities, but rather local. To 0. Hebrides and Shetlands 
uncommon migrant. On east coast Great Britain noted in limited 
numbers as migrant in late autumn. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe and north Asia, also north-west 
Africa. Replaced by allied races on some Canary Islands and in 
North America. 


225. Asio flammeus flammeus (Pontoppidan) THE SHORT- 

STRIX FLAMMEA Pontoppidan, Danske Atlas, i, p. 617, pi. xxv (1763 


Asio brachyotus MacGillivray, Hist. Brit. B., in, p. 461. 

Asio accipitrinus (Pallas), Yarrell, i, p. 163 ; Saunders, p. 295. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident and winter-visitor 
Oct. and Nov. to April and May). In England and Wales nests 

* Pontoppidan clearly figured the Short-eared Owl and named it Strix 
flammea in 1763. Afterwards Linnaeus, in 1766, published a very short 
description of an owl, which he also called Strix flammea. This latter was 
partly based on a picture by Rudbeck, which represents the Short-eared Owl, 
partly on descriptions of the Barn-Owl. Evidently Linnaeus did not know 
these Owls himself. E.H. 


occasionally in many counties but doubtfully regularly anywhere 
south of Lanes, and Yorks. Northwards and throughout Scotland 
nests locally and sparingly, but in Shetlands rarely and in I. Hebrides 
infrequently. Not known to nest in Ireland. As winter- visit or 
fairly generally distributed, and both as breeder and migrant 
numbers fluctuate considerably, and are greatly augmented in years 
of vole-plague, e.g. 1874-6 and 1891-3 in south Scotland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Nearly cosmopolitan, but absent in 
Europe as a breeding-species from Spain. If no other races can be 
separated (which is by no means settled) certainly that inhabiting 
Hawaii is different, but Russian authors separate also a pale Asiatic 


226. Otus scops scops (L.) THE SCOPS-OWL. 

STRIX SCOPS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 92 (1758 Europe. Re- 
stricted typical locality : Italy). 
Scops giu (Scopoli), Yarrell, i, p. 173 ; Saunders, p. 307. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Rare vagrant. England. Cornwall 
(2), Wilts., Hants. (4), Kent (4 or 5), Berks., Bucks., Middlesex, 
Essex, Norfolk (5) ; Northants., Yorks. (about 5), Cheshire, Lanes., 
Cumberland (2). Wales. Pembroke. Scotland. Fife, Perth. (2), 
Aberdeen (2), Sutherland, Orkneys, Shetlands (3). Ireland. Nine 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe from south Germany to Mediter- 
ranean, north Africa. Replaced by other races in Cyprus, parts of 
Asia and Africa. Palsearctic forms and their distribution not yet 
sufficiently known. 


227. Tyto alba alba (Scop.) THE WHITE-BREASTED 

STRIX ALBA Scopoli, Annus i, Historic -Natur. , p. 21 (1769 Friuli, 
in N. Italy). 

Aluco ftammeus (Linnaeus) (nee Pontoppidan), Yarrell, i, p. 194 (part) ; 
Strix ftammea Linnaeus (nee Pontoppidan), Saunders, p. 291 (part). 

* The generic name Otus Pennant, 1769, antedates Scops of Savigny. 

f It has already been explained, under the Short-eared Owl, that the name 
Strix ftammea belongs to the latter, and cannot be used for the Barn-Owl. 
The first name of the latter is Strix alba Scopoli 1769. The type of the 
generic Strix is, by tautonomy, Strix strix, the Brown Owl, and the first generic 
term for the Barn-Owl is Tyto, Billberg, 1828. E.H. 


DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Generally distributed but 
not abundant, and scarcer, especially in Scotland, than formerly. 
Breeds very rarely in north-west and only rare vagrant to north-east 
Scotland ; no certain record of its occurrence in Orkneys, Shetlands 
or O. Hebrides, but one heard in latter by P. H. Bahr, June, 1907. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. West France, Portugal and Spain, south 
Europe generally, north-west Africa. Replaced by allied forms in 
central Europe and various parts of Africa, Asia, Australia, and 

228. Tyto alba guttata (Brehm) THE DARK-BREASTED 

STRIX GUTTATA Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. DeutschL, p. 106 (1831 
In winter in Germany). 

Aluco flammeus (Linnaeus) (nee Pontopiddan), Yarrell, I, p. 194 (part) ; 
Strix flammea Linnaeus (nee Pontopiddan), Saunders, p. 291 (part). 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Vagrant or irregular migrant. Very 
few occurrence? can unhesitatingly be ascribed to this form : at 
least eight in ; us.?ex (Sept., Oct., Nov., Feb.), one in Kent, two 
certainly Norfolk (Dec. and Jan.) and others probably (as in Aug. 
and early Sept., 1901, when forty Barn-Owls were brought to a 
Norwich taxidermist), one certainly Yorks. (Dec.) and others 
probably (Oct. and Nov.), one no doubt Northumberland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. South Sweden, Denmark, Germany to 
east France (where and even on the Rhine the ranges of this form 
and T. alba alba overlap), south to Alps, Austria and Hungary. 


229. Strix aluco aluco L. THE TAWNY OWL. 

STRIX ALUCO Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 93 (1758 Europe. Re- 
stricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Strix aluco Linnaeus, Yarrell, I, p. 146 ; Syrnium aluco (Linnaeus), Saunders, 
p. 297. 

DISTRIBUTION Great Britain. Resident. Generally distributed 
but becoming uncommon in Sutherland and very rare Caithness ; 
very doubtful if ever occurred Orkneys or Shetlands, and has cer- 
tainly not 0. Hebrides or Ireland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe generally, to forest-limit, east 
to Caucasus, Palestine, and north Persia. Replaced in south-west 
Persia and north-west Africa by closely-allied subspecies. 



230. Falco rusticolus rusticolus L. THE GYR-FALCON. 

FALCO RUSTICOLUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 88 (1758 Sweden. 

cf. Fauna Suecica, ed. n, p. 56). 

Falco gyrfalco Linnaeus, Saunders, p. 345. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Very rare vagrant. Two admitted by 
Saunders : Adult, Mayfield (Sussex), Jan., 1845 and young, Orford 
(Suffolk), Oct., 1867. One Hatfield Broad Oak (Essex), Dec., 1901, 
and another Thetford Warren (Norfolk) spring, 1883, doubtfully 
authentic (Brit. B., i, p. 321). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. North Scandinavia and Lapland ; stray- 
ing occasionally to Baltic Provinces, Poland, Germany, Denmark, 
Heligoland, Belgium, and Holland. Said to have occurred in 
Iceland and North America. 

231. Falco rusticolus islandus Brunn. THE ICELAND 

FALCO ISLANDUS Brunnich, Orn. Bor., p. 2 (1764 partim, No. 9 only. 
Briinnich doubtfully united the white and grey falcons, stating that the 
various varieties were brought to Denmark by the Icelanders. From 
Kerr 1792 onwards islandus has generally been restricted to the grey- 
backed Iceland form). 
Falco islandus J. F. Gmelin, Yarrell, i, p. 46 (part) ; Saunders, p. 343. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Rare vagrant. Identified examples 
obtained from time to time (generally in winter) in Northumberland, 
Westmorland, Yorks., Salop, Scilly Isles, and possibly Lines. ; in 
Shetlands, Orkneys, 0. and I. Hebrides, and several localities Scottish 
mainland. Four times in north and west Ireland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Appears to be the only form breeding in 
Iceland, whence it strays very rarely southwards. 

232. Falco rusticolus candicans Gm. THE GREENLAND 

FALCO CANDICANS Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, p. 275 (1788 "Habitat in 
Islandia et Scotia boreali " ! As Gmelin distinguished between the 
white candicans and the dark islandus, the former name has generally 
been restricted to the Greenland form, though Gmelin did not know its 
real habitat). 
Falco candicans J. F. Gmelin, Yarrell, i, p. 36 ; Saunders, p. 341. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Irregular winter and spring- visitor, 
chiefly Scotland (especially islands) and Ireland (especially north 

* It seems impossible to avoid this name, for gyrfalco is undoubtedly a 
synonym, both names referring to Swedish birds in various plumages. E.H. 


and west coasts), occasionally north England, and elsewhere very 
rarely, viz. : Denbigh, Brecon, Pembroke, Norfolk, Suffolk, Sussex, 
Devon and Lundy Island, Cornwall and Scilly Isles. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in Greenland and arctic North 
America, west to Commander Islands, straying casually to western 
Europe (Faeroes, north France, Germany, not so rarely to Iceland). 
Apparently represented by other forms in the Ural and parts of 
north Asia, and possibly south of Hudson's Bay. 


233. Falco peregrinus peregrinus Tunst. THE PEREGRINE 

FALCO PEREGRINUS Tunstall, Ornithologia Britannica, p. 1 (1771 

Ex Brit. Zool., p. 136 Great Britain). 

Falco peregrinus britannicus Erlanger, Journ. f. Orn., 1903, p. 296 


Falco peregrinus J. F. Gmelin, Yarrell, i, p. 53 ; Saunders, p. 347. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident and passage -migrant. In 
south England confined as breeding-bird to cliffs of south and south- 
west coasts, but in Wales, north England, Scotland (mainland and 
islands) and Ireland much more common and breeds both sea-cliffs 
and inland rocks. In autumn northerly-bred birds pass through 
Great Britain on migration, while in winter our residents are fre- 
quently observed inland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. North and central Europe. Represented 
by allied forms in the Mediterranean countries, north -w r est Africa, 
various parts of Asia, Australia, and America. 

234. Falco peregrinus anatum Bp. THE NORTH AMERICAN 

FALCO ANATUM Bonaparte, Geogr. & Comp. List, p. 4 (1838 New Jersey). 
Falco peregrinus, E. Bidwell, Bull. B.O.C., xxvii, p. 103 ; cf. Brit. B., 
v, p. 219. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Two. One shot Newbold Verdon near 
Market Bosworth (Leicester), Oct. 31, 1891 (ut supra}. One netted 
Humberstone (Lines.), Sept. 28, 1910 (G. H. Caton-Haigh, Brit. B., 
v, p. 219). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds over greater part of North 
America (but replaced in north-west coast region by a very closely- 
allied race, Falco peregrinus pealei] from Norton Sound in Alaska, 
northern Mackenzie, Boothia Peninsula, and west Greenland to 
Lower California, Arizona, Texas, south Carolina, and winters from 


southern British Columbia to West Indies, Panama, and South 


235. Falco subbuteo subbuteo L. THE HOBBY. 

FALCO SUBBUTEO Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 89 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Falco subbuteo Linnaeus, Yarrell, i, p. 65 ; Saunders, p. 349. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Summer-resident (May to Sept., occa- 
sionally later). Breeds fairly regularly in counties south of Thames 
and as far west as Devon (rare migrant Cornwall) and in Salop, 
Northants, and Gloucester ; less regularly in counties on north side 
of Thames and in Cambs., Suffolk, Norfolk, and Lines. ; only very 
occasionally in midlands and exceptionally in Derby., Cheshire, and 
Yorks. Wales, Scotland, and Ireland. Kare vagrant. In Scotland 
once bred (Perth., 1887), and has occurred as far north as Shetlands, 
but chiefly in south. In Ireland has occurred ten times, chiefly in 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe generally, eastwards to west 
Asia, in winter in Africa and north-west India. Represented by 
closely-allied races in north-west Africa and various parts of Asia. 


236. Falco regulus regulus Pall. THE MERLIN. 

FALCO REGULUS Pallas, Reise d. versch. Prov. d. Russ. Reichs, n, p. 707 
(1773 Siberia). 

Falco cesalon Gmelin, Yarrell, i, p. 74 ; F. cesalon Tunstall, Saunders, 
p. 351. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Breeds in many parts 
Wales, Pennine Range and spurs, moors of north-east Yorks., 
Cheviots, and throughout Scotland and Ireland in suitable localities. 
Said to have bred Exmoor (Somerset). In autumn descends to low 
ground and in winter becomes fairly generally distributed. Probably 
also a passage of Continental birds. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Nesting in Faeroes, Iceland, Scandinavia, 
north Russia south to Baltic provinces, and in Siberia. On 
migration to temperate parts of Europe and Asia, as far south as 
north Africa and north-west India. A paler form is supposed to 
represent this bird in the Khirgiz steppes. 

* Falco cesalon Tunstall is a nomen nudum, and therefore not acceptable. 
In the case of F. peregrinits the author gave a clear reference, in this case 
absolutely none. E.H. 



237. Falco tinnunculus tinnunculus L. THE KESTREL. 

FALCO TINNUNCULUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 90 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Falco tinnunculus Linnaeus, Yarrell, I, p. 78 ; Saunders, p. 355. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Generally distributed, 
but leaves Shet lands for winter, and much rarer then in other parts 
of north Scotland as well as in north and east Ireland. In England 
numbers are swelled in winter by immigrants, and passage-movements 
are noted on east coast. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe, north Africa, north, central and 
west Asia, in winter more southwards to east Africa and parts of 
India. The minute study of the races of the Kestrel remains to be 
done, but clearly-defined subspecies represent the European form 
on Madeira, the Canary and Cape Verde Islands, in north-east and 
east Africa, Japan, India, and many islands in the Eastern Archi- 


238. Falco naumanni naumanni Fleisch. THE LESSER 

FALCO XAUMANNI Fleischer, Sylvan Jahrbuch auf 1817 und 1818, p. 174 

(1818 Visitor to S. Germany and Switzerland). 

Falco cenchris, Yarrell, i, p. 82 (in text) ; Saunders, p. 357. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Very rare vagrant. Eight times 
England Yorks., Nov., 1867; April, 1892; Oct., 1909. Kent, 
May, 1877. Scilly Isles, March, 1891. Isle of Wight, Nov., 1895 ; 
April, 1903. Sussex, May, 1896. Once Scotland (Aberdeen., Oct., 
1897). Once Ireland (Dublin, Feb., 1891). Chiefly adult males. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Mediterranean countries generally, stray- 
ing into Savoy and Germany, breeding as far north as southern 
Poland, east to Bokhara, in winter in tropical Africa. Replaced in 
China by an allied subspecies. 


239. Falco vespertinus vespertinus L. THE RED-FOOTED 

FALCO VESPERTINUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. xn, i, p. 129 (1766 

" Ingria," i.e. province of St. Petersburg). 

Falco vespertinus Linnaeus, Yarrell, i, p. 69 ; Saunders, p. 353. 

* This name, correctly employed by Sharpe in the Cat. B. Brit. M-us., i, 
1874, as well as the names tinnunculoides and xanthonyx, antedate cenchris. 


DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Rare vagrant. About thirty-five 
England, chiefly south and east, but also Cornwall, Salop, Cheshire, 
Lanes. Two Wales (Pembroke and Denbigh). Four Scotland 
(Aberdeen (two), Fife, and Roxburgh). One Ireland (Wicklow). 
Most spring and summer, a few autumn, and exceptionally winter. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in Russia and west Siberia as far 
east as the Altai, and in Hungary and the plains of the Lower Danube ; 
migrates in winter to Africa. Replaced by a paler form in east 
Siberia (which winters in the eastern parts of India), and by others 
in central Asia, and China. 


240. Aquila chrysaetus chrysaetus (L.) THE GOLDEN 

FALCO CHRYSAETOS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 88 (1758 Europe. 
Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Aquila chrysaetus (Linnaeus), Yarrell, i, p. 11 ; Aquila chrysaetus (L), 
Saunders, p. 327. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Very rare vagrant. Occa- 
sionally Yorks. and northwards, but southwards authentic examples 
procured only in Sussex, Norfolk, Lines., and Northants. Formerly 
resident Wales, Derby, (about 200 years ago), Lake District, and 
Cheviots (about 100 years ago). Scotland. Resident in Highlands 
and I. and O. Hebrides, formerly Orkneys, but unknown Shetlands. 
To Lowlands very scarce winter- visitor, but formerly bred in south- 
west (about 60 jrears ago). Ireland. Resident (probably only 
in two counties), formerly much more common. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Northern parts of Northern Hemisphere, 
south to north Africa and the Himalayas, in North America to Texas 
and North Carolina. Appears to be replaced by other races at least 
in parts of central Asia. 


241. Aquila maculata (Gm.)* THE SPOTTED EAGLE. 

FALCO MACULATUS Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, p. 258 (1788 No locality, but 
doubtless Europe). 

Aquila ncevia (J. F. Gmelin), Yarrell, i, p. 20 ; Aquila maculata (J. F. 
Gmelin), Saunders, p. 325. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Ireland. Very rare vagrant. Eight 
or nine England. Cornwall, Dec., 1860 ; Nov., 1861. Hants., 

* We have not been able to examine any of the specimens, but Saunders 
states that it is chiefly, if not entirely, the larger species which has visited us. 
It is important that all the specimens should be critically examined. 


Dec., 1861. Lanes., 1875. Northumberland, Oct., 1885. Essex 
Oct. and Nov., 1891. Suffolk, Nov., 1891 (one shot and one seen). 
Ireland. Two near Youghal (Cork), Jan., 1845. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. From shores of Baltic (Livland) east to 
Turkestan, south Siberia, north India, and China, and south to 
Balkan Peninsula and Palestine. On migration to north-east Africa, 
and India to Burmah, casual in west and south Europe. 


242. Buteo lagopus lagopus (Briinn.) THE ROUGH-LEGGED 

FALCO LAGOPUS Brunnich, Orn. Bor., p. 4 (1764 Christiansoe near 

Bornholm, Baltic). 

Buteo lagopus (J. F. Gmelin), Yarrell, I, p. 115 ; Saunders, p. 323. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Irregular winter -visit or (Oct. to 
March and April), occurring most years east coast Scotland and 
England as far south as Norfolk, and at intervals in considerable 
numbers, as in winters 1875-6, 1880-1, 1891-2, 1903-4. Also 
fairly frequent along Pennine Chain, rarer in south-east England, 
and only occasional vagrant elsewhere, being especially rare on west 
side. In O. Hebrides once. Ireland. Seventeen, most frequently 
in Ulster. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. North Europe and north Asia, very 
exceptionally breeding as far south as Germany. In winter vagrant 
and partially migrant, now and then reaching Pyrenees, Mediter- 
ranean regions, Caspian and Black Sea. Replaced by other sub- 
species in North America and parts of Asia. 


243. Buteo buteo buteo (L.) THE COMMON BUZZARD. 

FALCO BUTEO Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 90 (1758 Europe). 
Buteo vulgaris Leach, Yarrell, I, p. 109 ; Saunders, p. 321. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Resident, breeding commonly 
in Wales, Devonian peninsula and Lakeland (as well as very 
sparingly in Pennines), and in central and west Scotland including 
0. Hebrides ; only exceptionally elsewhere. On east coast irregular 
migrant, but elsewhere only occasional visitor, although numerous 
in some winters ; occurrence at any time in Shetlands doubtful, and 

* It is not advisable to separate Buteo and Archibuteo, because some Asiatic 
species are intermediate and vary very much with regard to the feathering 
of the tarsus the only difference in these supposed genera. E.H. 

i 2 


only once 0. Hebrides (Lewis). Ireland. Exterminated as resident 
probably between 1880 and 1890, now only autumn to spring 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe from about lat. 66 in Sweden, 
but local and rare in south-east Europe. Replaced by other races 
in most parts of Russia, and parts of Asia, also in the Atlantic isles. 

[NOTE. Examples of Buteo buteo desertorum (Daud.) are said to have 
occurred in Wilts, and near Newcastle, while the occurrence of the American 
Buzzards, Buteo lineatus lineatus (Gm.) in Scotland (Yarrell, i, p. 113 ; 
Saunders, p. 322) and Buteo borealis borealis (Gm.) in Notts. (Saunders, 
p. 322) has been recorded.] 


244. HaliaStus albicilla (L.) THE WHITE-TAILED 

FALCO ALBICILLA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 89 (1758 " Habitat 

in Europa, America." The latter erroneous. Restricted typical locality : 


Haliceetus albicilla (Linnaeus), Yarrell, i, p. 25 ; Haliaetus albicilla (L), 

Saunders, p. 329. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident in a few places in 0. 
Hebrides and Shetlands. Elsewhere exterminated as breeding 
species ; nowhere known now in Ireland (Brit. B., v, p. 138). 
Irregular migrant to most maritime counties and rare vagrant 
inland, such visitors being usually immature. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Northern parts of Europe to Mediter- 
ranean, but scarce in west (in winter to north Egypt) and Asia, also 


245. Circus seruginosus (L.) THE MARSH-HARRIER. 

FALCO ^ERUGINOSUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 91 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Circus ceruginosus (Linnseus), Yarrell, i, p. 127 ; Saunders, p. 315. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Attempts to breed most 
years in Norfolk but elsewhere now only rare autumn and winter- 
vagrant. Scotland. Rare vagrant. Has occurred several times in 
Solway area, but elsewhere only some eight recorded. Ireland. 
Still lingers on some midland and western tracts of bog. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Nesting in Europe, Marocco, and north 
Asia ; in winter in parts of Africa and India. 



246. Circus pygargus (L.) MONTAGU'S HARRIER. 

FALCO PYGARGUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. x, i, p. 89] (1758 Europe. 

Ex Albin. Typical locality : England). 

Circus cineraceus (Montagu), Yarrell, I, p. 138 ; Saunders, p. 319. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Summer-resident (April to 
Oct., sometimes Nov.). Nests (or attempts to) annually East Anglia 
and occasionally elsewhere, as in Cornwall, Devon, Somerset, Hants., 
Isle of Wight, Dorset., Cambs., Sussex, Surrey, Yorks. and Merioneth, 
and possibly Notts, and Northumberland in recent years. Scotland. 
Rare vagrant ; about seven in southern half of mainland, one of 
which (June 15, 1881) may possibly have nested in Solway area. 
Ireland. Rare vagrant. One Queen's co., eleven in or near co. 
Wicklow, where may possibly sometimes breed. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Temperate portions of Europe and Asia, 
also north-west Africa. In winter in Africa and India. 


247. Circus cyaneus (L.) THE HEN-HARRIER. 

FALCO CYANEUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. xn, i, p. 126 (1766 Ex Edwards. 

Typical locality : near London). 

Circus cyaneus (Linnaeus), Yarrell, i, p. 132 ; Saunders, p. 317. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident and winter-visitor. As 
breeder now practically confined to Orkneys, O. Hebrides and some 
mountain districts of Ireland. In England and Wales has nested 
in recent years Cornwall, Hants., and Carnarvon, and possibly Devon, 
but otherwise only a winter-visitor. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. North and central Europe to north Italy, 
north Asia, in winter in north India, and Africa as far as the Sahara, 
Nubia and, apparently, Abyssinia. The existence of other races is 
not yet a settled question. 


248. Accipiter gentilis gentilis (L.) THE GOSHAWK. 

FALCO GENTILIS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 89 (1758 "Habitat 
in Alpibus," by which, however, the Scandinavian Alps are meant in 
the first instance, as is quite clear from other statements of Linnaeus). 
Astur palumbarius (Linnaeus), Yarrell, I, p. 83 ; Saunders, p. 331. 

* Linnaeus based the name pygargus on Albin's unmistakable figure of an 
English bird, and it must therefore be accepted, as it has just half a century's 
priority over Montagu's name. E.H. 

f Goshaw r ks and Sparrow-Hawks cannot be separated generically. Linnaeus 
described the Goshawk twice, thinking the young and old were two different 
species, and the name gentilis, standing first, must be and has recently been 
largely accepted. E .H. 


DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Rare vagrant. Most recorded ex- 
amples immature from east coasts England and Scotland ; elsewhere 
and especially in west, extremely rare. One 0. Hebrides winter 
1887-8, but authenticity of three recorded in Ireland doubtful (R. J. 
Ussher, List of Irish Birds, p. 28). Nest, probably of wild bird, with 
four eggs found and female shot near Grosmont (Yorks.) May, 1893 
(Brit. B., i, p. 319). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe generally, but replaced by allied 
races in various parts of northern Asia, apparently in Sardinia, and 
in North America. 

[NOTE. Specimens of the AMERICAN GOSHAWK, Accipiter gentilis atrica- 
pillus (Wilson), are said to have been obtained in Perthshire, Tipperary, and 
King's co. (Yarrell, i, p. 87 ; Saunders., p. 322).] 


249. Accipiter nisus nisus (L.) THE SPARROW-HAWK. 

FALCO Nisus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 92 (1758 "Habitat in 

Europa." Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Accipiter nisus (Linnaeus), Yarrell, i, p. 88 ; Saunders, p. 333. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Generally distributed 
where there are woodlands. Very doubtful if ever occurred O. 
Hebrides or Shetlands, and is rare Orkneys and extreme north and 
north-west Scotland. Frequently observed as autumn migrant on 
east coast Great Britain. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe generally, east apparently to 
west Siberia, but replaced by very closely-allied subspecies in 
Madeira and Canary Islands, north-west Africa, Corsica and Sardinia, 
and by better defined ones in various parts of Asia. 


250. Milvus milvus (I..) THE KITE. 

FALCO MILVUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 89 (1758 Europe, Asia, 

Africa. Restricted typical locality : S. Sweden). 

Milvus regalis, Seebohm, Hist. Brit. B., i, p. 74. 

Milvus ictinus (Savigny), Yarrell, i, p. 92 ; Saunders. p. 335. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Resident. Formerly abundant, 
now confined to Wales, where only five birds known in 1905, but 
over twenty in 1910. Now very rare vagrant elsewhere. Recorded 
occurrences in Ireland cannot be substantiated (R. J. Ussher, List of 
Irish Birds, p. 28). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. From south Sweden throughout Europe, 
east to Russia ; north-west Africa and western Canary Islands. 
North European birds are migratory, but do not seem to cross the 



251. Milvus korschun korschun (Gm.) THE BLACK KITE. 

ACCIPITER KORSCHUN Gmelin, Nov. Comm. Petr., xv, p. 444 (1771 

S. Russian Steppes). 

Milvus ater, Seebohm, Hist. Brit. B., i, p. 80. 

Milvus migrans (Boddaert), Yarrell, I, p. 97 : Saunders, p. 337. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Two. Adult male Alnwick (Nor- 
thumberland), May 11, 1866 (Hancock, Ibis, 1867, p. 253). Male 
Aberdeen, April 16, or 18, 1901 (G. Sim, Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist., 1901, 
p. 133; cf. Brit. B., n, p. 413). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. South and central Europe, north-west 
Africa, and west Asia. European birds are migratory and winter in 
tropical Africa. Replaced by other forms in tropical and north-east 
Africa and various parts of Asia. 

[NOTE. The BLACK-WINGED KITE, Elanus cceruleus (Desfontaines), is said 
to have been shot in co. Meath about 1862 (Saunders, p. 338).] 

[NOTE. Several specimens of the AMERICAN SWALLOW -TAILED KITE, 
Elanoides forficatus (L.), which inhabits North and South America, have been 
recorded as taken in Great Britain, but the claims for the admission of this 
species are in our opinion insufficient (cf. Saunders, p. 338).] 


252. Pernis apivorus apivorus (L.) THE HONEY-BUZZARD. 

FALCO APIVORUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 91 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Pernis apivorus (Linnseus), Yarrell, i, p. 121 ; Saunders, p. 339. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Uncommon passage-migrant (May- 
June and Sept. -Oct.). Occurs somewhere in Great Britain 
almost every year, and occasionally in eastern half of Ireland, most 
frequently in autumn. Formerly rare summer-resident in England, 
now only very occasionally nests, most recent cases being Hereford, 
1895, Northumberland, 1897, and Durham, 1899, and probably 
elsewhere unrecorded. Has bred as far north as east Ross. 
DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in north and middle Europe, 
north to mid-Scandinavia and Finland, south to Cantabrian Moun- 
tains, north Italy and the Dobrudscha, eastwards to west Siberia, 
winters in tropical Africa and parts of India. Replaced by allied 
races in east Siberia and parts of tropical Asia. 


253. Pandion haliaetus haliaetus (L.) THE OSPREY. 

FALCO HALIJETUS Linnseus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 91 (1758 Europe. 
Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Pandion haliceetus (Linnseus), Yarrell, i, p. 30 ; Pandion haliaetus (L.), 
Saunders, p. 359. 

*The name korschun, having considerable priority, is now universally 
accepted. E.H. 


DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Possibly still resident, and rare 
passage-migrant. Until recently summer-resident in several places 
in Highlands, now possibly only nests in one locality, but Loch 
Arkaig was deserted in 1911 and Loch an Eilein in 1903. In England 
fairly regular passage-migrant (Sept. -Oct. and March-April), oc- 
curring in most years on some part or other of coasts or on inland 
waters ; migrants also recorded occasionally in Scotland (only once 
0. Hebrides and very rarely Orkneys), Wales, and Ireland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe from Lapland to Spain, Mediter- 
ranean and Atlantic islands, south to Cape Verdes, north-west and 
north-east Africa to south Arabia, north Asia south to India and 
Ceylon, in winter in tropical Africa. Replaced by closely-allied 
forms in North America, on the Papuan islands, and in Australia. 


254. Gyps fulvus fulvus (Hablizl) THE GRIFFON-VULTURE. 

VULTUR FULVUS Hablizl, Neue Nordische Beytraege, iv, p. 58 (1783 

Mts. of Gilan, N. Persia). 

Gyps fulvus (J. F. Gmelin), Yarrell, i, p. 1 ; Saunders, p. 311. 

DISTRIBUTION. Ireland. One, a young bird caught alive near 
Cork Harbour, spring, 1843. One seen near Southampton Water. 
(ut supra.} 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. South Europe, north to Pyrenees and 
Transylvania and north Africa, extending far into the Sahara, and 
perhaps right across the desert, east to west Asia. Replaced by 
different subspecies in parts of India and Africa, but the supposed 
west European form (6?. fulvus occidentalis Schleg.) appears not to 
be separable. 


255. Neophron percnopterus percnopterus (L.) -- THE 

VULTUR PERENOPTERUS (evident misprint for Percnopterus) Linnaeus, 

Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 87 (1758 Egypt). 

Neophron percnopterus (Linnaeus), Yarrell, i, p. 6 ; Saunders, p. 313. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Two obtained and one seen. Immature 
bird shot (another seen) near Kilve, Bridgwater Bay (Somerset), 
Oct., 1825. Immature bird obtained Peldon (Essex), Sept. 28, 1868 
(ut supra}. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Mediterranean countries, north to Mt. 
Sal eve in Switzerland and the Bukowina, east to north-west India. 
Also in Canaries, Cape Verdes, and almost the whole of Africa. Partly 
migratory. Replaced in India (except in extreme north-west) by 
N. percnopterus ginginianus. 



256. Ciconia ciconia ciconia (L.) THE WHITE STORK. 

ARDEA CICONIA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 142 (1758 Restricted 

typical locality : Sweden). 

Ciconia alba Bechstein, Yarrell, iv, p. 219 ; Saunders, p. 387. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Vagrant. Over thirty East Anglia 
and several others in various parts of southern half of England, but 
very rarely in west, a few Scotland, and three or four Ireland. Most 
in spring. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe from Norway and Sweden to 
Spain and north-west Africa (Marocco, Algeria, Tunisia) and west 
Africa (Gold Coast, according to Boyd Alexander), Asia Minor and 
Palestine, west and central Asia. Migrating southwards in winter 
to central and south Africa (said to have bred, but confirmation is 
necessary), and in India to Ceylon (said to have bred, but confir- 
mation is required). Replaced by an allied race in east Asia. 


257. Ciconia nigra (L.) THE BLACK STORK. 

ARDEA NIGRA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 142 (1758 North Europe). 
Ciconia nigra (Linnaeus), Yarrell, iv, p. 225 ; Saunders, p. 389. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Very rare vagrant. Nineteen recorded ; 
Scilly Isles (2), Devon (1), Somerset (1), Dorset (2), Kent (4), Middle- 
sex (1), Oxon. (1), Essex (1), Suffolk (1), Norfolk (2), Yorks. (2), 
Durham (1). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in Germany, Austria and Hungary, 
south Sweden, Denmark, Russia, east Europe, and in temperate 
Asia. Probably also Spain. Winters in Africa and India. 


258. Platalea leucorodia leucorodia L. THE SPOONBILL. 

PLATALEA LEUCORODIA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 139 (1758 

Europa. Restricted typical locality : S. Sweden). 

Platalea leucorodia Linnaeus, Yarrell, iv, p. 237 ; Saunders, p. 393. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Passage-migrant in Norfolk and 
Kent, vagrant elsewhere. A few visit Norfolk annually April to 
June (once March 31) and Aug. to Oct. (occasionally July and once 
Nov. 21), and Kent every spring. To south coast England and to 
Pembroke and Cardigan (Dovey) fairly frequent vagrant, usually in 
autumn. Inland on west coast (except where mentioned), and 
north of Yorks. (where recorded about nine times) very rare. 
Stragglers as far as Hebrides, Orkneys and Shetlands. In Ireland 


some thirty -seven recorded from maritime counties, chiefly in south. 
Formerly bred East Anglia, Sussex, Middlesex, Pembroke, and 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Very seldom visiting Scandinavia and 
north Russia, but south of 56 north lat. breeding locally in suit- 
able localities (still nesting in Holland, but apparently no longer in 
France), south as far as Spain, Hungary, Dalmatia, the basin of 
Lower Danube and south Russia ; apparently also resident in parts 
of north and east Africa, west and central Asia and India. In winter 
in tropical Africa and India. Represented by allied forms in east 
Asia, tropical Africa, and Australia. 


259. Egatheus falcinellus falcinellus (L.) THE GLOSSY 

TANTALUS FALCINELLUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. xii, i, p. 241 (1766 

" Habitat in Austria, Italia."). 

Plegadis falcinellus (Linnaeus), Yarrell, iv, p. 231 ; Saunders, p. 391. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Autumn-visitor, very rare in spring. 
Occurs almost every autumn (Aug. -Nov.) somewhere, but most 
frequently on south or east (as far north as Yorks.) coasts of England. 
Very rare inland and north of Bristol Channel on west side and north 
of Yorks. on east side. In Scotland some twenty recorded besides 
flock of about twenty Orkneys, Sept. 1907. In Ireland over forty 
recorded in autumn and more than half from south maritime 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Occasional visitor to Iceland, the Faeroes, 
Scandinavia, Denmark, and the Baltic provinces, but nesting in valley 
of Danube, in south Russia, and in west Europe only in the Camargue, 
Andalucia, Balearic Isles and Sicily, east to central Asia and India, 
and in Africa and the south-eastern United States of America. 
Northern birds are migratory, wintering in tropical and southern 
Africa, tropical Asia and casually even Australia. Replaced by a 
closely-allied form in America from south Oregon, Arizona, Texas, 
and Florida to Chile and Patagonia. 


260. Ardea cinerea L. THE COMMON HERON. 

ARDEA CINEREA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 143 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Ardea cinerea Linnseus, Yarrell, iv, p. 162 ; Saunders, p. 367. 

* cf. Nov. Zool., 1910, p. 499. The name Egatheus has one year's priority 
over Plegadis. E.H. 


DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Generally distributed. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. The greater part of Europe and Asia south 
of 60 north lat. (occasional straggler to Greenland and Iceland), 
also parts of tropical India, and apparently Africa, south to Cape 
Colony and Orange River Colony. East Asiatic birds are apparently 
slightly different, but their differences require confirmation. 


261. Ardea purpurea purpurea L. THE PURPLE HERON. 

ARDEA PURPUREA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. xn, i, p. 236 (1766 "Habitat 

in Orients "). 

Ardea purpurea Linnaeus, Yarrell, iv, p. 172 ; Saunders, p. 369. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Rare vagrant. Over fifty, chiefly 
east coast England south of Wash, more rarely south coast, and very 
rarely elsewhere. In Scotland there seem only two authentic (East 
Lothian, Oct., 1892 ; Caithness, Sept., 1907). In Ireland only one 
(Monaghan, prior to 1834). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds locally from Holland, France, 
Austria, Hungary, south Russia to north Africa ; more or less 
migratory in Europe, but resident and winter- visitor in many parts 
of tropical and south Africa, extending eastwards to Persian Gulf 
and west central Asia. Replaced by another form in India, China, 
and Malayan Archipelago. 


262. Egretta alba alba (L.) THE GREAT WHITE HERON. 

ARDEA ALBA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 144 (1758 Europe. Re- 
stricted typical locality : Sweden). 
Ardea alba Linnaeus, Yarrell, iv, p. 177 ; Saunders, p. 371. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Very rare vagrant. About seven 
authentic three Yorks., one Cambs., one Notts., one East Lothian, 
one Perth, (cf. Saunders, p. 371, and Brit. B., i, p. 347). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds (formerly in great numbers) in 
parts of south-east Europe, in the plains of the Danube and north 
to south Russia, at least once (1863) in Silesia. Seems also to breed 
eastwards as far as east Asia. Northern birds are migrants. The 
distribution and description of allied races are as yet imperfectly 
known, but it seems that the birds from tropical and south Africa, 
as well as those from India, east Asia and the Malayan Archipelago 
to Australia, are separable, and the large American Egret might also 
be looked upon as a representative of E. a Iba alba. 



263. Egretta garzetta garzetta (L.) THE LITTLE EGRET. 

ARDEA GARZETTA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. xii, i, p. 237 (1766 " Habitat 
in Oriente." Ex Brisson, who says " juxta maris littora versatur " !) 
Ardea garzetta Linnseus, Yarrell, iv, p. 182 ; Saunders, p. 373. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Very rare vagrant. Several recorded, 
but Saunders admitted only one Countess Weir, Exe (Devon), 
June 3 ; 1870 as thoroughly authentic. Others recorded from 
Sussex, Northants. (two), and Yorks. may be genuine. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. South Europe, Africa, and southern and 
central Asia generally. In Africa it appears to breed as well as 
winter, most European Egrets being migrants. A straggler in 
central and western Europe. Replaced by closely-allied race in 
Malayan Archipelago, and Moluccas to Australia. 


264. Ardeola ibis ibis (L.) THE BUFF-BACKED HERON. 

ARDEA IBIS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 144 (1758 Egypt). 
Ardea bnbulcus Audouin, Yarrell, iv, p. 187 ; Saunders, p. 375. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. One, immature female, near Kingsbridge 
(Devon), end Oct., 1805 (ut supra}. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. South Europe and Africa, in Asia east- 
wards at least as far as Persia, but represented by A. ibis coromanda 
in the far east, India and the Malayan Archipelago to the Moluccas. 


265. Ardeola ralloides ralloides (Scop.) THE SQUACCO 

ARDEA RALLOIDES Scopoli, Annus i, Historico-Xatur., p. 88 (1769 


Ardea ralloides Scopoli, Yarrell, iv, p. 191 ; Saunders, p. 377. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Rare vagrant. Over sixty. Eng- 
land. Scilly Isles, Cornwall (about 20), Devon, Somerset, Dorset, 
Wilts., Hants., Isle of Wight, Sussex, Surrey, Kent, Suffolk, Norfolk, 
Lines., Northumberland, Cumberland, Notts., Salop. Wales. 
Denbigh, Montgomery, and Brecon. Scotland. Three. Ireland. 
Eight (chiefly south coast). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Mediterranean countries and south 
Russia to Caspian Sea (migratory) and Africa (all the year round 
apparently). Accidental in central Europe. 

* Linnaeus's name is certain and now generally adopted. E.H. 



266. Nycticorax nycticorax nycticorax (L.) THE NIGHT- 

ARDEA NYCTICORAX Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 142 (1758 S. Europe). 
Nycticorax griseus (Linnaeus), Yarrell, iv, p. 195 ; Saunders, p. 379. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Vagrant. England. Many south 
and east coasts as far north as Yorks., a good many inland, but 
few west and north. Chiefly spring and autumn. Only seven or 
eight recorded during last twelve years. Scotland. Four in south, 
one Aberdeen, several Argyll, one 0. Hebrides. Ireland. Twenty- 
four, of which only one is from Connaught . 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. South and central Europe as well as 
nearly whole of Africa and greater part of Asia as far south as the 
Sunda Islands. Migratory in northern parts of its breeding range. 
Represented by closely -allied forms in America. 


267. Ixobrychus minutus (L.) THE LITTLE BITTERN. 

ARDEA MINUTA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. xn, i, p. 240 (1766 Helvetia, 

Aleppo. Restricted typical locality : Switzerland). 

Ardetta niinuta (Linnaeus), Yarrell, iv, p. 200 ; Saunders, p. 381. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Vagrant. England and Wales. 
Recorded nearly every county, most frequently south and east 
counties, rarer Wales and west, and north of Yorks. Probably 
bred Norfolk within last forty years. Scotland. Rare, but has 
occurred as far north as Orkneys and Shetlands, though not 
O. Hebrides. Ireland. About thirty, chiefly south and east and 
only one Connaught. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Central and south Europe, south of about 
60 north lat., east to central Asia, south to Himalayas, Kashmir, 
North-west Provinces of India and Sind ; in winter in Africa, and 
(not common) parts of India. 


268. Botaurus stellaris stellaris (L.) THE BITTERN. 

ARDEA STELLARIS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 144 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Botaurus stellaris (Linnaeus), Yarrell, iv, p. 206 ; Saunders, p. 383. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Winter-visitor chiefly, but often 
also in summer. Used to breed regularly in many places England, 

* The generic name Ixobryclins Billberg, 1828, has priority over Ardetta 
Gray, 1842. (See Journal /ur Ornithologie, 1906, p. 533.) E.H. 


Wales, and Ireland, and in Norfolk even down to 1868, while in 1886 
a young one with down still upon it was found there, and in 1911 
it was proved to breed (E. L. Turner, Brit. B., v, pp. 90-97). To 
Scotland irregular visitor, but has occurred most parts. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Temperate portions of Palsearctic region 
generally, in Europe north to Scandinavia, and migratory, in winter 
in north-west Africa, Mediterranean countries and India. Replaced 
by closely -allied subspecies in America and south Africa. 

269. Botaurus stellaris lentiginosus (Mont.) THE AMERICAN 

ARDEA LENTIGINOSA Montagu, Orn. Diet., Suppl., text and plate (1813 

Piddletovvn in Dorsetshire). 

Botaurus lentiginosus (Montagu), Yarrell, iv, p. 213 ; Saunders, p. 385. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Very rare vagrant. England and 
Wales. About seventeen : Scilly Isles, Cornwall (2), Devon (2), 
Dorset., Hants. (2), Sussex (2), Kent (2), Yorks. (2), Lanes., Anglesey 
and Pembroke. Scotland. Seven : Dumfries. (2), Ayr., Argyll., 
Aberdeen, Elgin, Caithness. Ireland. Fifteen : Munster (6), 
Leinster (6), Ulster (3). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. North and Central America. 

[NOTE. A specimen of the GREEN HERON, Butorides virescens virescens 
(L.), inhabiting eastern North America and wintering from West Indies south- 
wards, is said to have bean shot in Cornwall, Oct., 1889 (Saunders, p. 386).] 


270. Phcenicopterus roseus Pall. THE FLAMINGO. 

PHOENICOPTERTJS ROSEUS Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., n, p. 207 (1827 

S. Russia, Caspian). 

Phcenicopterus roseus Pallas, Yarrell, iv, p. 244 ; Saunders, p. 395. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Very rare vagrant. Obtained 
some fifteen times, but some were certainly escaped birds, and most 
recorded in recent years are open to that suspicion. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. From the basin of Mediterranean (Spain, 
south France) to west Siberia, Lake Baikal and Persian Gulf, 
Africa and India to Ceylon, but apparently not breeding in the 
tropics, excepting on Cape Verde Islands, a group inhabited by a 
number of other Palsearctic forms. 


271. Cygnus cygnus (L.) THE WHOOPER SWAN. 

ANAS CYGNUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 122 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Cygnus musicits Bechstein, Yarrell, iv, p. 308 ; Saunders, p. 413. 


DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Winter-visitor (Oct. -Nov. to March- 
April, occasionally May). More frequent Scotland than England, 
rare Ireland. More abundant severe weather. Used to breed 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Iceland, north Europe and north Asia, 
migrating southwards to central and south Europe, central Asia, 
China, and occasionally Japan. 


272. Cygnus bewickii bewickii Yarr. BEWICK'S SWAN. 

CYGNUS BEWICKII Yarrell, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, xvi, ii, p. 453 

(1830 England). 

Cygnus bewicki Yarrell, Yarrell, iv, p. 315 ; Saunders, p. 415. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Winter-visitor. Fairly frequent 
England and Wales in severe winters, and sometimes abundant 
Scotland, especially in O. Hebrides. In Ireland regular visitor to 
parts of Ulster, Connaught, and co. Kerry, and in severe winters 
more numerous and more general. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. North Russia (Petchora), Novaya Zemlia 
and arctic Asia, but replaced by a larger race in east Siberia (see 
Ibis, 1907, pp. 650-2). Migrates south to China and Japan and 
casually to Caspian, central and west Europe less frequently than 
to British Isles. 


273. Cygnus olor (Gm.) THE MUTE SWAN. 

ANAS OLOR Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, ii, p. 501 (1789 Russia). 
Cygnus olor (Gmelin), Yarrell, iv, p. 324 ; Saunders, p. 417. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident and generally distributed 
in a semi -domesticated condition. Originally introduced. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Appears to breed in a wild state in south 
Scandinavia, Denmark, north Germany, central and south Russia, 
south-east Europe, and eastwards to Turkestan and Mongolia. 
Migratory, and wintering in basin of Mediterranean, on Caspian Sea 
and eastwards, occasionally in north-west India. Found in a semi- 
domesticated state in many places. 

[NOTE. There is no doubt that the so-called Polish Swan ("Cygnus im- 
mutabilis") is only an aberrant domesticated and semi-domesticated Mute 

[NOTE. An immature bird, supposed to be an example of the AMERICAN 
TRUMPETER SWAN, Cygnus buccinator Richardson, was shot near Aldeburgh 
(Suffolk) in Oct., 1866, and is in the Museum of that town (Yarrell, iv, p. 322 ; 
Saunders, p. 416). Examples of the AMERICAN WHISTLING SWAN, Cygnus 
columbianus Ord, are stated, " on weak evidence," to have been found in shops 
of Edinburgh poulterers (Yarrell, iv, p. 322 ; Saunders, p. 416).] 



274. Anser anser (L.) THE GREY LAG-GOOSE. 

ANAS ANSER Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 123 (1758 Europe. Re- 
stricted typical locality : Sweden). 
Anser cinereus Meyer, Yarrell, iv, p. 253 ; Saunders, p. 397. 

DISTRIBUTION. England, Wales, and Ireland. Winter-visitor. Rare 
along east coast England, and very irregular in south and west. 
Used to breed (Cambridge up to 1773, Lines, to early 1800). In 
Ireland rare in most counties, but visits parts of Wexford, Wick- 
low, Meath, Louth, Mayo, and lower Shannon. Probably formerly 
bred Bog of Allen and co. Down. Scotland. Resident. Breeds 
Ross, Sutherland, Caithness, some I. Hebrides, and more plenti- 
fully O. Hebrides. On mainland does not breed south of Loch 
Maree in truly wild state. In winter more general, but apparently 
only occasional on east side. Has increased of recent years in 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in Iceland, Europe, north-east 
of a line drawn from Eriesland to the Lower Danube, and in Asia 
as far east as east Siberia and Kamtschatka, migrating south in 
winter as far as Mediterranean and north Africa, China and India. 

[NOTE. A specimen of Anser rubrirostris Swinhoe is said to have been 
obtained in co. Limerick, Nov. 23, 1901 (F. Coburn, Bull. B.O.C., xii, p. 80), 
but according to Alpheraky (see The Geese of Europe and Asia, pp. 24-41) and 
others, this supposed eastern race cannot be distinguished !] 


275. Anser albifrons (Scop.) THE WHITE-FRONTED 

BRANTA ALBIFRONS Scopoli, Annus I, Historico-Natur., p. 69 (1769 


Anser albi/rons (Scopoli), Yarrell, iv, p. 261 ; Saunders, p. 399. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Winter-visitor. Scarce east coast 
Great Britain, sometimes plentiful south and most regular west, 
where, however, its distribution is irregular. In Ireland regular and 
often abundant on great bogs in all provinces. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds from Lapland (Gobel) and Novaya 
Zemlia, Kolguev, Kanin, and eastwards along arctic Siberia. Also 
breeds in Iceland, Greenland, and arctic North America, but Ameri- 
can authors distinguish their form under the name of A. albifrons 
gambeli, a distinction which requires confirmation.* On migration 
all over Europe to Mediterranean and Egypt, north India, Corea, 
Japan, and China, while the American form wanders as far as 
Mexico and Cuba. 

* Some specimens of White-fronted Geese from Ireland have been assigned 
by Mr. F. Coburn to the doubtful Anser gambeli, but the validity of this sup- 
posed race cannot be decided without further study (cf. Brit. B., 11, p. 25). 



276. Anser finmarchicus Gunner. THE LESSER WHITE- 

ANSER FINMARCHICUS Gunner, Leeniii de Lappoii. Comm. notis, p. 264 
(1767 Finmark). 

A. erythropus, Yarrell, iv, p. 263 (in text) ; Saunders, p. 400 (in text) ; 
id., Brit. B., i, p. 14. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Very rare vagrant. Young male Fen- 
ham Flats (Northumberland) Sept. 16, 1886 (A. Chapman, Field, 
Dec. 11, 1886, p. 87 ; Saunders, p. 400). Adult female, Wash (Nor- 
folk), Jan. 24, 1900 (F. Coburn, ZooL, 1901, p. 317 ; J. H. Gurney, 
Ibis, 1902, pp. 269-75). One also said to have been taken near 
York (Birds Tories., p. 413) and one in Humber District about 1874 
(J. Cordeaux, Birds Humber District, p. 22), and some possibly on 
Solway, Jan., 1894 (H. S. Gladstone, Birds Dumfries., p. 243), but 
the histories of these specimens are not above reproach. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in tundras of Siberia, westward 
to Kanin and Lapland. Winters in Japan, China and (in small 
numbers) in India, Mongolia, and probably in Turkestan, straying 
in small numbers to central, south, and west Europe. 


277. Anser fabalis fabalis (Lath.) THE BEAN-GOOSE. 

ANAS FABALIS Latham, Gen. Syn., Suppl., i, p. 297 (1787 Great Britain). 
Anser segetum (Gmelin), Yarrell, iv, p. 265 ; Saunders, p. 401. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Winter-visitor. Widely but not 
abundantly distributed, generally more frequent on west than east 
ooasts Great Britain. Only one authentic example O. Hebrides 
(S. Uist, March, 1903), very rare extreme north Scottish mainland, 
occurrence in Orkneys and Shetlands not proved. In Ireland very 

* It is impossible to say whether Anser erythropus (L.) (Anas erythropus 
Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 123, 1758 : " A. cinerea, fronte alba, Fn. Suec., 
"92, Anser helsingicus Clusius. exot. 308. Habitat in Europa septentrionali ") 
refers to this goose or A. albifrons Scopoli. It might be restricted to the 
commoner A. albifrons, but why it has been accepted for the Lesser White- 
fronted Goose is incomprehensible. Under the circumstances it is best not 
to employ it at all. E.H. 

f Latham's name, having two years priority, is now generally adopted. 
(See Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xxvn, etc.). E.H. 

J Many authors separate two supposed species : Anser fabalis (= segetum 
Gm.) and Anser arvensis, while others do not recognize them as different. 
If they are two species, both would occur in Great Britain, and Mr. F. W. 
Frohawk has gone so far as to affirm that A. arvensis is the usual form (Field, 
1902, p. 605), but until we have more thoroughly investigated the question 
we can only admit one species. 



scarce in south, but more numerous west and midlands, especially in 
severe winters. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Owing to the confusion of several species 
and subspecies of these Geese, the distribution of this form is not 
easily understood, but it appears that Anser fabalis fabalis breeds on 
Kolguev and Novaya Zemlia and in north-east Russia (Petchora) 
and probably west Siberia, while in Finland and Lapland it appears 
to occur only on passage, and is represented by allied forms in the 
north of eastern Asia. On migration in most parts of Europe and 
western Asia. 


278. Anser brachyrhynchus Baillon THE PINK-FOOTED 

ANSER BRACHYRHYNCHUS Baillon, Mem. Soc. R. Abbeville, 1833, p. 74 


Anser brachyrhynchus Baillon, Yarrell, iv, p. 270 ; Saunders, p. 403. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Winter-visitor. Most numerous east 
coast Great Britain, scarcer south and west. Rare extreme north 
Scotland, identified only two or three times Orkneys, not Shetlands, 
a number Oct. 1909, Fair Isle, doubtful occurrence 0. Hebrides. In 
Ireland only two obtained, Lough Swilly (Donegal), Oct. 19, 1891, 
Lough Key (Roscommon), Feb. 17, 1908. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Occurs on passage and winters in north- 
western Europe. Appears regularly in Holland, but has only been 
casually obtained in Germany, France, and Belgium, and, strange to 
say, in Scandinavia, though we may suppose that it wanders along 
coast of Norway. Reaches probably Spain and Portugal. Breeding 
quarters Spitsbergen and probably Franz-Josef Land, possibly also 
Iceland. (Occurrences recorded in Persia, India, and Japan are 
probably either referable to Anser neglectus, or erroneous.) 


279. Anser hyperboreus hyperboreus Pall. THE SNOW- 

ANSER HYPERBOREUS Pallas, Spicilegia Zool., fasc. vi, p. 25 (1769 

N.E. Siberia). 

Chen hyperboreus (Pallas), Yarrell, iv, p. 275 ; Saunders, p. 405. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Rare vagrant. Ireland. Three co. 
Wexford, Nov., 1871. Two (out of seven) caught co. Mayo, Oct., 
1877 (Saunders, p. 405). One obtained and another seen co. Long- 
ford, Oct., 1903. Four seen co. Mayo, Dec., 1903, and fourteen 
Dec., 1906 (cf. Brit. B., n, p. 27). England and Scotland. Only one 
obtained (Aug., 1854, Scottish Solway), no doubt same bird as seen 


previously Cumberland side ; said to have been seen other occasions 
in Solway (Birds Dumfries., p. 248). Reported as seen Northum- 
berland, Yorks., and Gloucester winter 1890-1 (Saunders, p. 405), 
Norfolk, autumn, 1909, and Essex April and May, 1911 (cf. Brit. B., 
iv, p. 28, v, pp. 25, 139), but some of these later examples may have 
been escapes from captivity. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Eastern Arctic Asia and western Arctic 
America. On passage and in winter in western North America, 
southwards to Lower California and Mexico ; in Asia south to Japan ; 
in Europe observed in several countries, such as Norway, Holland, 
France, Heligoland, Germany, and probably elsewhere even, 
perhaps, in Greece. Replaced by A. h. nivalis in eastern North 

280. Anser hyperboreus nivalis (Forst.) THE GREATER 

ANAS NIVALIS Forster, Philos. Trans., LXII, p. 433 (1772 Severn R., 

Hudson Bay, Canada). 

Chen nivalis Forster, Sharpe, Bull. B.O.C., x, p. xv. 

DISTRIBUTION. Ireland. One, Belmullet (Mayo) Oct., 1886 (ut 
supra ; cf. R. J. Ussher, List Irish Birds, p. 33 ; Brit. B., n, p. 27). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in north Greenland and Ellesmere 
Land, though full range is unknown ; on passage and in winter in 
eastern America, south to Louisiana, Florida and even Porto Rico. 
Replaced by A. h. hyperboreus in western North America and arctic 
east Asia. 


281. Branta ruficollis (Pall.) THE RED-BREASTED GOOSE. 

ANSER RUFICOLLIS Pallas, Spicilegia Zool., fasc. vi, p. 21, pi. iv (1769 

S. Russia). 

Bernicla ruficollis (Pallas), Yarrell, iv, p. 281 ; Saunders, p. 407. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Very rare vagrant. One near London 
early 1776. One near Wycliflfe (Yorks.) about same time. One 
Berwick-on-Tweed (Northumberland), 1818. One Maldon (Essex), 
Jan. 6, 1871. Two said to have been got south Devon, and one 
Norfolk (Saunders, p. 407). One Severn (Gloucester), Nov. 18, 1909 
(Brit. B., in, p. 376). Others recorded, but not substantiated. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Nests in tundras of western Siberia ; 

* Bernicla is often quoted as a genus of Brisson, bub Brisson never 
established such a genus. The name Branta (Scopoli, 1769) must therefore 
be used E.H. 

K 2 


winters in great numbers on Caspian Sea, in steppes of Transcaspia 
and parts of Persia, passing through south Russia, the Khirgiz 
steppes, and parts of Turkestan, casually in France, Italy, Holland, 
Germany, Galicia, Hungary, and even at least in ancient times 
in Egypt. 


282. Branta leucopsis (Bechst.) THE BARNACLE-GOOSE. 

ANAS LEUCOPSIS Bechstein, Orn. Taschenb., n, p. 424 (1803 Germany). 
Bernicla leucopsis (Bechstein), Yarrell, iv, p. 286 ; Saunders, p. 409. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Winter-visitor. Most numerous 
O. and some I. Hebrides, and Solway, where, however, becoming 
scarcer. Formerly conimon, now rare, parts of Wales and Cheshire, 
but more numerous generally on west side Great Britain than east, 
where very rare, as on south coast and inland. In northern Scotland 
rare, but fairly regular visitor Orkneys and well-known passage- 
migrant (not wintering) Shetlands. In Ireland regular winter- 
visitor to coasts and islands Connaught and co. Donegal, and 
in small numbers to Dundalk Bay (Louth), very rare southern 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds Spitsbergen and north-east 
Greenland, possibly also Kolguev(P), Novaya Zemlia, and north- 
west Siberia. On migration and in winter from Iceland to 
shores of Baltic and North Sea, occasionally inland, exceptionally 
south to Italy, Spain, Marocco, Azores, casually in North 


283. Branta bernicla bernicla (L.) THE BRENT GOOSE. 

ANAS BERNICLA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p 124 (1758 "Habitat 

in Europa boreali ; migrat supra Sueciam "). 

Bernicla brenta (Pallas), Yarrell, iv, p. 290; Saunders, p. 411. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Winter- visitor. Most numerous and 
regular east coast Scotland, east and south coast England, and all 
coasts Ireland, where, however, scarcer on south coast. On w T est 
coasts Great Britain generally scarce and somewhat irregular, as 
in western isles Scotland, but common parts of Orkneys, and in 
Shetlands chiefly known as passage-migrant. Very rare inland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds on Franz- Josef Land, Spitsbergen, 
Kolguev, and Novaya Zemlia (not on mainland of European Russia), 
on Yenisei, and even further east ; replaced by allied races in east 
and west North America. In winter in vast numbers on shores 
of Baltic and especially North Sea. Casually inland, sometimes 
south to Mediterranean and even north Africa. 


284. Branta bernicla glaucogastra (Brehm) THE PALE- 

BERNICLA GLAUCOGASTER Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deutschl., p. 849 
(1831 German coast of Baltic Sea). 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Winter-visitor. In very few in- 
stances definitely recorded, and distribution of the two forms is little 
known, but this form is said to occur with the typical but to be 
scarcer south of the Humber (Saunders, p. 412). Recorded Sol- 
way and Yorks., also Northumberland, where seems more abundant 
than typical form (A. Chapman, Bird-life Borders, 2nd ed., p. 337) ; 
appears to be more common than typical form in south-east 
Ireland (H.F.W.) 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in arctic islands of north-eastern 
North America, west to about longitude 100, and on west coast 
of Greenland, in winter along Atlantic coasts of America, south to 
Carolina and even Florida, casually inland, accidental in British 
Columbia. A few occurrences recorded from Kolguev, but appar- 
ently from memory only, and not from actual comparison, and from 
Taimyr peninsula, whence one skin is known. 

[Branta bernicla nigricans (Lawr.) THE BLACK BRENT 

ANSER NIGRICANS Lawrence, Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. N. York, 1840, 
p. 171, pi. xii (New Jersey). 

Bernicla nigricans, Gurney, Zool., 1908, pp. 121 and 123 ; id., i.e., 19] 
p. 123 ; Coburn, Rep. and Trans. N. Staffs. F. Club, XLIV, pp. 121-5. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Said by Mr. F. Coburn to have been 
obtained as follows : Wash (Norfolk), female, Jan, 15, 1907; male, 
Feb., 1902 ; fourteen, Jan., 1909 ; Staffs., one, Nov. 23, 1895 ; 
Warwick, one, Nov. 5, 1897 (ut supra and Brit. B., n, pp. 27, iv, 
pp. 27 and 107). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds on arctic coast and islands of 
western North America and in arctic zone of Siberia from the Lena 
eastwards to islands in Bering Sea. In winter along eastern coasts 
of Asiatic continent and its islands to Japan, and along west coast 
of America to lower California. Also recorded Maui (Hawaii).] 

[NOTE. The CANADA GOOSE, Branta canadensis canadensis (L.), an 
inhabitant of North America, has been domesticated in this country for more 
than two centuries, but there is no evidence that truly wild birds have ever 
visited us (c/. Yarrell, iv, p. 295 ; Saunders, p. 412).] 

[NOTE. Many examples of the introduced EGYPTIAN GOOSE, Chenalopex 
cegyptiacus (L.), an inhabitant of Africa and Palestine, have been killed in 
various parts of the country (Yarrell, iv, p. 300 ; Saunders, p. 412).] 

[NOTE. Examples, undoubtedly introduced, of the SPUR-WINGED GOOSE, 
Phctropterus gambensis (L.), an inhabitant of tropical Africa, have been killed 
in this country (Yarrell, iv, p. 304 ; Saunders, p. 412).] 



285. Tadorna tadorna (L.) THE SHELD-DUCK. 

ANAS TADORNA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 122 (1758 Coasts of 

Europe. Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Tadorna cornuta (S. G. Gmelin), Yarrell, iv, p. 352 ; Saunders, p. 419. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Generally distributed 
suitable localities coast, and especially estuaries, and in some places 
breeds considerable distance inland. Scarcer in south Great Britain 
than north and in Shetlands very rare, and very doubtful if ever 
nested. In winter, numbers increased by immigrants. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in northern Europe, from about 
latitude 70 in Norway and 51 in Urals to France and even Spain, 
and on salt-lakes of south Siberia and central Asia, also in eastern 
Asia, west to Caspian and Black Seas. On migration south to Medi- 
terranean and north Africa, as far as the tropic of Cancer, to north 
India, Japan, China, and Formosa. Casually in Iceland and Faeroes. 


286. Casarca ferruginea (Pall.) THE RUDDY SHELD- 

ANAS FERRUGINEA Pallas, Vroeg's Cat., Adumbratiuncula, p. 5 (1764 


Tadorna casarca (Linnaeus), Yarrell, iv, p. 347 ; Saunders, p. 421. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Rare vagrant. Many occurred June 
to Sept., 1892 various parts Ireland, in Cumberland, Sutherland, 
Elgin, Lines., Norfolk, and Suffolk. Flocks ten to fifteen and even 
twenty in some places (cf. F. M. Ogilvie, ZooL, 1892, pp. 392-8). 
Others recorded from time to time Dorset, Hants., Kent, Norfolk, 
Essex, and elsewhere, including Sule Skerry (Orkneys), June 18,1909. 
Some recorded examples no doubt escaped from semi-captivity. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. East and south Europe south to north 
Africa, east through middle Asia to China and Japan ; winters 
in India and south China to Formosa, also in north Africa. 


287. Anas platyrhyncha platyrhyncha L. THE MALLARD. 

ANAS PLATYRHYNCHOS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 125 (1758 

Europe. Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Anas boscas Linnaeus, Yarrell, iv, p. 358 ; Saunders, p. 423. 

* The name ferruginea antedates Linnseus's Anas casarca. E.H. 

f Linnaeus described the female as Anas platyrhynchos on p. 125, the male 
as Anas boschas (not boscas) on p. 127 of Syst. Nat., ed. x. The former name 
has therefore been correctly accepted (Lonnberg, A.O.U. Checklist, and 
others). E.H. 


DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident and winter-visitor. Gener- 
ally distributed. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Northern Hemisphere, in winter south 
to north-east Africa and north India. Also in North America, but 
at least the Greenland form is separable ; in winter (in America) 
south to Mexico, West Indies, and Panama. 


288. Anas strepera L. THE GADWALL. 

ANAS STREPERA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 125 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Anas strepera Linnaeus, Yarrell, iv, p. 370 ; Saunders, p. 425. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident and winter -visit or. Breeds 
regularly (now in considerable numbers) Norfolk and Suffolk, and 
in 1909, 1910, and probably previously, on a loch in Forth area, 
Scotland. Also bred in Peebles, 1906. Elsewhere autumn to 
spring visitor, uncertain and scarce most parts, but common 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Northern Hemisphere, breeding in tem- 
perate regions of both continents ; in winter south to Abyssinia, 
India and China, Mexico and Florida. (Accidental in Bermudas, 
Cuba, and Jamaica.) 


289. Anas crecca crecca L. THE TEAL. 

ANAS CRECCA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 126 (1758 Europe. Re- 
stricted typical locality : Sweden). 
Querquedula crecca (Linnaeus), Yarrell, iv, p. 387 ; Saunders, p. 431. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident and winter-visitor. Breeds 
most English counties ; sparsely southern and inland ones, more 
plentifully eastern and northern and in Wales. In Scotland widely 
distributed breeding-bird, and known to breed plentifully in some 
O. Hebrides since 1901. In Ireland breeds throughout in limited 
numbers. Some home-bred birds emigrate in autumn, but numbers 
are greatly increased in winter by Continental visitors. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Palsearctic region generally, breeding 
more abundantly in northern portions, but in winter all over con- 
tinent of Europe, where open fresh-water remains, and in milder 
parts of Asia, south to Haussa-land, Abyssinia, Blue Nile, Sokotra, 
India and Ceylon, Burmah, Japan and China. Represented by 
A. c. carolinensis in North America. 


290. Anas crecca carolinensis Gm. THE AMERICAN 

ANAS CAROLINENSIS Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, ii, p. 533 (1789 Carolina to 

Hudson Bay). 

Nettion carolinense (J. F. Gmelin), Saunders, p. 433. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Two or three. Adult male Kingsbridge 
estuary (Devon), Nov. 23, 1879 (H. Nicholls, Zool., 1880, p. 70). 
Adult male near Scarborough (Yorks.), Nov., 1851 (J. Evans, op.c., 
1852, p. 3472). One said to have been shot Hurstbourne Park 
(Hants.) about 1840 (Saunders, p. 433). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Replaces Anas crecca crecca in North 
America, winters in parts of United States and as far south as 
Lower California, West Indies and even Honduras, accidental in 
Hawaii, Bermudas, and Greenland. 


291. Anas discors L. THE AMERICAN BLUE-WINGED 

ANAS DISCORS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. xn, i, p. 205 (1766 Carolina to- 

Querquedula discors (Linnaeus), Saunders, p. 434 ; Yarrell, iv, p. 391 
(in text). 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Two or three. Female Upper 
Nithsdale (Dumfries), 1858 (Saunders, p. 434, Birds Dumfries., 
pp. 276-8, cf. Brit. B., v, p. 257). Female Dee estuary (Cheshire), 
about 1860 (Vert. Fauna Cheshire, p. 322). Immature female 
(probably wild bird) Ballycotton (Cork), Ireland, Sept., 1910 
(Bull. B.O.C., xxvii, p. 15; Brit. B., iv, p. 252). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Western Hemisphere ; breeding in Canada 
and United States, wintering in parts of United States and south 
to West Indies and South America. 


292. Anas querquedula L. THE GARGANEY. 

ANAS QTJEKQUEDULA Linnaeus, Syst. Xat., ed. x, i, p. 126 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Querquedula circia (Linnaeus), Yarrell, iv, p. 393 ; Saunders, p. 435. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Summer resident and vagrant. 
Breeds regularly Norfolk, Suffolk, and Kent ; has bred Durham 
(1880-7), Yorks. (1882, 1908), Essex, Hants. (1897), Somerset 
(1910). Elsewhere vagrant usually spring, less frequently autumn, 


and exceptionally winter. Especially rare Wales, west and north 
England, Scotland (not occurred O. Hebrides), and Ireland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Paleearctic region generally, breeding 
chiefly in subarctic portions, migrating in winter as far south as 
northern and tropical Africa, and south Asia as far as Philippines 
and Moluccas. 

[NOTE. Wanderers from captivity of the NORTH AMERICAN SUMMER-DUCK, 

Aix sponsa (L.), are sometimes shot (Saunders, p. 432).] 


293. Anas penelope L. THE WIGEON. 

AXAS PENELOPE Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 69 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Mareca penelope (Linnaeus), Yarrell, iv, p. 397 ; Saunders, p. 437. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident and winter- visit or. Breeds 
regularly Sutherland, Caithness, Ross, Cromarty, and Perth ; and 
in Argyll, borders of Roxburgh and Selkirk, and Forth area at all 
events in recent years ; has nested Shetlands, Orkneys, Kirkcud- 
bright., Coll, Kincardine; also (possibly wild birds) Yorks. (1897 and 
1901), Cumberland (1903 and 1908), and Merioneth (1898). Some 
evidence, but no proof, of breeding occasionally other parts. 
Common winter-visitor on all coasts and occasionally inland 
waters. In Shetlands, chiefly autumn and spring migrant. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Palsearctic region generally, breeding in 
colder parts, wintering in more southern latitudes as far as north 
Africa, Persia, India, Burmah, Sunda Islands, and China ; 
accidental visitor to North America. 


294. Anas americana Gm. THE AMERICAN WIGEON. 

ANAS AMERICANA Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, ii, p. 526 (1789 N". America). 
Mareca americana (Gmelin), Yarrell, iv, p. 403 ; Saunders, p. 439. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Very rare vagrant. Male identified, 
and female probably, at London Market, winter 1837-8. Young 
male found at Leeds game-stall, Feb., 1895 (Saunders, p. 439). 
Adult male shot Benbecula (0. Hebrides), Jan. 3, 1907 (Bull. B.O.C., 
xix, p. 57 ; cf. Brit. B., n, p. 56). Adult male seen Anglesey, 
June, 1910, may have been an escape from captivity (Brit. B., iv, 
pp. 87, 256). Other occurrences (unauthenticated) recorded. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. North America, in winter south to 
Guatemala, Costa Rica, West Indies, and Hawaiian Islands, 


Accidental in Europe (France), Azores, and Bering Islands. Re- 
ported as breeding in Iceland by Mr. F. Coburn (Bull. B.O.C., xn, 
p. 14), but this statement requires confirmation. 


295. Spatula clypeata (L.) THE SHOVELER. 

ANAS CLYPEATA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 124 (1758 Restricted 

typical locality : S. Sweden). 

Spatula clypeata (Linnaeus), Yarrell, iv, p. 375 ; Saunders, p. 427. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Resident, forsaking most 
breeding-places in autumn and then, as well as in winter, more 
widely distributed. Since 1876 greatly increased as breeding- 
species, and now nests Northumberland, Cumberland, Durham, 
Yorks., Lanes.. Lines., Notts., Staffs., Salop, Warwick., Norfolk, 
Suffolk, Cambs., Beds., Herts., Essex, Kent, Sussex, Hants., Dorset, 
Somerset, and Devon. In Wales much scarcer, but nests Anglesey 
-and once Merioneth. Scotland. Breeds good many places in south 
and east, in Orkneys, Tiree, since 1903 in 0. Hebrides, and 
sporadically in north mainland. Increasing. Ireland. Breeds 
every province. Increasing. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Northern Hemisphere. Breeds as far 
north as lat. 68 and in America to Alaska, winters as far south as 
Senegambia and Somaliland, India and Ceylon, China and Formosa, 
Hawaiian Islands, and in America to West Indies and Colombia. 
Casual in Bermudas and Newfoundland, once near Capetown. 


296. Dafila acuta (L.) THE PINTAIL. 

ANAS ACUTA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 126 (1758 k ' Hab. in 
Europse maritimis." Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 
Dafila acuta (Linnaeus), Yarrell, iv, p. 380 ; Saunders, p. 429. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident and winter- visit or. Has 
bred Skye (I. Hebrides) in 1889, Loch Leven (Fife) since 1898 (and 
probably before), Selkirk in 1901, South Uist (0. Hebrides) in 1902, 
Shetlands 1905 and 1908, Orkneys several years, and increased in 
1910, while a clutch of eggs in Brit. Mus. is labelled " Inverness- 
shire." May have bred Ireland many years ago. Otherwise 
regular, but rather scarce, winter- visitor (Sept. -April) to most 
parts coast and occasionally inland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Northern Hemisphere, breeding in north- 
ern parts from about 70 down to lat. 50, also in south Spain and 
south France ; in winter south to northern Africa, India, China 


and even Borneo, Panama. Porto Rico, Cuba, Hawaiian Islands, 
and Laysan. 


297. Nyroca rufina (Pall.) THE RED-CRESTED POCHARD. 

ANAS RUFINA Pallas, Reise d. versch. Prov. d. Russ. Reichs, n, p. 713 

(1773 S. Russia). 

Fuligula rufina (Pallas), Yarrell, iv, p. 407 ; Saunders, p. 441. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Very rare vagrant. Since the first 
in July, 1818, eight or nine Norfolk, besides flocks of thirteen and 
four Sept., 1906. A few others recorded (all autumn or winter), 
chiefly east coast England, as follows : Northumberland (one), 
Yorks. (one, Jan., 1900), Suffolk (several), Essex (one), mouth of 
Thames (flock of eighteen), Bucks, and Herts. (Tring Reservoirs, 
flock), Sussex (flock of 14-16, Jan., 1911), Hants, (one), Dorset (one), 
Devon (one), Cornwall (one), Pembroke (one), Westmorland (one), 
Argyll (one), Kerry (one). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Mediterranean countries to central Asia, 
exceptionally in Germany and south Hungary, wintering in Mediter- 
ranean, south-west Asia and in India. Accidental in north Europe, 
once in United States. 


298. Nyroca ferina ferina (L.) THE COMMON POCHARD. 

ANAS FERINA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 126 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Fuligula ferina (Linnaeus), Yarrell, iv, p. 413 ; Saunders, p. 443. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Resident and winter- visitor. 
Increasing and now breeds, or has bred, in all maritime counties of 
east coast, as well as Hants., Dorset, Sussex, Herts., Bucks., Berks., 
Staffs., Lanes., and possibly Anglesey. In winter more widely 
dispersed, but irregular in numbers and localities. Scotland. Breeds 
most parts, but only winter- visitor to Shetlands and mainly so to O. 
Hebrides , where truly wild birds may have nested. Ireland. Winter- 
visitor. A pair with young identified in Monaghan, 1907, and said 
to have bred elsewhere. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Palaearctic region generally from Atlantic 
Ocean to Japan, breeding chiefly in subarctic portions, wintering in 
Mediterranean countries east to India, China, and Japan. Replaced 
by an allied race in North America. 

* The numerous k ' genera " of Ducks distinguished by many authors should 
be avoided, as they are not sufficiently well-defined, and the oldest name for 
the group under consideration is Nyroca Fleming, 1822. E.H. 



299. Nyroca nyroca (Giild.) THE FERRUGINOUS DUCK. 

ANAS NYROCA Giildenstadt, Nov. Comm. Sc. Petrop., xiv, i, p. 405 

(1769 S. Russia). 

Fuligula nyroca (Giildenstadt), Yarrell, iv, p. 418 ; Saunders, p. 445. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Rare vagrant. England. Over fifty 
recorded from Norfolk and a few Suffolk, Cambs., Lines., Notts., 
Yorks., Northumberland (one), Lanes, (one), Oxon. (four), Essex 
(one), Kent (one or two), Surrey (one), Sussex (nine), Hants, (a few), 
Dorset (one), Devon (two), Cornwall (one), Brecon (one), Radnor 
(one), Montgomery (seven). Scotland. One or two Firth of Forth 
and two on Tay. Ireland. Eight or nine. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Palsearctic region generally, eastwards to 
valley of the Ob. Breeds in south, central, and east Europe, north 
Africa, and west Asia. In winter in north Africa and India. 


Nyroca baeri (Radde) BAER'S DUCK. 

ANAS (FULIGULA) BAERI Radde, Reise S. v. O. Sibirien, n, p. 376, pi. 15- 
(1863 S.E. Siberia). 

Nyroca baeri, X. C. Rothschild, Bull. B.O.C., xn, p. 25 ; &thyia baeri 
Saunders, Brit. B., i, p. 14 ; W. Rothschild, i.e., p. 63. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. One. Male, Tring Reservoirs (Herts. ) r 
Nov. 5, 1901 (ut supra}. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. East Siberia, on passage and in winter to 
Japan, China, Waigiu Islands near New Guinea, irregularly Burmah 
and India.] 


300. Nyroca fuligula (L.) THE TUFTED DUCK. 

ANAS FULIGULA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 128 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Fuligula cristata (Leach), Yarrell, iv, p. 430 ; Saunders, p. 447. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident and winter-visitor. During 
last twenty years greatly increased and extended range as breeding- 
species. Now nests in most English counties, in Anglesey, in Scot- 
land all over south and east as far north as Caithness and Orkneys, 

* We do not think it advisable to admit fully a duck on the strength of one 
recently recorded occurrence, since many" water-fowl " are now kept in semi- 
captivity without even being properly identified. 


as well as in I. and O. (since 1903) Hebrides, but still only rare visitor 
to west coast from Argyll north. In Ireland only known as winter- 
visitor until 1877, now breeds many counties in all provinces. In 
winter more plentiful and more widely dispersed. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Palsearctic region generally, from Atlantic 
to 1 Pacific. In winter south to China and India, Malayan Archi- 
pelago (casual) and to Abyssinia in Africa (where it is even said to 
breed), once recorded from Siberia. 


301. Nyroca marila marila (L.) THE SCAUP-DUCK. 

ANAS MARILA Linnaeus, Fauna Svecica, ed. n, p. 39 (1761 Lapland). 
Fuligula marila (Linnaeus), Yarrell, iv, p. 423 ; Saunders, p. 449. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident and winter- visitor. Bred 
Sutherland 1899, and in an island of Uist group (0. Hebrides) 1897-9 
(two pairs), 1900 (three pairs), probably also 1901 and certainly 1902. 
Also 1906 in another island in same group (cf. Brit. B., n, pp. 85, 
132, 146, 209, 283). Otherwise winter-visitor to all coasts and 
seldom on inland waters. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Palsearctic region generally, but replaced 
in the east and apparently in North America by an allied race. 
Breeds in arctic regions, winters as far south as Mediterranean, 
Black and Caspian Seas, and north India. 

[NOTE. A specimen found in Leadenhall Market, and said to have been 
taken in Lines., formed the subject of Donovan's description and figure of 
Nyroca collaris, the AMERICAN RING-NECKED DUCK (Anas collaris Donovan, 
Brit. Birds, vi, 1809, pi. 147). The bird is an inhabitant of North America, 
irom British Columbia to northern California, and from Alberta south to 
Dakota and Wisconsin ; in winter south to Porto Rico and Guatemala.] 


302. Nyroca clangula clangula (L.) THE GOLDENEYE. 

ANAS CLANGULA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 125 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Clangula glaucion (Linnaeus), Yarrell, iv, p. 435 ; Saunders, p. 451. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Winter-visitor. Generally distri- 
buted round coasts, in estuaries, and less frequently in lakes and 
rivers. Sometimes seen in summer in Scotland, but no proof of 
breeding. Adult males comparatively rare. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Northern Palsearctic region, breeding in 
arctic and subarctic portions, on migration and in winter south to 


Mediterranean and Caspian region, north India, China and Japan. 
Replaced by a very closely -allied race in North America. 

[NOTE. An immature male Goldeneye shot on the Aide, Suffolk, Feb. 1, 
1908, was thought to be a specimen of BARROW'S GOLDENEYE, Nyroca islandica 
(Gm.) (F. M. Ogilvie, Bull. B.O.C., xxm, p. 63), which breeds in Iceland and 
northern North America, and winters southwards to California, is a rare visitor 
to Greenland, and a vagrant in Europe. The identification requires con- 
firmation ; young birds are hardly distinguishable from those of the Goldeneye.] 


303. Nyroca albeola (L.) THE BUFFEL-HEADED DUCK. 

ANAS ALBEOLA Linnseus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 124 (1758 America. 

Typical locality : Newfoundland). 

Clangula albeola (Linnaeus), Yarrell, iv, p. 442 ; Saunders, p. 453. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Two. Adult male Yarmouth (Nor- 
folk) about 1830 (Birds Norfolk, in, p. 222); one Bridlington 
(Yorks.) winter 1864-5 (Cordeaux, ZooL, 1865, p. 9659). Others 
recorded, including two Aberdeen., mentioned by Gray, not con- 
sidered authentic (cf. Fauna Tay Basin, p. 243). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. North America, breeding as far north as 
the Yukon River, the lower Mackenzie and Great Slave Lake, and 
south to Montana, wintering from Aleutian Islands and British 
Columbia south to Lower California, Mexico and Florida. Casual 
in Hawaii, Greenland (once), Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, 
Bermudas, Cuba, and Europe (Great Britain only). 


304. Clangula hyemalis (L.) THE LONG-TAILED DUCK. 

ANAS HYEMALIS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 126 (1758 N. Europe 
and America. Restricted typical locality : N. Sweden). 
Harelda glacialis (Linnaeus), Yarrell, iv, p. 446 ; Saunders, p. 455. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Winter-visitor (Sept. -April, occasion- 
ally summer, and possibly a few resident). Regular visitor east 
coast Great Britain, occasional south and west coasts England and 
Wales. On west side Scotland and in Hebrides as well as Orkneys 
and Shetlands very common. In Ireland somewhat irregular, and 
chiefly visits north and west coasts. On inland waters rare vagrant. 
Adults rather uncommon. Eggs apparently of this species taken 
several times Shetlands, reported as breeding summer 1911, Orkneys 
(O. V. Aplin, ZooL, 1911, p. 432 ; Brit. B., v, p. 203), and some 
evidence of previous nesting Orkneys but as yet no proof. 

* Anas hyemalis is the oldest name, glacialis having been only published 
in 1766, eight years later. E.H. 


DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Northern Hemisphere. Breeding in arctic 
regions, wintering further southwards to Black and Caspian Seas, 
and (in small numbers) Mediterranean, in Asia to Lake Baikal, Japan, 
China, in America in northern United States and on Great Lakes, and 
as far south as Gulf of Mexico. 


305. Histrionicus histrionicus (L.) THE HARLEQUIN-DUCK. 

ANAS HISTRIONICA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. x, i, p. 127 (1758 America. 

Typical locality : Newfoundland). 

Cosmonetta histrionica (Linnseus), Yarrell, iv, p. 452 ; Saunders, p. 457. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Very rare vagrant. Male found 
dead Filey (Yorks.) autumn 1862. Two young males obtained, out 
of three seen, Fame Isles (Northumberland) Dec. 2, 1886. Has 
possibly occurred Scotland, while others recorded are doubtfully 
authentic (Saunders, p. 457). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Northern Hemisphere, breeding in Ice- 
land, north-east Asia, and probably other places (according to 
Sabanaeff in the Ural and government of Yaroslav), also in North 
America as far south as Montana. In winter south to Japan, Lake 
Baikal, middle United States of America, and California. Rare in 


306. Polysticta stelleri (Pall.) STELLER'S EIDER. 

ANAS STELLERI Pallas, Spicilegia ZooL, fasc. vi, p. 35, pi. 5 (1769 Kamt- 


Somateria stelleri (Pallas), Yarrell, iv, p. 468 ; Saunders, p. 463. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Two. Nearly adult male Caistor (Nor- 
folk) Feb. 10, 1830 (Yarrell, Proc. Z. Soc., 1831, p. 35). Young 
male off Filey Brigg (Yorks.) Aug. 15, 1845 (R. J. Bell, Zool, 
1846, p. 1249). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Arctic and sub-arctic coasts of Northern 
Hemisphere, breeding in arctic regions (erroneously stated to have 
nested on Varanger Fjord, east of North Cape and at Petschinka, 
but certain in east Siberia, east of Taimyr Peninsula, and Arctic 
Ocean near Bering Sea east to Alaska) ; in winter sparingly in various 
parts of northern Europe, more numerous on coasts of Kamtschatka 
to Kurile Islands, Aleutian Islands and Greenland, once in Quebec, 

* Histrionicus, 1828, antedates Cosmonetta, 1829. E.H. 
f Recent ornithologists separate Steller's Eider from the genus Somateria* 
If this is done, the generic name Polysticta is the oldest name for it. E.H. 



307. Somateria mollissima mollissima (L.) THE COMMON 

ANAS MOLLISSIMA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 124 (1758 X. Europe). 
Somateria mollissima (Linnaeus), Yarrell, iv, p. 457 ; Saunders, p. 459. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Resident and winter- visitor. Breeds 
coast of Northumberland, Holy Isle and Fame Isles ; along east coast 
Scotland, in Orkneys, Shetlands, O. and many I. Hebrides, parts of 
Argyll coast, and in recent years northwards on west coast. As a 
winter-visitor uncommon or rare on west and south coasts Great 
Britain, 'but lately increased in parts of north-west Scotland ; on 
ast coast regular, becoming more abundant from Northumberland 
northwards. Ireland. Rare vagrant ; under forty recorded from 
all provinces. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in north-western Palsearctic region 
from Iceland to shores of Kara Sea and south to Sylt and (casually) 
Vlieland and Terschelling Islands. In winter along coasts of Europe, 
occasionally to south Europe and Azores. Replaced by closely -allied 
forms in North America, Greenland, Spitsbergen, and north-east Asia. 

[NOTE. An Eider shot at Graemsay (Orkneys) Dec. 14, 1904, and said to 
have been a Pacific Eider, Somateria mollissima \ r -nigntm Gray (Bull. B.O.C., 
xv, p. 32 ; ZooL, 1905, pp. 74, 142, 143 ; Ann. S.N.H., 1905, p. 183), was sub- 
sequently proved to be a variety of the Common Eider, Somateria m. mollissima t 
(cf. Bull. B.O.C., xix, p. 80 ; Brit. B., i, pp. 15, 69, 125, 158.] 


308. Somateria spectabilis (L.) THE KING-EIDER. 

ANAS SPECTABILIS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 123 (1758 Canada, 


Somateria spectabilis (Linnaeus), Yarrell, iv, p. 463 ; Saunders, p. 461. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Very rare vagrant. England. 
Three obtained Norfolk, one Yorks., two (and others seen) Fame 
Isles (Northumberland). Scotland. Examples obtained and satis- 
factorily identified coast of Haddington, Firth of Forth, Fife (June, 
1899), and Firth of Tay (several obtained winter 1879-80). Several 
recorded Shetlands (last Feb., 1899, June 29, 1910), one Fair Isle 
(1910) and several Orkneys (last Feb., 1906). Recorded as seen off 
Jura and Islay. Ireland. Dublin (five), Down (two), Mayo (one), 
and Rathlin Island (last Down, Nov., 1897). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Northern portion of Northern Hemi- 
sphere, breeding on shores of Arctic Ocean (Greenland, Spitsbergen, 
Novaya Zemlia and arctic Siberia and America) ; in winter 
casually to France (Italy twice) and several parts of northern 
Europe, in America rarely and accidentally to Georgia, California, 
.and Iowa. 



309. Oidemia nigra nigra (L.) THE COMMON SCOTER. 

ANAS NIGRA Linnaeus, Syst. Xat., ed. x, i, p. 123 (1758 Lapland and 


(Edemia nigra (Linnaeus), Yarrell, iv, p. 472 ; Saunders, p. 465. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident and winter- visitor. Breeds 
Caithness, Sutherland, Cromarty, and parts of Ross and Inverness, 
said to have bred Tiree, 1897, and one pair has bred in a lough in 
Ireland since 1905 (probably 1904) (cf. Brit. B., n, pp. 39, 86, 134 ; 
in, p. 197 ; iv, p. 154 ; v, p. 79). Common winter- visitor (young 
birds often remaining through summer) east and south coasts. 
Great Britain, but in Orkneys, Shetlands, 0. Hebrides and west 
coast generally, less plentiful, though usually very common More- 
cambe Bay and Solway. In Ireland regular visitor to northern 
half, but scarce elsewhere. On inland waters infrequent. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeding from Iceland through north 
Europe and west Siberia to Taimyr Peninsula, from about lat. 74 to 
Polar Circle (bred Spitsbergen 1905). On passage and in winter 
on shores of Europe, occasionally as far south as Spain, Portugal, 
the Mediterranean, Azores, and Rio de Oro on west coast of the 
Sahara. Replaced by a closely-allied race in North America and 
north-east Siberia. 


310. Oidemia fusca fusca (L.) THE VELVET-SCOTER. 

ANAS FUSCA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 123 (1758 "Habitat in 
Oceano Europaeo." Restricted typical locality : Swedish coast). 
(Edemia ftisca (Linnaeus), Yarrell, iv, p. 476 ; Saunders, p. 467. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Winter- visitor. Regular, but not 
abundant, east coast Great Britain, not infrequent south coast, 
rare western side. Common Orkneys, but rare Shetlands and 

* The question has been raised (in litt. ) whether the generic name Oidemia 
should be replaced by Melanitta. Melanitta Boie (Isis, 1822, p. 564) was 
published in May, 1822. The exact date of publication of Oidemia Fleming 
(Philosophy of Zoology, n, p. 260) is not known. It was published in 1822, 
but the work has no more exact date than the year. In the Edinburgh Philo- 
sophical Journal, Vol. vn, No. xiv, which appeared in Oct, 1822, Fleming's 
Philosophy of Zoology was first mentioned. The editors say: "We have 
long regretted the want of a scientific, and at the same time popular, view 
of the leading facts in zoology. It is, therefore, with much pleasure and 
satisfaction that we announce the appearance of a work by Dr. Fleming in 
two volumes octavo, entitled Philosophy of Zoology ..." It is therefore 
probable that the work of Fleming was not published before the autumn of 
1822, or the notice might have appeared in a former number. As long, how- 
ever, as there is no absolute proof that the name Oidemia is of a later date, 
it must not be altered, and no nomenclator should advocate such an alteration 
on mere inference and probabilities. E.H. 



uncommon 0. Hebrides. Rare visitor Ireland. Very rare vagrant 
inland waters. Said to have nested Scotland, but no proof. 
Some individuals stay throughout summer. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. North Palsearctic region, eastwards to 
west Siberia, in winter south to shores of temperate Europe, Medi- 
terranean and north African coasts, Black and Caspian Seas. 
Accidental in Greenland. Replaced by allied races in east Siberia 
and North America. 


311. Oidemia perspicillata (L.) THE SURF-SCOTER. 

ANAS PERSPICILLATA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 125 (1758 Canada). 
(Edemia perspicillata (Linnaeus), Yarrell, iv, p. 481 ; Saunders, p. 469. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Rare vagrant. Most frequent 
Orkneys, where occasional examples, usually young, not infrequently 
seen and six recorded obtained. Several recorded seen elsewhere 
and following obtained : 0. Hebrides (one), Firth of Forth (one or 
two), Cumberland (one), Lanes, (one), Scilly Isles (two), Cornwall 
(two), Devon (three), Dorset (two). Six Ireland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in northern North America ; 
non-breeding birds in summer on coast of Lower California, in Green- 
land and on northern coasts of United States ; in winter south to 
Lower California, Carolina, Florida. Casual in Bermudas and 
Jamaica. Also (apparently breeding) on shores of Bering Sea, and 
(according to Palmen) in extreme north-east of Siberia. A number 
of occurrences on record from Lapland, Finland, Scandinavia, 
Heligoland, Belgium, France. 


312. Mergus merganser merganser L. THE GOOSANDER. 

MERGUS MERGANSER Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 129 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Mergus merganser Linnaeus, Yarrell, iv, p. 488 ; Saunders, p. 471. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident and winter -visitor. Breeds 
Sutherland, Ross, Moray area, Tay area, and parts Argyll. Else- 
where winter-visitor to estuaries and inland waters, but rare Orkneys 
and Shetlands ; very rare 0. Hebrides, and somewhat irregular 
and uncommon south England, Wales and Ireland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. From Iceland and north Europe (south 
to Switzerland and Germany) to Kamtschatka. In winter south to 
Mediterranean, Japan and China. Replaced by allied forms in 
North America, and central Asia, the latter race wintering in 



313. Mergus serrator L. THE RED-BREASTED MER- 

MERGUS SERRATOR Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 129 (1758 Europe' 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Mergus serrator Linnaeus, Yarrell, iv, p. 494 ; Saunders, p. 473. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident and winter- visitor. Breeds 
commonly Argyll, and Tay area, and northwards both on salt and 
fresh waters, as well as Hebrides, Orkneys and Shetlands, and many 
parts Ireland. Elsewhere common winter-visitor, chiefly coasts 
and infrequently inland waters. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in northern portions of Northern 
Hemisphere, south in winter to north Africa, Black and Caspian 
Seas, Sind, China and Japan, in America to Lower California and 
Florida, casual in Bermudas, Cuba, and Hawaiian Isles. 


314. Mergus albellus L. THE SMEW. 

MERGUS ALBELLUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 129 (1758 Europe. 
Restricted typical locality : Mediterranean, near Smyrna ; from the 
first quotation : Hasselquist's Journey, p. 268). 
Mergus albellus Linnaeus, Yarrell, iv, p. 499 ; Saunders, p. 475. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Winter-visitor. Not uncommon 
Orkneys and east coast Great Britain, tolerably regular south coast, 
but scarce west coasts, except in some I. Hebrides, where not 
uncommon. Very rare O. Hebrides and Shetlands. Rare, but 
probably annual, visitor Ireland. Occurs on fresh waters as well 
as on coast, but adult males rarely recorded anywhere. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Northern Palsearctic region, from north 
of Baltic to Bering Sea in summer. In winter south to north-west 
Africa, Mediterranean generally, Black and Caspian Seas, north 
India, China and Japan. 


315. Mergus cucullatus L. THE AMERICAN HOODED 

MERGUS CUCULLATUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 129 (1758 


Mergus cucullatus Linnaeus, Yarrell, iv, p. 509 ; Saunders, p. 477. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Very rare vagrant. Four fully 
authenticated, viz. young male Menai Straits (N. Wales), winter 
1830-31 ; pair Queenstown Harbour (Cork), Dec., 1878 ; female 

L 2 


Shannon Estuary (Kerry), Jan., 1881. Single birds also said to 
have been taken Dingle Bay and Tralee Harbour (Kerry), Knockdrin 
(Meath), near Sligo and Norfolk (winter, 1837-38). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. North America. Breeds from central 
British Columbia, Great Slave Lake, central Keewatin, central 
Ungava, and Newfoundland, south to Oregon, New Mexico, Louisiana 
and Florida ; winters from southern British Columbia south to 
Lower California, Mexico, the Gulf States and Cuba. Single 
records from Alaska, Bermudas. 


316. Phalacrocorax carbo carbo (L.) THE CORMORANT 

PELECANUS CARBO Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 133 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Phalacrocorax carbo (Linnaeus), Yarrell, iv, p. 143 ; Saunders, p. 361. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Generally distributed, 
outnumbering Shag east coast Great Britain from Flamborough 
northwards, most of Welsh coast, and Irish coasts except north 
and west. Commonly visits many inland waters, and breeds in 
a few places on inland cliffs and in parts of Connaught in trees. 
Some appear to move southwards in autumn. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Northern Hemisphere generally, but 
replaced by various subspecies in Africa, India, Australia, New 
Zealand, though the status of eastern forms is as yet uncertain. 


317. Phalacrocorax graculus graculus (L.) THE SHAG. 

PELECANUS GRACULUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. xn, i, p. 217 (1766 

Europe. Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Phalacrocorax graculus (Linnaeus), Yarrell, iv, p. 151 ; Saunders, p. 363. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Does not breed on south 
coast England eastwards of Isle of Wight, nor east coast England 
(except Fame Isles), and only sparingly east coast Scotland. Else- 
where generally distributed. Outnumbers Cormorant Avest coast 
Ireland. Rare visitor inland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Coasts of west Europe from Norway 
to Portugal, Faeroes and Iceland. Replaced in Mediterranean by 
P. graculus desmaresti. 


318. Sula bassana (L.) THE GANNET. 

PELECANUS BASSANUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 133 (1758 

Scotland, America). 

Sula bassana (Linnseus), Yarrell, iv, p. 155 ; Saunders, p. 365. 


DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Breeds Grasholm (Pem- 
broke), Bass Rock (Haddington), Ailsa Craig (Ayr), St. Kilda 
Isles and Sulisgeir (0. Hebrides), the Stack and West Sulisgeir 
(Orkneys), Bull Rock (Cork), and Skelligs (Kerry). Lundy Island 
now abandoned. In autumn and winter breeding-places deserted 
and general southward movement. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in Faeroes and Iceland, and in 
North America south to Gulf of St. Lawrence, in winter along coasts 
of north Atlantic, extending south to Marocco (according to Hartlaub 
even to Senegambia), Azores, and Canary Islands, and in America 
to Gulf of Mexico. 

[NOTE. AN AMERICAN DARTER, Anhinga anhinga (L.), is said to have 
been shot near Poole (Dorset) June, 1851 (Saunders, p. 364).] 

[NOTE. A RED-BILLED TROPIC-BIRD, Phaethon cethereus (L.), is said to 
have been found dead in Herefordshire (Saunders, p. 366).] 


319. Hydrobates pelagicus (L.) THE STORM-PETREL. 

PROCELLARIA PELAGICA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 131 (1758 
' ' Habitat in albo Oceano." Restricted typical locality : coast of Sweden). 
Procellaria pelagica Linnaeus, Yarrell, iv, p. 42 ; Saunders, p. 727. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Breeds Scilly Isles, possi- 
bly an islet off Lundy, several islands off southern portion of Welsh 
coast, many western isles Scotland, as well as Orkneys and Shetlands, 
and several islands off north and west coasts Ireland. A pair nested 
Bass Rock, 1904. In autumn and spring generally distributed in 
British waters, and often driven inland in rough weather ; in winter 
usually very scarce. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Eastern portions of north Atlantic, south 
to western Mediterranean and west Africa, but rare south of Canary 
Islands ; also recorded from south Africa and seen in Straits of 
Bab el Mandeb, but specimens should be compared. 


320. Oceanodroma leucorhoa (Vieill.) LEACH'S FORK- 

PROCELLARIA LEUCORHOA Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., notiv. 
ed., xxv, p. 422 (1817 Picardy in France). 

Cymochorea leucorrhoa (Vieillot), Yarrell, iv, p. 37 ; Oceanodroma leucorrhoa 
(Vieillot), Saunders, p. 729. 

* In the Cat. B. Brit. M.U8. this species has been called Procellaria 
pelagica, and it has been stated that P. pelagica was the type of Procellaria. 
This is an error (cf. Nov. Zool., 1910, p. 497). American and other authors 
have accepted the generic name Thafassidroma, but Hydrobates is older, and 
it need not be rejected on account of the previous name Hydrobata. E.H. 


DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Breeds Flannan Isles, 
St. Kilda group and North Rona (O. Hebrides), and two or three islets 
off Kerry and Mayo. Elsewhere somewhat irregular visitor (chiefly 
autumn) to all coasts, and not infrequently driven inland during 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. North Pacific and north Atlantic Oceans. 
Breeds in North America from Bay of Fundy to Labrador and in 
north Pacific, in Europe not outside British Isles, but stragglers 
occurred Norway, Heligoland, coasts of Germany, Holland, Belgium, 
France, Portugal, south to Canaries and Azores, and Mediterranean. 


321. Oceanodroma castro (Harcourt) THE MADEIRAN 

THALASSIDROMA CASTRO Harcourt, Sketch of Madeira, p. 123 (1851 

Desertas near Madeira). 

Oceanodroma castro (Harcourt), Saunders, p. 731. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Three. One picked up dead Littlestone 
(Kent) Dec. 5, 1895 (Saunders, p. 731). A female shot near Hythe 
(Kent) Nov. 8, 1906 (N. F. Ticehurst, Bull. B.O.C., xix, p. 20 ; cf. 
Brit. B., n, p. 369). One picked up dead Milford (Hants.) Nov. 19, 
1911 (P. W. Munn, Brit. B., v, p. 252). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Has a curiously wide distribution, breed- 
ing on outlying rocks of Azores, Canary and Madeira groups, on Cape 
Verde Islands and probably St. Helena, as well as on Hawaiian and 
Galapagos Islands in Pacific Ocean. 


322. Oceanites oceanicus (Kuhl) WILSON'S PETREL. 

PROCEIXARIA OCEANICA Kuhl, Beitrage z. Zoo!., p. 136, pi. 10, fig. 1 

( 1 820 Southern Oceans ; no locality stated). 

Oceanites oceanica (Kuhl), Yarrell, iv, p. 48 ; Saunders, p. 733. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Very rare vagrant. England. 
Many seen off Land's End, May, 1838. Following authentic examples 
since obtained : Cornwall (one), Wilts, (one), Isle of Wight (two), 
Sussex (one), Yorks. (one), Cumberland (three). Scotland. One 
Jura (I. Hebrides) Oct., 1891. Ireland. Two, Lough Erne (Antrim) 
and Mossvale (Down) Oct. 1 and 2, 1891. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in South Polar regions, migrating 
northwards during antarctic winter as far as British Isles and 
Labrador, having been found in all seas except north Pacific. 



323. Pelagodroma marina (Lath.) THE FRIGATE-PETREL. 

PROCELLABJA MARINA Latham, Index Orn., n, p. 826 (1790 Ocean, 37 

S. lat.). 

Pelagodroma marina (Latham), Saunders, p. 735. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Two. One picked up dead Walney 
Island (Lanes.) Nov., 1890 (H. A. Macpherson, Ibis, 1891, p. 602). 
Young female caught alive Colonsay (I. Hebrides) Jan. 1, 1897 
(W. E. Clarke, Ann. S.N.H., 189V, p. 88). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Southern oceans, breeding in Australian 
and New Zealand seas, and again in middle Atlantic, where it nests 
on Cape Verde and Salvage Islands. Occurring casually off Massa- 
chusetts coast in North America. 


324. Puffinus obscurus godmani Allen THE LITTLE DUSKY 

PUFFINUS GODMANI Allen, Auk, 1908, p. 339. (Madeira. From literature.*) 
Puffinus obscurus atlanticus Rothschild and Hartert, Bull. B.O.C., xxvn, 
p. 43 (1911 North Atlantic Islands. Type from Porto Santo near 
Madeira), f 

Puffinus obscurus (nee Gmelin), Yarrell, iv, p. 27 ; P. assimilis nee Gould, 
Saunders, p. 743 ; P. bailloni Bonaparte, Godman, Mon. Petrels, p. 138. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Six. One caught on board-ship off 
Bull Rock (Cork) May 6, 1853 (Birds Ireland, p. 395). Male found 
dead near Bungay (Suffolk) about April 10, 1858 (Saunders, p. 743). 
Female picked up near Bexhill (Sussex) Dec. 28, 1900 (W. R. But- 
terfield, Bull. B.O.C., xi, p. 45). Male caught near Lydd (Kent) 
Nov. 27, 1905 (N. F. Ticehurst, op.c., xvi, p. 38 ; cf. Brit. B.,u, p. 373). 
Female picked up dead St. Leonards (Sussex) Oct. 27, 1911 (H. W. 
Ford-Lindsay, op.c., v, p. 253). Male picked up dead Pevensey Sluice 
(Sussex) Nov. 15, 1911 (H. F. Witherby, I.e.). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Islands in eastern parts of northern half 
of Atlantic Ocean : Cape Verdes, Canaries, Madeira and neighbouring 
islands, Azores. Replaced by other subspecies in western part of 
north Atlantic (east coast of United States, Bahamas, Bermudas), 
on Mascarene Islands (Seychelles, Mauritius, Reunion, Madagascar), 
in Australian and New Zealand seas, on Galapagos Islands, and in 
central Pacific Ocean (the last P. obscurus obscurus (Gm.)). 

* Professor Allen, without examining specimens, gave a name to the 
Madeiran race, which had already been described in detail. 

t See Nov. ZooL, 1899, pp. 194-7. 



325. Puffinus gravis (O'Reilly) THE GREAT SHEAR- 

PROCELLARIA GRAVIS O'Reilly, Greenland, adjacent seas, etc., p. 140, 
pi. 12, fig. 1 (1818 Cape Farewell and Staten Hook to Newfoundland). 
Puffinus major F. Faber, Yarrell, iv, p. 12 ; P. gravis (O'Reilly), Saunders, 
p. 737. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Autumn-visitor. Most frequent and 
regular off coasts of south-west England, western isles Scotland, and 
south and west coasts Ireland. Fairly frequent off Yorks. coast, 
but seldom noticed elsewhere on east coast. Very seldom near 
land. Often in flocks and generally seen Aug. to Nov., but not 
infrequently late June and July. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Atlantic Ocean from Arctic Circle to south 
Africa and Cape Horn. Only known with certainty to breed in the 
Tristan d'Acunha group, but probably nests in other localities in 
the Southern Hemisphere. 


326. Puffinus kuhlii kuhlii (Boie) THE MEDITERRANEAN 

PROCELLARIA KUHLII Boie, Isis, 1835, p. 257 (Corsica). 

Puffinus kuhlii (Boie), W. R. Butterfield, Bull. B.O.C., xvi, p. 71 ; 

Saunders, Brit, B., i, p. 16. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. One. Female picked up Pevensey Beach 
(Sussex) Feb. 21, 1906 (ut supra). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Mediterranean Sea, from Palestine to 
Spain. Replaced in north Atlantic by another form inhabiting east 
Atlantic Islands, and probably by still another on eastern American 
coast, though the distinctness of last is doubtful. 


327. Puffinus griseus (Gm.) THE SOOTY SHEARWATER. 

PROCELLARIA GRISEA Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, ii, p. 564 (1789 Southern 


Puffinus griseus (Gmelin), Yarrell, iv, p. 17 ; Saunders, p. 739. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Autumn-visitor (Aug.-Oct., ex- 
ceptionally Nov. and Dec.). Chiefly noticed off Firth of Forth, 
coast Yorks., along Channel from Sussex to Cornwall (only twice 


Kent), and off coasts Cork, Kerry, and Mayo. Also recorded 
Northumberland (four and others seen), and once each from coasts 
Orkneys, Haddington, Norfolk, Down. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in Southern Hemisphere, ranging 
north after breeding -season to Fseroes and United States, as well as 
to the Kuriles in Pacific. 


328. Puffinus puffinus puffinus (Brunn.) THE MANX 

PROCELLAEIA PUFFINUS BrUnnich, Orn. Bor., p. 29 (1764 Faeroes, 


Puffinus anglorum (Temminck), Yarrell, iv, p. 21 ; Saunders, p. 741. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Breeds Scilly Isles (in 
great numbers), several islands off coast Wales as well as on main- 
land Carnarvon, several I. and 0. Hebrides (notably Eigg and 
St. Kilda), Orkneys and Shetlands, and several islands and a few 
promontories in Ireland (most numerously Kerry). In late Aug. 
and Sept. considerable migrations noted, and then becomes widely 
spread round coasts, and examples are frequently picked up 
exhausted inland. In winter a decided diminution in numbers, 
which has been especially noted in Ireland and Scotland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds extremely locally on east side of 
north Atlantic ; occurs casually to Greenland, south to Canaries and 
Azores and Brazilian coast. Replaced by another race in Medi- 

329. Puffinus puffinus yelkouan (Acerbi) THE LEVANTINE 

PROCEIXARIA YELKOUAN Acerbi, Bibl. Ital., CXL, p. 294 (1827 Medi- 
Puffinus yelkouanus (Acerbi), Saunders, pp. 741-2. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Vagrant. Eighteen recorded off 
coast Yorks., one Northumberland, two Norfolk, one Kent, one 
Hants., three Devon, and one Firth of Forth. Most Sept., some 
Aug., one Oct, and one Feb. (cf. Saunders, p. 742, and Brit. B., 
n, pp. 137 ; 206, 313, 372, m, p. 295). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Mediterranean from east to west ; cas- 
ually (out of breeding-season) as far north as North Sea. 



330. Pterodroma neglecta (Schleg.) SCHLEGEL 'S PETREL. f 

PROCELLARIA NEGLECTA Schlegel, Mas. Pays-Bas., vi, Procell., p. 10 
( 1 863 Kermadec Islands). 

(Estrelata neglecta (Schlegel), Xewstead and Coward, P.Z.S., 1908, p. 433 ; 
Brit. B., n, p. 14 ; C. Oldham, Bull. B.O.C., xxi, p. 101. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. One. Male found dead near Tarporley 
(Cheshire), April 1, 1908 (ut supra). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. South Pacific Ocean. 


331. Pterodroma hasitata (Kuhl) THE CAPPED PETREL. 

PROCELLARIA HASITATA Kuhl, Beitrage z. ZooL, 2, Abt., p. 142 (1820 

Without locality). 

(Estrelata hcesitata (Kuhl), Yarrell, iv, p. 8 ; Saunders, p. 745. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. One. Caught on a heath, Southacre, 
near SwafTham (Norfolk), Mar. or April, 1850 (Newton, ZooL, 1852, 
p. 3691). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Warmer parts of Atlantic. Formerly 
breeding on Hayti and Lesser Antilles and not rare in West Indies, 
straying to United States, France, and England. Having been 
driven from its breeding -places it is now almost, if not quite, extinct ; 
the last one killed was in 1893, in New York State. 


332. Pterodroma brevipes (Peale) THE COLLARED PETREL. 

PROCELLARIA BREVIPES Peale, U.S. Ex pi. Exp., vm, pp. 294, 337, pi. 80 
(1848 Pacific Ocean, 68 S., long. 95 W.). 
(Estrelata brevipes (Peale), Saunders, p. 747. 

DISTRIBUTION. Wales. One. Shot between Borth and Aberys- 
twyth (Cardigan) end Nov. or beginning Dec., 1889 (J. E. Harting, 
ZooL, 1890, p. 454 ; Salvin, Ibis, 1891, p. 411). 

* The generic name Pterodroma, Bonaparte, 1856, antedates (Estrelata, 
1857, which is generally erroneously quoted as having been published in 
1855. E.H. 

f The name Procellaria phillipii Gray, Ibis, 1862, p. 246, based on the 
plate in Phillip, Voyage to Botany Bay, must remain doubtful until we know 
which kind of Pterodroma breeds on Phillip Island. As this name is not 
accepted, the English name ' ' Phillip's Fulmar," used by Godman (Mon. Petrels, 
p. 226), cannot be recommended. E.H. 

J The name was spelt hasitata. We cannot possibly assume that this is a 
misprint for hcesitata, because it is based on the " Hasita " of Forster's unpub- 
lished plates. Temminck called it " Le Hasite." E.H. 


DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Western and southern Pacific Ocean, 
one recorded from Japan. 


333. Bulweria bulwerii (Jard. and Selby) BULWER'S 

PROCELLARIA BULWERII Jardine and Selby, Illustr. Orn ., n, pi. 05 and 
text (1828 Madeira or near by). 

Bulweria columbina (Moquin-Tandon), Yarrell, iv, p. 34 ; B. buhceri 
(Jardine and Selby), Saunders, p. 749. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Five. One found dead Tanfield (Yorks.) 
May 8, 1837 (Saunders, p. 749). One found dead near Beachy 
Head (Sussex), Feb. 3, 1903 (N. F. Ticehurst, Bull. B.O.C., xm, 
p. 51). Female found dead near St. Leonards (Sussex), Feb. 4. 
1904 (W. R. Butterfield, op.c., xiv, p. 49). Male picked up near 
Winchelsea (Sussex), Sept. 4, 1908 (C. J. Carroll, op.c., xxm, p. 32 ; 
cf. Brit. B, n, pp. 282, 373). Male picked up Pevensey (Sussex), 
Oct. 24, 1911 (H. W. Ford-Lindsay, Brit. B., v, p. 198). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Temperate parts of north Pacific and 
eastern temperate north Atlantic, casual in Greenland. 


Daption capense (L.) THE CAPE PIGEON. 

PROCELLARIA CAPENSIS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 132 (1758 Cape 

of Good Hope). 

Daption capense, Yarrell, iv, p. 11 (in text) ; Saunders, p. 750 (in text). 

DISTRIBUTION. Examples of this species, an inhabitant of the 
southern seas, have been recorded from the Dovey, 1879, near 
Dublin, 1881, and near Bournemouth, 1894, but former writers 
have excluded them as not being genuine wanderers with some 


334. Fulmarus glacialis glacialis (L.) THE FULMAR 

PROCELLARIA GLACIALIS Linnams, Fauna Svecica, ed. n, p. 51 (1761 

Arctic Sea). 

Fulmarus glacialis (Linnaeus), Yarrell, iv, p. 1 ; Saunders, p. 751. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. During last twelve years 
has steadily increased as breeding-bird, and now nests in O. 
Hebrides, besides St. Kilda (where increased), N. Rona, Flannans 
and Barra and possibly Shiant Isles ; Shetlands some thirteen sites ; 
Fair Isle ; Orkneys three or four places ; Handa Isle (off Sutherland), 


Cape Wrath (Sutherland) ; Dunnet Head and Berriedale Head 
(Caithness) (cf. Brit. B., n, pp. 373-4, v, pp. 56, 198). Discovered 
breeding Ireland, 1911, north Mayo coast and Ulster coast (Irish 
Nat., 1911, pp. 149-52; cf. Brit. B., v, p. 141). Although rarely 
coming to land, even after storms, is met with most times of year at 
sea off east coast Great Britain and north and west coasts Ireland, 
and in winter off south and west coasts England. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. North Atlantic, generally breeding far 
north. Replaced by allied race in north Pacific. 


335. Diomedea melanophrys Temm. THE BLACK- 

DIOMEDEA MELANOPHRYS Temminck (ex Boie MS.), PI- Col. 450 (1828 
Cape of Good Hope and Australia). 
Diomedea melanophrys Boie, Saunders, p. 753. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. One. Exhausted bird picked up near 
Linton (Cambs.), July 9, 1897 (E. A. Butler, Ibis, 1897, p. 625). 
[A bird supposed to have been an Albatros, was seen by Mr. J. A. 
Harvie-Brown twenty miles north-west of Orkneys, July 18, 1894 
(Ann. S.N.H., 1895, p. 57).] 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Southern Oceans, north to the seas near 
Cape of Good Hope, occasionally straying into European waters 
(lat. 80 11' N., long. 4 E., Fseroes). 


336. Colymbus cristatus cristatus L. THE GREAT CRESTED 

COLYMBUS CRISTATUS Linnaeus, Syst. Xat., ed. x, i, p. 135 (1753 Europe. 
Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Podiceps cristatus (Linnaeus), Yarrell, iv, p. 117 ; Podicipes cristatus 
(Linnaeus), Saunders, p. 717. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. During last twenty years 
breeding -range has been extending. Now nests many suitable in- 
land waters throughout England (rarely extreme south-west and 
north) ; a few places Wales ; a good many places south Scotland, 
north to parts of Perth and Forfar, and many places in Ireland. 

* The acceptance of Brisson's genera necessitates the restriction of the 
name Colymbus to the Grebes. Linnaeus included in the genus Colymb us three 
Grebes and one Diver ; Brisson restricted Colymbus to the Grebes and placed 
the Divers in his genus Mergus ; the latter name having been preoccupied by 
Linnaeus, the next oldest name, i.e. Gavia Forster, 1788, including Divers 
only, must be accepted for the latter. E.H. 


To extreme north Scotland as well as Orkneys, Shetlands and 
I. Hebrides only rare vagrant, and unrecorded O. Hebrides. In 
winter general movement to tidal waters and coasts. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Nesting in Europe from lat. 60 north 
to Mediterranean and north Africa, and probably throughout 
northern and central Asia to China and Japan. Wintering in 
Mediterranean and northern Africa. It is said to breed also in 
Abyssinia and south Africa. Represented by allied races in 
Australia and New Zealand. 


337. Colymbus auritus L. THE SLAVONIAN GREBE. 

COLYMBUS AURITUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 135 (1758 Europe 
and America. Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 
Podiceps auritus (Linnaeus), Yarrell, iv, p. 128 ; Podicipes auritus 
(Linnaeus), Saunders, p. 721. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident and winter-visitor. A 
few breed in north mainland Scotland, and some evidence, but no 
proof, that it has bred elsewhere. Otherwise regular winter-visitor 
all coasts and occasional inland waters, also has occurred a good 
many times in summer, chiefly Scotland and Ireland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Northern part of Northern Hemisphere, 
south in winter to Mediterranean and Azores, China, and in 
America to south California, the Gulf Coast, and Florida. 


338. Colymbus griseigena griseigena Bodd. THE RED- 

COLYMBUS GRISEIGENA Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Enl., p. 55 (1783 Ex Dau- 

benton, PI. Enl. 931. No locality stated. We fix as the typical locality : 


Podiceps griseigena (Boddaert), Yarrell, iv, p. 124 ; Podicipes griseigena 

(Boddaert), Saunders, p. 719. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Winter-visitor. Chiefly east coast 
Great Britain and sometimes in considerable numbers, occasional 
south coast England, rare west side Great Britain (not recorded 
O. Hebrides), fairly frequent Orkneys, only occasional Shetlands, 
only twelve obtained in Ireland. Very rare inland waters. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe and western Asia, ranging south 
to Mediterranean, Black and Caspian Seas, and (at least in winter, 


but supposed to breed in Marocco) coasts of Marocco, Algeria, 
Tunisia, and Egypt. Replaced by an allied race in North America, 
east Siberia, and Greenland. 


339. Colymbus nigricollis nigricollis (Brehm) THE BLACK- 

PODICEPS NIGRICOLLIS Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deutschl., p. 963 
(1831 E. Germany). 

Podiceps nigricollis C. L. Brehm, Yarrell, iv, p. 133 ; Podicipes nigricollis 
C. L. Brehm, Saunders, p. 723. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Known to have bred 
regularly one locality since 1904, also some evidence of breeding 
on occasions Norfolk, Oxon., and Perth. Otherwise irregular visitor, 
chiefly autumn to spring, but sometimes summer, and most fre- 
quently coasts Yorks., Norfolk, and Merioneth. Elsewhere very 
uncommon, while in north-west England and west and north 
Scotland and Orkneys very rare vagrant and not known 0. Hebrides 
or Shetlands. In Ireland obtained twenty-four times. Occasional 
inland waters. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. From south Sweden throughout Europe 
to Africa and through temperate Asia to China and Japan. Breeds 
even in tropical and south Africa (Abyssinia and South Africa). 
Straggler to Azores. Replaced by a closely-allied form in North 


340. Colymbus ruficollis ruficollis Pall. -THE LITTLE GREBE. 

COLYMBUS RUFICOLLIS Pallas, Vroeg's Cat. Coll., Adumbratiuncula, p. 6 
(1764 Holland). 

Podiceps fluviatilis (Tunstall), Yarrell, iv, p. 137; Podicipes fluviatilis 
(Tunstall), Saunders, p. 725. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Generally distributed, 
but less plentiful northern Scotland. In autumn, immigrants occur 
east coast England, and in winter many go down to tidal waters. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. From about lat. 62 north, southwards 
throughout Europe to north Africa, and temperate Asia. Replaced 
by more or less closely-allied forms in tropical and south Africa, 
tropical Asia, Australia, New Zealand, and North America. 

* The introd uction by Sherborn and American ornithologists of Pallas's 
names in the sale- catalogue of Vroeg's collection names published with full 
diagnoses and localities, and therefore perfectly genuine necessitates this 
alteration of the name of the Little Grebe. E.H. 



341. Gavia immer (Briinn.) THE GREAT NORTHERN 

COLYMBUS IMMER Briinnich, Orn. Bor., p. 38 (1764 No locality; ap- 
parently X. Norway). 
Colymbus glacialis Linnseus, Yarrell, iv, p. 96 ; Saunders, p. 709. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Winter- visitor. Fairly generally 
distributed all coasts from Sept. or Oct. to April and May, but most 
plentiful in north. In O. Hebrides and Shetlands present most 
times of year, and has been thought several times, but never proved, 
to have bred in latter. Not uncommon inland waters. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Northern part of Northern Hemisphere, 
in winter south to Mediterranean as far as Algeria as well as Azores 
and Black Sea, and in America to Lower California, the Gulf Coast 
and Florida. 


342. Gavia adamsii (Gray) THE WHITE-BILLED 

COLYMBUS ADAMSII Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1859, p. 167 (Alaska). 
Colymbus adamsi Gray, Yarrell, in, p. x ; Saunders, p. 711. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. About six. One near Lowestoft 
(Suffolk) spring 1852 [another supposed Suffolk example not con- 
sidered authentic]. Two (one Jan., 1879) Northumberland coast. 
One Hickling (Norfolk), Dec. 1872. One Emsworth Harbour 
(Hants.) winter 1895-96. One Loch Fyne (Argyll) autumn 1893. 
One said Filey (Yorks.) Jan. 1897 (cf. Saunders, p. 711; Brit. B., i, 
p. 295, n, p. 333, v, p. 176 ; Birds Yorks., p. 734). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Arctic portions of Northern Hemisphere 
from Taimyr eastward in Old World. In winter more to the 
south ; in America to Nushagak, Alaska, Colorado, while in 
Europe specimens from Upper Austria and Italy have been identi- 
fied as G. adamsii. 


343. Gavia arctica (L.)t THE BLACK-THROATED DIVER. 

COLYMBUS ARCTICUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 135 (1758 Europe 

and America. Restricted typical locality ; Sweden). 

Colymbus arcticus Linnaeus, Yarrell, iv, p. 105 ; Saunders, p. 713. 

* Unfortunately Briinnich's name antedates Linnseus's Colymbus glacialis, 
and must therefore be used. With regard to the generic name, see footnote 
under Colymbus cristatus, p. 150. E.H. 

f According to Buturlin, both Cr.arctaca and G. pacifica are found breeding 
side by side in areas of thousands of miles. We cannot, therefore, treat them 
as geographical forms of one species. 


DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident and winter-visitor. Breeds 
in small numbers Perth, Argyll, and more commonly Inverness, 
Ross, Sutherland, Caithness and 0. Hebrides, and occasionally Skye 
and Orkneys. To Shetlands very rare visitor, but has possibly bred. 
Elsewhere uncommon winter- visitor (Oct. -May) and rarest of the 
Divers (except G. adamsii). Especially rare west coast England 
and Wales and in Ireland. Rare vagrant inland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Northern part of Northern Hemisphere, 
south in winter to Mediterranean, Black and Caspian Seas, in 
America casually to Colorado, Nebraska, Iowa, Ohio, and New 


344. Gavia stellata (Pontoppidan) THE RED-THROATED 

COLYMBUS STELLATUS Pontoppidan, Danske Atlas, i, p. 621 (1763 Ex 

Willughby, pi. 62. Denmark). 

Colymbus septentrionalis Linnaeus, Yarrell, iv, p. 112 ; Saunders, p. 715. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident and winter- visitor. Breeds 
from south Inverness northwards, in Orkneys, Shetlands and O. 
Hebrides, and in one locality Ulster. Otherwise common winter- 
visitor to all coasts, and often ascends rivers and visits inland 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Northern part of Northern Hemisphere. 
In winter south to Algeria, Black and Caspian Seas, south China ; 
in America to California, Maine, and Florida. 


345. Columba palumbus palumbus L. THE WOOD-PIGEON. 

COLUMBA PALUMBUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 163 (1758 " Europe, 

Asia." Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Columba palumbus Linnaeus, Yarrell, in, p. 1 ; Saunders, p. 479. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Generally distributed, but 
only passage-migrant Shetlands, though breeds sparingly Orkneys 
and O. Hebrides. Considerable immigration east coast Great 
Britain autumn and return spring. Generally more abundant 
winter, but varies in numbers and localities affected. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe generally, as far east as Persia, 
and in north-west Africa. Replaced by closely-allied forms in 
Azores, Madeira, and central Asia. 

* Pontoppidan's name is certain, and antedates Linnaeus's C. septen- 
trionalis. E.H. 



346. Columba oenas L. THE STOCK-DOVE. 

COLUMBA OENAS Linngens, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 162 (1758 Europe, 

part. Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Columba aznas Linnaeus, Yarrell, in, p. 8 ; Saunders, p. 481. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Resident. Local but widely 
distributed. In extreme north England has become resident and 
increased since about 1870. Occasionally observed as immigrant 
east coast. Scotland. Resident. First recorded about 1860 and 
first nested about 1877. Has spread rapidly since, and now breeds 
throughout southern counties, and although not north of Clyde area 
on west side, on east breeds as far north as Sutherland, where first 
nest found 1889. To Caithness, Orkneys and Shetlands very rare 
vagrant and unrecorded from Hebrides. Ireland. Resident. First 
recorded 1875, and first nest 1877, now breeds (increasingly) in many 
parts Leinster and Ulster, and as far west as Lough Derg. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe and western Asia, east to Turkes- 
tan. Northern birds are migratory and winter in Mediterranean 
countries, south to Algeria and Marocco. 


347. Columba livia livia Gm. THE ROCK-DOVE. 

COLUMBA LIVIA (C. domestica fi) Gmelin, Syst. Nat., I, ii, p. 769 (1789 

part. No locality stated ; we accept south Europe as the typical 


Columba livia Gmelin, Yarrell, in, p. 13 ; Saunders, p. 483. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Resident. Breeds sea-cliffs 
Yorks., sparingly Devon and Cornwall, one locality Cumberland, 
and a good many places Welsh coast. Scotland and Ireland. 
Widely distributed, especially on west coasts and isles. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Found in Faeroes (formerly in Norway), 
Mediterranean countries and islands, Crimea, north-west Africa and 
Asia Minor, east to Afghanistan and north-west India. Replaced 
by allied forms in south Persia, India, China to Japan, Egypt, Nubia 
to Palestine, and parts of west Africa. 


348. Streptopelia turtur turtur (L.) THE TURTLE-DOVE. 

COLUMBA TURTUR Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 164 (1758 " Habitat 

in India." Errore. Ex Willughby, Ray, Albin. Real typical locality r 


Turtur communis Selby, Yarrell, in, p. 21 ; Saunders, p. 485. 

* Turtur Selby 1835 has been commonly used for this genus, but it is un- 
fortunately preoccupied by Turtur Boddaert, 1783, instituted for a totally 
different Pigeon. The next oldest name is Streptopelia Bonaparte 1857. E.H. 



DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Summer-resident (late April 
and early May to Sept. and occasionally later : one Dec., one Feb.). 
Breeds chiefly south, east, and midlands : infrequent Cornwall and 
western Wales, but lately spread to Bangor (Carnarvon) and west 
Merioneth and Montgomery, much increased Cheshire, infrequent 
Lanes., very rare (but has bred) Cumberland, breeds eastern half 
Yorks. as far north as Bipon and Scarborough. Northwards 
irregular migrant, but has bred Durham. Scotland and Ireland. 
Summer- and autumn- visitor. Occurs irregularly most parts Scot- 
land, even northern and western isles, but does not breed. In 
Ireland regular, but scarce, visitor to south coast, a vagrant to other 
maritime counties, and rare vagrant inland, chiefly May and June, 
less frequently autumn, and said to have bred two or three times. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe from Scandinavia and north 
Russia to Mediterranean and westernmost Asia ; in winter in north 
Africa, south to Abyssinia and Red Sea. Replaced by allied races 
in north Africa, Persia and probably other parts of western Asia. 


349. Streptopelia orientalis orientalis (Lath.) THE 

COLUMBA ORIENTALIS Latham, Ind. Orn., n, p. 606 (1790 China. Ex 


Turtur orientalis (Latham), Saunders, p. 487. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. One. A young bird near Scarborough 
(Yorks.) Oct. 23, 1889 (Seebohm, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1890, p. 361). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Manchuria, Corea and Japan, throughout 
China to Himalayas and central India. Casual in Denmark and 
Sweden. Races perhaps not yet fully known, but certainly replaced 
by AS', orientalis ferrago in south-west Siberia, Turkestan to Kashmir 
and Xepal. 

[XoTE. Five examples of the AMERICAN PASSENGER-PIGEON, Ectopistes 
migratorius (L.), have been recorded as shot in the British Isles ; one had 
certainly escaped from captivity and the others had no doubt also (Yarrell, 
in, p. 26 ; Saunders, p. 487). The species is now apparently extinct.] 


350. Syrrhaptes paradoxus (Pall.) PALLAS 'S SAND- 

TETRAD PARADOXA Pallas, Reise d. versch. Prov. d. Russ. Reichs, n, p. 712. 

pi. F (1773 Tartary desert). 

Syrrhaptes paradoxus (Pallas), Yarrell, in, p. 31 ; Saunders, p. 488. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Irregular visitor. Greatest inva- 
sions, May, 1863 and 1888, arriving along whole east coast Great 
Britain and spreading over greater part British Isles, reaching even 


north-west Ireland and O. Hebrides. Two clutches of eggs found 
near Beverley (Yorks.) June and July, 1888, and young birds at 
mouth of Fmdhorn, Culbin Sands (Elgin), June 1888 and Aug. 1889. 
Considerable invasion May 1908, recorded Yorks., Norfolk, Essex, 
Kent, Surrey, Berks., Herts., Hants., Cheshire. Other occurrences 
are : 1859, Norfolk, Kent, Carnarvon; 1872, Northumberland, Ayr ; 
1876, Yorks., Norfolk, Kildare ; 1890, Yorks., Lines., Norfolk, 
Suffolk ; 1891, Yorks., north Scotland ; 1899, Yorks. and Lines. ; 
1904, Yorks. ; 1906, Yorks., Norfolk, East Lothian ; 1909, Yorks. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds from Khirgiz Steppes and recently 
L"fa Government in south-east Russia to Mongolia and southern 
Transcaspia, Koko-nor and Tsaidam. At irregular intervals migra- 
tions take place, which bring these birds far westward into Europe, 
as far west as France and Spain, and south to Italy, north to Norway 
and Archangel. Probably the appearance at Pechili in China is also 
irregular. Pallas's Sand-Grouse was noticed in Europe for first time 
in 1848 near Sarepta (south Russia) and 1859 in west Europe. 


351. Haematopus ostralegus ostralegus L. THE OYSTER- 

HJEMATOPUS OSTRALEGUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed, x, i, p. 152 (1758 
Europe and Xorth America. Restricted typical locality : Oeland [island 
near Sweden]). 
Hcematopus ostralegus Linnaeus, Yarrell, in, p. 294; Saunders, p. 559. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Breeds only very sparingly 
in few localities east coast England and on south coast, but fairly 
plentifully on coasts Wales and Lanes, northwards. In Scotland 
and Ireland plentiful and frequently breeds along rivers and inland 
lochs Scotland. General movement southward in autumn when 
immigrants arrive from Continent and species becomes more 
numerous and more generally distributed. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe generally, eastwards to central 
Asia. Wintering as far south as Mediterranean, north Africa, Red 
Sea, and north-west India. Replaced by a closely -allied form in 
north-east Asia, and by others in Australia and New Zealand, North 
and South America. 


352. Burhinus cedicnemus oedicnemus (L.) THE STONE- 

CHARADRIUS CEDICXEMUS Linnaeus, Syst. Xat., ed. x, i, p. 151 (1758 


(Edicnemus scohpax (S. G. Gmelin), Yarrell, in. p. 225 ; Saunders, p. 529. 

* I do not consider Burhinus magnirostris (Australia) and our Stone-Curlew 
generically separable, and in that case Burhinus, being the oldest name, is the 
generic appellation. E.H. 

M 2 


DISTRIBUTION. England. Summer-resident (April-Oct.), some 
winter Devon and Cornwall, and occasional elsewhere. Breeds 
Yorks. (now two localities only, York moors and wolds), Lines., 
Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex (one locality), Kent, Sussex, Surrey, Hants., 
Dorset, Wilts., Berks., Oxon., Herts, (not Beds, since 1890) and 
Cambs. Elsewhere vagrant. Very rare Wales and north. Scotland 
and Ireland. Rare vagrant. Two Scotland St. Andrews (Fife), 
Jan., 1858, Dumbarton, Aug., 1897. Ten Ireland, autumn to March. 
Clare, Waterford, Wexford, Dublin (5), Antrim and one without 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Central and south Europe, east at least 
to the Ural and Caspian. Partially migratory, wintering in north- 
east Africa and Mediterranean countries. Replaced by allied races 
in north-west Africa and Asia, and by others in various parts of 


353. Cursorius gallicus gallicus (Gm..) THE CREAM- 

CHARADRIUS GALLICUS Gmelm, Syst. Nat. i, ii, p. 692 (1789 France). 
Cursorius gallicus (Gmelin), Yarrell, in, p. 238 ; Saunders, p. 533. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Rare vagrant. About twenty 
England, tw r o Wales, one Scotland. Chiefly Oct. to Dec., but a pair 
May 5, 1911, Sussex. Has been recorded Northumberland, Yorks., 
Lines., Norfolk, Suffolk, Kent, Middlesex, Hants., Wilts., Dorset, 
Devon, Cornwall, Somerset, Leicester, Cumberland, Cardigan, 
" North Wales " and Lanark. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Deserts of north Africa, west to Canary 
and Cape Verde Islands, occasionally met with in south Europe, and 
as far north as Heligoland, Germany, Holland, Belgium, and France. 
Exact limit to the east uncertain. Replaced by allied races in 
Somaliland, the Dahlak Islands in Red Sea, Transcaspia and other 
parts of Asia. 


354. Glareola pratincola pratincola (L.) THE PRATIN- 

HIRUNDO PRATINCOLA Linnanis, Syst. Nat., ed. xii, i, p. 345 (1766 

S. Europe and Austria). 

Glareola pratincola (Linnaeus), Yarrell, in, p. 231 ; Saimders, p. 531. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Rare vagrant. Over twenty Eng- 
land, one Wales, three Scotland, one doubtful Ireland. Has been 

* The name "/usca" has been adopted erroneously. The description en 
which it is based does not refer to this Pratincole. E.H. 


recorded Cornwall, Devon, Somerset, Dorset, Wilts., Hants, (two 
or three), Surrey, Kent (three), Essex, Norfolk (four), Cambs., 
Lines., Yorks. (three), Lanes., Cumberland, Brecon (one seen), Unst 
(Shetlands), Montrose (Fife), Flannan Isles (0. Hebrides). One 
supposed Cork prior to 1844. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. South Europe and north Africa, east- 
wards to Palestine, Black and Caspian Seas, and, apparently, to 
Turkestan ; northwards (in Europe) to the Camargue in south France 
and to Hungary. Stragglers have not infrequently occurred in 
Austria, Poland, Germany, Holland, and Belgium. Northern birds 
are migratory and seem to winter in north Africa. Replaced by 
allied races in tropical and south Africa, and tropical and east Asia. 


355. Glareola nordmanni Nordm. THE BLACK-WINGED 

GLAREOLA NORDMANNI " Fischer," Nordmann, Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. 
Moscou, xv, p. 314, pi. 2 (1842 Steppes of south Russia). 
Glareola melanoptera Nordmann, N. F. Ticehurst, Bull. B.O.C., xin, 
p. 78 ; Samiders, Brit. B., I, p. 15. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Four. One Romney Marsh (Kent), 
May 30, 1903 (ut supra}. One same place, June 17, and one Rye 
(Sussex), June 18, 1903 (Boyd Alexander, Bull, B.O.C., xiv, p. 17). 
One near Northallerton (Yorks.) Aug. 17, 1909 (R. Fortune, Nat., 
1909, p. 372 ; Brit. B., m, p. 266). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Appears to inhabit south Russian steppes 
together with G. pratincola pratincola, north to west Siberia and east 
to Turkestan. Breeds casually in Hungary and the Dobrudscha. 
Winters in tropical and south Africa. 


356. Charadrius morinellus L. THE DOTTEREL. 

CHARADRIUS MORINELLUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 150 (1758 

Europe. Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Eudromias morinellus (Linnaeus), Yarrell, in, p. 246 ; Saunders, p. 535. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Summer-resident (late April and 
early May to Aug. and Sept.). Breeds Lake District (very sparingly) 
and in Cairngorm and Grampian ranges as well as a few localities 
north of Spey valley and west of Great Glen, and has extended to 
south of Loch Tay in recent years. Has bred Kirkcudbright and 

* The bird was described and figured under the name of Glareola nord- 
manni, and not as melanoptera. In a footnote it is said that Nordmann had 
proposed to call it melanoptera, but that the Society had preferred the name 
nordmanni ! The full and complete description is by Nordmann alone. E.H. 


probably Dumfries. As passage-migrant has occurred many 
localities England and south Scotland and occasionally Wales, but 
only rare vagrant west and north Scotland, including Orkneys and 
Shetlands, and twice Flannan Isles (0. Hebrides). In Ireland 
fourteen times, Munster and Ulster, chiefly autumn, but once (flock 
of twenty) April. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in north Scandinavia, Novaya 
Zemlia, Waigatz, and Arctic Asia (Taimyr, Yenisei, Lena), also in 
small numbers on the German Riesengebirge (on frontier of Silesia 
and Bohemia), and in Transylvania. Migratory, wintering in north 
Africa, Palestine, and Persia. Casual on Canaries and in Japan. 


357. Charadrius asiaticus Pall. THE CASPIAN PLOVER. 

CHARADRIUS ASIATICUS Pallas, Reise d. versch. Prov. d. Russ. Reichs, 
n, p. 715 (1773 S. Tartary). 

itis asiatica (Pallas), Saunders, p. 537. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Three or four. Male adult shot and 
another bird seen near Great Yarmouth (Norfolk), May 22, 1890 
(Saunders, p. 537). A pair shot Romney Marsh (Sussex), July 13, 
1911 (H. W. Ford-Lindsay, Brit. B., v, p. 115). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in south-east Russia and through 
Khirgiz Steppes to salt -steppes of Turkestan. Winters in west 
India and Africa. 


358. Charadrius hiaticula hiaticula L. THE RINGED 

CHARADRIUS HIATICULA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 150 (1758 Europe 

and America. Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Charadrius hiaticula major Seebohm, Hist. Brit. B., in, p. 20 (1885 

Seebohm separated a larger race, supposed to be resident in the British 

Isles, but other ornithologists have not followed him, and the status of 

this race remains very doubtful). 

JEgialitis hiaticula (Linnaeus), Yarrell, in, p. 257 ; Saunders, p. 539. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Generally distributed flat 
coasts, and also a few breed inland as in the Cheviots, west Suffolk, 
Norfolk, Middlesex, Surrey, and Worcester, on banks of rivers and 
lakes, warrens, sewage-farms, etc. Immigration noted autumn, 
when some also emigrate southwards and return spring. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Arctic to central Europe, east to arctic 
and central Asia, and eastern arctic America. Winters on Mediter- 
ranean and in Africa, as far south as Cape Colony, casual in 


north-west India, Australia, Chile and Barbados. Replaced by an 
allied race in North America (except easternmost arctic part), 
which winters in South America. 


359. Charadrius dubius Scop. THE LITTLE RINGED 

CHARADRIUS DUBIUS Scopoli, Del. Faun, et Flor. Insubr., n, p. 93 (1786 


Charadrius minor MacGillivray, Man. Brit. B., n, p. 53 (1840). 

litis curonica (Gmelin), Yarrell, in, p. 262 ; Saunders, p. 541. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Very rare vagrant. Some nine 
authentic examples recorded. Sussex two ; Scilly one, Oct. 23, 
1863 ; Middlesex two, Aug., 1864 ; Isle of Wight one, Aug., 1864 
(Saunders, p. 541) ; Christchurch, Aug. 1860, and April 28, 1879 
(Birds Hants., p. 286) ; North Uist (O. Hebrides) (probably Oct.), 
1908 (Brit. B., n, p. 388). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Nests in north, central and south Europe, 
as well as in north-west Africa, eastwards through north and central 
Asia to Japan. Winters in Africa, India, and Malayan Archipelago. 
Casual in New Guinea and North America. A tropical Indian race 
has been separated by some authors, but its status requires further 


360. Charadrius alexandrinus alexandrinus L. KENTISH 

CHARADRIUS ALEXANDRINUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 150 (1758 


^gialitis cantiana (Latham), Yarrell, in, p. 267 ; Saunders, p. 543. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Summer-resident (April, exceptionally 
March, to late Sept., occasionally Oct.). Breeds only coasts of Kent 
and Sussex. Very rare migrant along south coast to Devon and 
Cornwall and up east coast to Yorks. (seven). Very rare vagrant 
elsewhere, Teesmouth (Durham) one, May, 1904, Marbury Mere 
(Cheshire) pair seen, April 29, 1908, Mansfield (Notts.) one seen, 
April, 1904. Ireland. Very rare vagrant. On four or five occasions 
autumn and winter, latest 1852. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in Europe from south Sweden to 
Mediterranean and north Africa, Madeira, Canary and Cape Verde 

* Scopoli's name is certain and antedates Gmelin's curonica ; it has there- 
fore been generally adopted. E.H. 

Linnaeus's name antedates that of Latham. E.H. 


Islands and Azores, apparently to east Siberia and Corea. Winters 
in Africa, India, Ceylon, Burmah, and apparently Japan. Replaced 
by allied forms in China, America, and apparently also Ceylon. 


361. Charadrius vociferus L. THE KILLDEER PLOVER. 

CHARADRIUS VOCIFERUS Linnaeus, Syst. Xat., ed. x, i, p. 150 (1758 
America. Restricted typical locality : Carolina. Ex Catesby). 
dZgialitis vocifera (Linnaeus), Yarrell, in, p. ix ; Saunders, p. 545. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Six. Near Christchurch (Hants.) 
April, 1859. Tresco (Scilly Isles) Jan. 15, 1885 (Saunders, p. 545 
and Birds Hants., p. 287). Peterhead (Aberdeen) 1867 (W. P. 
Pycraft, ylTm. 8.N.H., 1904, p. 247 ; cf. Brit. B., n, p. 150). Three 
Romney Marsh (Kent), April 21 and 22, 1908 (N. F. Ticehurst, 
Brit. B., n, p. 169 ; Bull, B.O.C., xxm, p. 25). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in North America, from British 
Columbia south to central Mexico, winters in Central and South 
America, from California to Venezuela, Peru, and more rarely 
Paraguay and Chile. 


362. Charadrius apricarius L. THE GOLDEN PLOVER. 

CHARADRIUS APRICARIUS Linnseus, Syst. Xat., ed. x, i, p. 150 (1758 

Oeland [island near Sweden] and America : the latter erroneous, ex: 


Pluvialis aurea MacGillivray, Hist. Brit. B., iv, p. 94 (1852). 

Charadrius phi via I is Linnaeus, Yarrell, in, p. 271 ; Saunders, p. 547. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Breeds sparingly moors 
Devon and Somerset, more plentifully Wales and its borders and 
north-east Yorks., and commonly Pennines and northwards through- 
out Scotland and its islands. In Ireland on mountains many dis- 
tricts, as well as bogs in western Connaught. In autumn and winter 
far more numerous, and widely distributed on low-lying marshes 
and fields. 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. Our breeding-birds begin to leave 
moors for coastal regions early Aug., and return March and April. 
From Sept. to Nov. immigrants arrive in great numbers and return 
April and May. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. North Europe, Faeroes and Iceland, and 
west Siberia ; in winter south to north Africa, Azores and Canary 
Islands, and in Asia as far as Sind. 

* This bird is more generally known in England as C. phivialis, in Germany 
as C. auratus ; but its oldest name is apricarius, a name used by Pallas, Sunde- 
vall, Gray, Heuglin, Bonaparte, Schlegel, Loche, and others, and recently by 
all authors who begin nomenclature with the year 1758. E.H. 



363. Charadrius dominicus dominicus Mull. THE AMERI- 

CHARADRIUS DOMINICUS P. L. S. Miiller, Natursystem, Suppl., p. 116 
(1776 Santo Domingo. Ex Brisson). 

Charadrius dominicus P.L.S. Miiller, Saunders, p. 549 (part) ; C. fulvus 
Yarrell, in, p. 276 (in text). 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Three or four. [Leadenhall Market, 
autumn 1882.] Near Perth Aug. 3, 1883* (J. G. Millais, ZooL, 1886, 
p. 26). Belmullet (Mayo) Sept. 13, 1894 (E. Williams, Irish Nat., 
1894, p. 224 ; Saunders, p. 549). Shell Haven Point (Essex) Aug. 6, 
1896* (H. Nunn, ZooL, 1897, p. 330). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in arctic north America, winters 
in Brazil and Argentina, passing down Atlantic Ocean, returning 
through Mississippi valley, and occurring, on migration, in Green- 
land and Bermudas, once on Heligoland, 1847. Replaced in north- 
east Asia by C. d. fulvus. 

364. Charadrius dominicus fulvus Gm. THE ASIATIC 

CHARADRIUS FULVUS Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, p. 687 (1789 Tahiti). 
Charadrius dominicus P. L. Miiller, Saunders, p. 549 (part). 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Two or three. [Leadenhall Market 
Dec., 1874, said from Norfolk.] Loch Stenness (Orkneys) Nov., 
1887 (J. G. Millais, Field, 10.xn.1887 ; Saunders, p. 549). Epsom 
Race-course (Surrey) Nov. 12, 1870 (J. A. Bucknill, Birds Surrey, 
p. 283). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in eastern arctic Asia and Alaska, 
winters in Pacific Ocean, south to New Zealand. Has occurred as 
vagrant in Poland, on Heligoland (three), Malta (two), in south Spain 
and (according to Loche) in Algeria (one). Replaced by C. dominicus 
dominicus in America. 


365. Squatarola squatarola (L.) THE GREY PLOVER. 

TRINGA SQUATAROLA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 149 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Squatarola helvetica (Linnaeus), Yarrell, in, p. 278 ; Saunders, p. 551. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Winter-visitor and passage-migrant 
(end July -Aug., but chiefly Oct. to April-May and a few throughout 
summer). Generally distributed (usually small parties) east and 

* Apparently C. d. dominicus, but possibly C. d. julvus. 


south coasts England, less frequent west coast and Scotland, where 
very rare north of Solway on west and north of Ness on east ; also 
very rare Orkneys, Shetlands, and Hebrides. In Ireland visits all 
coasts, but scarce south. Rare vagrant inland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in tundras of arctic Europe, Asia, 
and America, passes through subarctic regions and winters in Africa, 
India, Malaysia, Australia, and South America. 


366. Chettusia gregaria (Pall.) THE SOCIABLE PLOVER. 

CHARADRIUS GREGARIUS Pallas, Reise d. versch. Prov. d. Russ. Reichs, i, 

p. 456 (1771 Volga steppes). 

Vanellus gregarius (Pallas), Saunders, p. 553. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Very rare vagrant. One near St. 
Michael's-on-Wyre (Lanes.) autumn, about 1860 (Saunders, p. 553). 
Female near Navan (Meath) Aug. 1, 1899 (E. Williams, Irish Nat., 
1899, p. 233). Female out of flock of six, Romney Marsh (Kent), 
May 3, 1907 (C. B. Ticehurst, Bull. B.O.C., xix, p. 85). Four 
(another said to have escaped) near Winchelsea (Sussex), May 
25-27, 1910 (A. F. Griffith, op.c., xxvn, p. 28 ; cf. Brit. B., i, p. 57, 
n, p. 150, iv, p. 256). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds from south Russian steppes to 
Turkestan, the Altai and (? regularly) west Siberia, and Mongolia, 
south in winter to north-east Africa and India. Casual in Poland, 
Italy, south France, and near Cadiz. 


367. Vanellus vanellus (L.) THE LAPWING. 

TRINGA VANELLUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 148 (1758 Europe, 

Africa. Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Vanellus vulgaris Bechstein, Yarrell, in, p. 283 ; Saunders, p. 555. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Generally distributed. 
In autumn large numbers arrive from Continent and many of our 
home-bred birds move to coast, while a proportion emigrate south- 
wards, especially from northern districts. In extreme north Scot- 
land known chiefly as summer-resident. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in Europe (from the Arctic circle 
to south Spain) and in northern Asia eastwards to the Pacific Ocean 
[according to Irby north Marocco, and (?) Egypt]. Winters in south 

* Both in the Introduction to theUccelli of his Iconogr. Faun. ItaL, and on 
p. 115 (accompanied by a fine plate) Bonaparte spelt the name Chettusia, not 
Chcetusia. E.H. 


Europe, north Africa, Asia Minor, Persia and north India, China and 
south Japan. Casual in Greenland, Jan Mayen, Newfoundland, 
Nova Scotia, New York, Bahamas, and Barbados. 


368. Arenaria interpres interpres (L.) THE TURNSTONE. 

TRINGA INTERPRES Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 148 (1758 Europe 
and N. America. Restricted typical locality : Gotland). 
Strepsilas interpres (Linnseus), Yarrell, in, p. 289 ; Saunders, p. 557. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Pas sage -migrant and winter-visitor 
(late July and Aug. to May). Widely distributed all coasts chiefly 
autumn and spring but many stay winter, especially in south England 
and Ireland. Non-breeding birds frequently observed throughout 
summer. Occasionally inland on passage. Supposed, but never 
proved, to have bred on several occasions. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in Greenland, arctic Europe, south 
to Cattegat and Baltic, and Asia, and also in Alaska. Winters on 
coasts of Europe, Africa, Asia, Oceania, and Australia. Replaced 
by a very closely -allied form (status of which requires further 
investigation) in arctic America, which migrates south to Central 
and South America. 


369. Bartramia longicauda (Bechst.) BARTRAM'S SAND- 

TRINGA LONGICAUDA Bechsteui, Allg. Ueb. Vogel, iv, ii, p. 453 (1812 

N. America). 

Bartramia longicauda (Bechstein), Yarrell, in, p. 440 ; Saunders, p. 603. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. About eleven. Near Warwick, end 
Oct., 1851. Near Cambridge, Dec. 12, 1854. River Parret (Somer- 
set) about 1850. Near Mullion (Cornwall) Nov. 13, 1865. Lowstead 
(Northumberland) Nov. 21, 1879. [Leadenhall Market, said from 
Lines., Oct., 1880.] Near Lizard (Cornwall) Oct., 1883. Near 
Ballinasloe (Galway) autumn, 1855. Near Bandon (Cork) Sept. 4, 
1894 (Saunders, p. 603; cf. Yarrell, m, p. 440). [Poulterer's shop, 
Falmouth (Cornwall) Oct., 1903.] Romney Marsh (Kent) July 18, 
1908 (Brit. B., n, pp. 206, 269). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds from Alaska to Missouri, Indiana, 
and north Virginia, winters on pampas of South America, south to 
Argentina. Occurs occasionally in Europe : the only authenticated 

* Arenaria Brisson antedates Strepsilas by 51 years. It is strange that 
British ornithologists, who introduced and always advocated Brisson's generic 
names, have ignored this unmistakeable generic term. E.H. 


instances out of British Isles, however, seem to be two captures in 
Italy and Malta. 


370. Machetes pugnax (L.) THE RUFF. 

TBINGA PUGNAX Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 148 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : South Sweden). 

Machetes pugnax (Linnaeus), Yarrell, in, p. 426 ; Saunders, p. 599. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Passage -migrant and occasional 
winter and summer. Formerly bred many places England but only 
occasionally now. A pair nested 1901, 1902, and 1903 near Tees- 
mouth (Durham) ; in Norfolk Broads, 1907 (and possibly other years 
recently) ; eggs said to have been taken Lanes., 1910 (cf. Brit. B., 
I, p. 65, n, p. 268, iv, p. 222). Otherwise chiefly passage-migrant 
much more frequent autumn than spring, and on east side Great 
Britain than west, where, as in Hebrides and Ireland, decidedly 
scarce, even autumn, and very rare spring. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in Europe and north-west Asia, 
to Taimyr Peninsula and Dauria, from highest north to Danube and 
south Russian steppes. Winters in Africa, north India, and Burmah. 
Wanders occasionally to America, from Ontario and Greenland south 
to Indiana, North Carolina, Barbados, and even northern South 


371. Canutus canutus (L.) THE KNOT. 

TRINGA CANUTUS Linnseus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 149 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Tringa canutus Linnaeus, Yarrell, in, p. 413 ; Saunders, p. 595. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Winter-visitor (Aug. -May and occa- 
sionally later) and passage-migrant. Most abundant east coasts 
Great Britain, common south and west coasts England and in Solway, 
but north of Clyde, as in Hebrides, and apparently Orkneys and 
Shetlands scarce. Common east and north coasts Ireland, but 
scarce elsewhere. Occasional inland. Extensive autumn and 
spring passage-movements of birds wintering further south, and in 
severe weather many of our winter- visitors pass south. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in Arctic regions (Taimyr Penin- 
sula in Siberia, perhaps Iceland, Greenland, Ellesmere Land to 
Melville Peninsula, Point Barrow in Alaska), migrates south as far 
as south Africa, India, Australia, and New Zealand, North and South 
America to Patagonia. 

* It seems reasonable to separate the Knot generically, and in that case 
Canutus is the oldest generic name. E.H. 



372. Calidris leucophsea (Pall.) THE SANDERLING. 

TMXGA LEUCOPH^A Pallas, in Vroeg's Cat. Coll., p. 32 (1764 Northern 

coast of Holland). 

Calidris arenaria (Linnaeus), Yarrell, in, p. 420 ; Saunders, p. 597. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Passage-migrant (Aug.-Oct. and 
April-May) and winter-visitor. Widely distributed on sandy coasts 
but scarce west Scotland. Chiefly passage-migrant staying through 
autumn, but a good many winter. Non-breeding birds observed 
frequently throughout summer. Occasional inland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in arctic regions (Spitsbergen, 
north Siberia, probably Iceland, from Melville Island and Ellesmere 
Land to Greenland, Alaska), visits in winter and during migration 
all the lands southwards, as far as south Africa, Java, Borneo, 
Australia, the Marshall and Hawaiian Islands, and in America, 
Patagonia and Chile. 


373. Erolia alpina alpina (L.) THE DUNLIN. 

TRINGA ALPINA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 149 (1758 Lapland). 
Tringa alpina Linnaeus, Yarrell, in, p. 377 ; Saunders, p. 583. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident and winter-visitor. Breeds 
sparingly moors Cardigan, Denbigh and Merioneth (formerly Dee 
marshes), Lanes., Yorks. and Derby borders, north and north-west 
Yorks., and Tees marshes ; northwards more abundantly both 
moors and coast-marshes, and most Hebrides, Orkneys and Shetlands. 
Has bred Cornwall, Devon, Somerset, and Lines. In Ireland breeds 
small numbers many parts Leinster, Connaught, and Ulster. Many 
immigrants arrive autumn and until their return in spring the bird 
is very numerous on all coasts, while many non-breeding birds stay 
throughout summer. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in north Europe; Iceland and 
Faeroes; and north Asia, migrates in winter to Mediterranean, north 
Africa and Red Sea, also to India. Accidental in eastern North 
America. Replaced by an allied race in east Asia and North 

* The name leucophcea antedates Tringa Arenaria of Linnaeus (1766). 

f The name Tringa now being used for the Sandpipers (Totanus olim) 
according to the International Riiles and " Opinions" of the Commission, 
the next oldest name must be taken up for the Stints and Dunlins. E.H. 



374. Erolia ferruginea (Briinn.) THE CURLEW-SAND- 

TRINGA FERRUGINEA Briinnich, Orn. Bor., p. 53 (1764 Iceland and 


Tringa subarquata (Giildenstadt), Yarrell, in, p. 403 ; Saunders, p. 591. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Passage-migrant (Aug.-Oct. and 
March- June, exceptionally July). Chiefly east coast Great Britain 
and south coast England, scarce west side, rare I. and unknown 
O. Hebrides, scarce Shetlands, unknown Orkneys and extreme 
north and north-west Scottish mainland. In Ireland, chiefly 
autumn, east and north coasts, occasional Nov., and once Dec. 
26, 1892. Much rarer, especially Scotland and Ireland, in spring. 
Occasional inland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in arctic regions of Asia, winters 
in Africa (from Mediterranean to tropical and south Africa), India, 
Malay Peninsula, and even Australia. Casual in North and South 


375. Erolia minuta minuta (Leisl.) THE LITTLE STINT. 

TRINGA MINUTA Leisler, Nachtrage zu Bechst. Xaturg. DeutschL, p. 74 

(1812 Near on the Main). 

Tringa minuta Leisler, Yarrell, in, p. 386 ; Saunders, p. 585. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Passage -migrant chiefly end Aug. 
to Oct., rarely later, very rare anywhere spring April- June, exception- 
ally July. Regular autumn (but varying numbers), east and south- 
east coasts England and south-east Scotland ; irregular and scarce, 
north of Aberdeen (but recorded to Shetlands), west coasts Great 
Britain (including some I. but no 0. Hebrides) and south coast 
England. In Ireland apparently regular autumn east coast, very 
rare elsewhere ; only one doubtful spring-record. Exceptional 
inland waters. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Inhabits west Siberian tundras and 
islands (Novaya Zemlia, Kolguev, Waigatz, etc.) to North Cape 
of Europe, and migrates south to Africa and India. Replaced 
in east Siberia by E. minuta ruficollis, which wanders south 
through China and Japan to Sunda Islands, Moluccas, and 

* Tringa ferruginea antedates Scolopax subarquata by ten years. E.H. 



376. Erolia minutilla minutilla (Vieill.) THE AMERICAN 

TRINGA MINUTILLA Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., xxxiv, 

p. 466 (1819 Nova Scotia to the Antilles). 

Tringa minutilla Vieillot, Yarrell, in, p. 396 ; Saunders, p. 587. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Four. Mount's Bay (Cornwall) Oct. 10, 
1853. Northern Burrows near Bideford (Devon) Sept. 1869 and 
Aug. 22, 1892 (Saunders, p. 587). Near Mousehole (Cornwall) 
Sept., 1890 (J. Clark, Zool, 1907, p. 286, and Brit. B., n, p. 268). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Northern North America, in winter from 
California, Texas, and North Carolina through West Indies and 
Central America to Brazil, Galapagos Islands, and Chile. On migra- 
tion throughout North America, north-east Siberia and Commander 
Islands, also in Greenland and Bermudas. Replaced by an allied 
form which breeds in north-east Siberia, Kamtschatka, and the 
Kurile Islands, and winters south-east Asia, to Australia. 


377. Erolia temminckii (Leisl.) TEMMINCK'S STINT. 

TRINGA TEMMINCKII Leisler, Nachtrage zu Bechst. Naturg. DeutschL, 

p. 78 (1812 Near Hanau on the Main). 

Tringa temmincki Leisler, Yarrell, m, p. 398 ; Saunders, p. 589. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Rare and irregular passage-migrant 
chiefly autumn (late July to Sept.), very rarely spring (May). 
Irregular everywhere but most frequent from Norfolk southwards 
and along south coast England to Scilly. Elsewhere very rare 
vagrant about seven from Dee to Solway, a few from Lines, to 
Northumberland, two or three east coast Scotland, one Fair Isle 
(autumn 1908), one co. Kerry (Jan., 1848). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeding from Scandinavia eastwards in 
arctic portions of Old World, migrating south in winter to Mediter- 
ranean and north Africa, India, Ceylon, the Indo-Chinese countries 
and China. 


378. Erolia maculata maculata (Vieill.) THE AMERICAN 

TRINGA MACULATA Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., xxxiv, 

p. 465 (1819 Antilles or southern U.S.). 

Tringa maculata Vieillot, Yarrell, m, p. 368 ; Saunders, p. 579. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Vagrant. About forty-five England, 
three Scotland, three Ireland, chiefly autumn, occasional spring. 


England. Northumberland (one), Durham (two), Yorks. (five), 
Norfolk (nine), Suffolk (five or six), Kent (two), Sussex (five), 
Devon (two), Cornwall (three), Scilly Isles (ten), Cumberland (one). 
Scotland. Aberdeen, Argyll and Orkneys, one each. Ireland. 
Portumna (Galway) (one), Belmullet (Mayo) (two). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds on arctic shores of North America, 
winters in South America, from Peru and Bolivia to Chile, 
Argentina and Patagonia ; casual in north-east Siberia, Unalaska, 
Greenland and Hawaii. Replaced by E. maculata acuminata in east 

379. Erolia maculata acuminata (Horsf.)* THE SIBERIAN 

TOTANUS ACUMINATUS Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, xin, p. 192 

(1821 Java, winter- visitor). 

Tringa acuminata (Horsfield), Saunders, pp. 579 and 580. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. One or two. Breydon (Norfolk) Aug. 29, 
1892 (Seebohm, Ibis, 1893, p. 181). [One said taken near Yar- 
mouth, Sept., 1848 (I.e. ; cf. Gurney, Zool, 1849, pp. 2392 and 2568).] 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. North-east Siberia, Kamtschatka, Com- 
mander Islands. Winters in Japan and south to New Guinea, 
Australia, and New Zealand. Replaced in North America by E. 
maculata maculata. 


380. Erolia bairdii (Coues) BAIRD'S SANDPIPER. 

ACTODROMAS BAIRDII Coues, Proc. Acad. Sci. Philad., 1861, p. 194 (Great 
Slave Lake, Canada). 

Tringa bairdi (Coues), E. Hartert, Bull. B.O.C., XT, p. 27 ; Saunders 
Brit. B., i, p. 15. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Three. Young female Rye Harbour 
(Sussex) Oct. 11, 1900 (ut supra}. One Hunstanton (Norfolk) Sept. 
16, 1903 (J. H. Gurney, Zool., 1909, p. 124). Adult female St. Kilda 
(0. Hebrides) Sept. 28, 1911 (W. E. Clarke, Scot. Nat., 1912, p. 9 ; 
cf. Brit. B., v, p. 255). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds along arctic coast of North 
America and migrates south to Chile, Argentina, and Patagonia, 
casual in south-west Africa. 

* American authors (A.O.U. Checklist, 3rd ed, 1910, p. 113) have adopted 
Latham's name Tringa aurita (Latham, Ind. Orn. Sitppl., p. LXVI, ex Gen. 
Syn. Suppl., p. 314) but without reason, as the description disagrees almost 
entirely with that of the present species. E.H. 



381. Erolia fuscicollis (VieiU.) BONAPARTE'S SAND- 

TRINGA FUSCICOLLIS Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., xxxiv, 

p. 461 (1819 Paraguay. Ex Azara). 

Tringa fuscicollis Vieillot, Yarrell in, p. 373 ; Saunders, p. 581. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Fourteen. Salop (one), Scilly Isles, 
(two), Cornwall (three), Devon (four), Sussex (two), Middlesex (one)., 
(Saunders, p. 581). Kent (one), June 4, 1906 (Brit. B., I, p. 231). 
One believed shot near Belfast prior to 1836. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds on arctic coast of North America,, 
having occurred as far west as Point Barrow in Alaska, and as far 
east as Greenland ; migrates through North America, and winters 
in southern South America ; casual in Bermudas. 


382. Erolia subruficollis (Vieill.) THE BUFF-BREASTED 

TRINGA SUBRUFICOLLIS Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 

xxxiv, p. 465 (1819 Paraguay. Ex Azara). 

Tryngites rufescens (Vieillot), Yarrell, in, p. 435 ; Saunders, p. 601. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. About eighteen, mostly Sept., but 
one May and one July. Lines, (one), Norfolk (five), Cambs. (one), 
Sussex (one), [Kent (one) supposed], Cornwall and Scilly (four), 
Lundy Island (one), Lanes, (one), Cumberland (one), Dublin (one), 
Down (two), [Caithness (one) supposed], (Saunders, p. 601 and 
Brit. B., n, pp. 241, 269.) 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds along arctic coasts of North 
America, and apparently easternmost arctic Asia, winters in Argen- 
tina and Uruguay, passing, on migration, through North America 
and appearing occasionally west Europe (Heligoland, Switzerland). 


383. Erolia maritima maritima (Brunn.) THE PURPLE 

TRINGA MARITIMA Brunnich, Orn. Borealis, p. 54 (1764 Christiansoe, 


Tringa striata Linnseus, Yarrell, in, p. 408 ; Saunders, p. 593. 

* The name subruficollishas page-priority over rufescens, and is now univer- 
sally accepted ; cf. Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xxiv, p. 521, A.O.U. Check-list, p. 124. 

f Tringa striata L. is a wrong name, the description not agreeing with that 
of the Purple Sandpiper ; moreover maritima antedates striata. E.H. 


DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Winter-visitor (Sept. to April and 
May, occasionally June). Widely spread all coasts, especially rocky 
ones. Thought to have bred Shetlands, but no proof. Exceptional 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Inhabits arctic regions of Northern Hemi- 
sphere, and breeds in Siberia, north Russia, north Scandinavia, 
Novaya Zemlia, Spitsbergen, Iceland and Faeroes, Greenland and 
arctic America (Melville Island, Ellesmere Land), being migratory 
in northernmost regions, resident as far north as Iceland and south 
Greenland, but wintering as far south as North Sea and Baltic, and 
even in small numbers to Mediterranean and in America to Great 
Lakes, Georgia, Florida and Bermudas. Replaced by other sub- 
species in Alaska, the Pribilof, Commander, Aleutian and Shumagin 


384. Ereunetes pusillus pusillus (L.) THE SEMI-PALMATED 

TRINGA PTJSILLA Linnseus, Syst. Nat., ed. xii, i, p. 252 (1766 San 


Ereunetes pusillu*, N. F. Ticehurst, Brit. B., i, p. 223. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. One. Romney Marsh (Kent), Sept. 17, 
1907 (ut supra}. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds from arctic shores of North 
America south to mouth of Yukon river and to south Ungava. 
Winters from Texas and Carolina through West Indies and Central 
America to Patagonia, migrating through United States (mainly 
ast of Rocky Mountains), casual in north-east Siberia. Replaced 
lay a very closely-allied form in north -westernmost North America 
{Alaska coast) from Kotzebue Sound to mouth of Yukon (according 
to A.O.U. Check-list), migrating in winter south to Florida and 
Carolina, Trinidad and South America. 


385. Limicola platyrhyncha platyrhyncha (Temin.) THE 

TRINGA PLATYBINCHA (evidently wrong transliteration for platyrhyncha) 
Temminck, Man. d'Orn., p. 398 (1815 Swamps of N. Europe and N. 
America, on passage in Germany. Typical locality : north Europe). 
Limicola platyrhyncha (Temminck), Yarrell, in, p. 362 ; Saunders, p. 577. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Ireland. Fifteen, mostly Aug. to 
Oct., but two April and two May. Yorks. (one), Norfolk (five), 
Kent (two), Sussex (six), Belfast Lough (one) (Saunders, p. 577 and 
Brit. B., n, p. 267, m, p. 257). 


DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in Scandinavian mountains, and 
probably in north Russia and west Siberia. On migration visiting 
coasts and inland waters of Denmark, Holland, Germany, France, 
Switzerland, and Italy, Black and Caspian, Mediterranean and 
Red Seas, Pamirs and India. Replaced farther east by paler form 
(L. platyrhyncha sibirica Dress.), which is found on shores of sea of 
Ochotsk, and probably on Lake Baikal, and in winter in Japan, 
China, and even Malayan and Moluccan Islands. It must breed in 
east Siberia. 


386. Macrorhamphus griseus griseus (Gin..) THE RED- 

SCOLOPAX GRISEA Gmelin, Syst. Xat., i, ii, p. 658 (1789 Coast of New 


Macrorhamphus griseus (Gmelin), Yarrell, in, p. 357 ; Saunders, p. 621. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Over twenty from Aug. to Oct. in 
various years. Yorks. (one), Lines, (one), Norfolk (three), Middlesex 
(two), Kent (three), Hants, (two), Devon (one or more), Scilly (one), 
Lanes, (two), Cumberland (one), Fife (one), Lanark (one), Argyll 
(one), Queen's co. (one), Tipperary (one). (Saunders, p. 621 ; Brit. 
B., i, p. 231, n, p. 270 ; Hist. Birds Kent, p. 481.) 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Eastern North America, exact breeding 
range unknown. Winters from Florida and west Indies south to 
north Brazil ; passes on migration along Atlantic coast of North 
America and occasionally through Illinois, Indiana, and Ontario ; 
accidental in Greenland, Bermudas, and France. Replaced by a 
closely-allied race in western North America. 


387. Tringa hypoleuca L. THE COMMON SANDPIPER. 

TRINGA HYPOLEUCOS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 149 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Totanus hypoleucus (Linnaeus), Yarrell, in, p. 446 ; Saunders, p. 605. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Summer-resident (April to Sept. 
occasionally March, Oct. and Nov.). Breeds only very exceptionally 
south and east of a line from Bristol Channel to Humber, but not 
uncommonly Devonian peninsula. West and north of this line 
breeds throughout England and Wales, and Scotland and its isles, 
and in Ireland except in south-east, where scarce. Elsewhere 
common passage -migrant. A few may sometimes winter south 

* The name Tringa cannot be used for the birds hitherto called Tringa. 
The genotype of Tringa is, by tautonymy, Tringa ocrophus. See Smithsonian 
Inst. Publication, 1838 (July, 1910), pp. 31, 33 ; Nov. Zool., 1911, p. 5. E.H. 

N 2 


DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Greater part of Old World, nesting from 
Arctic Circle to Mediterranean Basin in Europe, and north 
Himalayas in Asia, migrating in winter to central and south 
Africa, India, East Indian Archipelago, and even Australia and 


388. Tringa macularia L. THE SPOTTED SANDPIPER. 

TRINGA MACULARIA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. xn, i, p. 249 (1766 Europe 

and America ; Europe probably mistake. Restricted typical locality : 


Totanus macularius (Linnaeus), Yarrell, in, p. 452 ; Saunders, pp. 606, 


DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Very rare vagrant. Many recorded 
(cf. Saunders, p. 606) but only following can be admitted : Female 
near Finea (W. Meath) Feb. 2, 1899 (Saunders, p. 605*). Pair near 
Lydd (Kent), May 5, 1904 (J. L. Bonhote, Bull. B.O.C., xiv, p. 84 ; 
Brit. B., n, p. 269). Female Shoreham (Sussex) Nov. 27, 1908 
(J. B. Nichols, Brit. B., in, p. 377). One Hebden Bridge (Yorks.) 
about 1899 (W. Greaves, Nat., 1911, p. 100 ; Brit. B., iv, pp. 319, 
369). One Whitby (Yorks.), March 29, 1849 (admitted by T. H. 
Nelson, Birds Yorks., p. 628, doubted by J. H. Gurney, Rambles of 
a Nat., p. 256). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in North America from north-west 
Alaska and Newfoundland to south California, Arizona, Texas, 
Louisiana, and south Carolina ; winters from California, Louisiana, 
and south Carolina to south Brazil and Peru. Stragglers have 
occurred in Europe (Heligoland). 


389. Tringa glareola L. THE WOOD-SANDPIPER. 

TRINGA GLAREOLA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 149 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Totanus glareola (Gmelin), Yarrell, in, p. 463 ; Saunders, p. 607. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Passage-migrant. Regular (gener- 
ally single, sometimes flocks) autumn (July-Oct.), uncommon spring 
(April-May) on east and south-east coasts England, rare along south 
coast. Rare vagrant, west coast England and Wales, in Scotland 
(about nine) and in Ireland (seven). Exceptionally inland. Bred 
Prestwick Car (Northumberland) 1853, and possibly previously, 
possibly Norfolk prior to 1846, but alleged breeding Elgin 1853 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in north Europe and north Asia, 
and Avinters in Mediterranean countries, Africa, and south Asia to 
Australia and Hawaiian Isles. 



390. Tringa ocrophus L. THE GREEN SANDPIPER. 

TRINGA OCROPHUS* Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 149 (1758 " Habitat 

in Europa." Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Totanus ochropus (Linnaeus), Yarrell, in, p. 457 ; Saunders, p. 609. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Passage-migrant and winter-visitor. 
Frequent autumn and spring England and Wales and often staying 
throughout winter. Occasionally observed throughout summer, 
and breeding often suspected but never proved. In Scotland fairly 
frequent east, casual west, very rare north, apparently regularly 
small numbers autumn and occasional spring, Fair Isle, and twice 
O. Hebrides, but not recorded elsewhere Scottish isles. In Ireland 
casual autumn and winter- visitor and twice spring (April and June). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. North Europe and north Asia, in winter 
south to Africa (even south Africa), India, and the Malayan Archi- 
pelago. Accidental in Nova Scotia and Australia. 


391. Tringa solitaria solitaria Wilson THE SOLITARY 

TRINGA SOLITARIA Wilson, Amer. Orn., vn, p. 53, pi. 58, fig. 3 (1813 
Exact locality not stated. We designate Pennsylvania. See A.O.U. 
Checklist, 1910, p. 121). 
Totanus solitarius (Wilson), Yarrell, in, pp. x and 468 ; Saunders, p. 611. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Five. Banks of Clyde (Lanark) 
some years previous to 1870. Scilly Isles, Sept. 21, 1882. Near 
Marazion (Cornwall), Oct., 1884 (Saunders, p. 611). Rye Harbour 
(Sussex), Aug. 7, 1904 (C. B. Ticehurst, Bull. B.O.C., xv, p. 12 ; 
cf. Brit. B., n, p. 269). Littlestone (Kent), seen July 18, shot 
Aug. 15, 1908 (Duchess of Bedford, Brit. B., n, pp. 136, 170). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. In summer in northern North America, 
winters from West Indies to Argentina, and has been recorded from 
Greenland and Bermudas. Replaced by a closely -allied form in 
westernmost North America. 


392. Tringa flavipes (Gm.) THE YELLOWSHANK. 

SCOLOPAX FLAVIPES Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, ii, p. 659 (1789 New York). 
Totanus flavipes (Gmelin), Yarrell, in, p. 480 ; Saunders, p. 613. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Three. Misson (Notts.) 1854 (?), 

* It has been supposed that ocrophus is an error f or " ochropus," but this is 
not so. Linnaeus adopted the name " Ocrophus " from the " Ocrophus sive 
Rhodophus " of Gesner, Aldrovandus, and other older writers. E.H. 


Near Marazion (Cornwall) Sept. 12, 1871 (Saunders, p. 613). Fair 
Isle (Shetlands), 1910 (W. E. Clarke, Ann. S.N.H., 1911, p. 53 ; 
cf. Brit. B., iv, p. 291). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds from Kotzebue Sound, Alaska, 
north Mackenzie, central Keewatin, and south Ungava to valley of 
Upper Yukon, south Saskatchewan, and north Quebec ; winters in 
Argentina, Chile, and Patagonia, and casually in Mexico, Florida, 
and Bahamas. Also recorded from Pribilof Islands, Greenland, and 


393. Tringa melanoleuca (Gm,) THE GREATER YELLOW- 

SCOLOPAX MELANOLEUCA Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, ii, p. 659 (1789 Labrador). 
Totanus melanoleucus (Gmelin), A. F. Griffith, Bull. B.O.C., xix, p. 7 ; 
Saunders, Brit. B., i, p. 16. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. One, Tresco, Scilly Isles, Sept. 16, 
1906 (ut supra}. [One said to have been shot in Warwickshire, 
Nov. 22, 1907, cf. Brit. B., iv, p. 109.] 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in northern North America from 
Lake Iliamna, Alaska, and south Mackenzie to south British Colum- 
bia, Ungava, Labrador, and Anticosti Island ; winters from south 
California, Texas, Louisiana, and Georgia (casually north Carolina) 
south to Patagonia ; in Bermudas on migration. 


394. Tringa totanus (L.) THE COMMON REDSHANK. 

SCOLOPAX TOTANUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 145 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Totanus calidris (Linnaeus), Yarrell, in, p. 469 ; Saunders, p. 615. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Breeds (increasing gener- 
ally during last few years, especially inland) many suitable localities 
throughout, but sparsely Wales, Shetlands, not south coast Ireland, 
and rarely 0. Hebrides. In autumn on all coasts but less numerous 

MIGRATIONS. British Isles. Nesting-places occupied from March to 
Sept., when movement to coasts and estuaries is made. Immigrants 
arrive from Aug. onwards and later a movement southward is noted. 
Return movements occur March, April, and even early May. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds throughout Europe generally and 
Mediterranean countries, and from Asia Minor to east Siberia. 
Migrates in winter as far south as Africa, India, and Malayan 



395- Tringa erythropus (Pall.) THE SPOTTED REDSHANK. 

SCOLOPAX ERYTHROPUS Pallas, Vroeg's Cat. Coll., Adumbratiuncula, 

p. 6 (1764 Holland). 

Scolopax maculata Tunstall, Orn. Brit,, p. 3 (1771 Great Britain. Ex 

Zool. Brit.). 

Totanus fuscus (Linnaeus), Yarrell, in, p. 474 ; Saunders, p. 617. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Uncommon passage-migrant (May- 
June and Aug. -Sept., exceptional winter). Chiefly Kent to Yorks., 
occasional south, and rare west coasts England, very rare Scotland 
(less than twenty times, mostly in south-west) and in Ireland (twenty 
or more times, chiefly in Moy estuary (Mayo and Sligo)). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in arctic Europe and Asia, winters 
in Mediterranean countries and Africa north of Equator, India 
and China. 


396. Tringa nebularia (Gunner.) THE GREENSHANK. 

SCOLOPAX NEBULARIA Gunnerus, Leem, Beskr. Finm. Lapp., p. 251 

(1767 Norway). 

Totanus canescens (Gmelin), Yarrell, in, p. 483 ; Saunders, p. 619. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Breeds Scotland from 
Rannoch Moor (Perth) northwards on mainland, and most commonly 
Inverness, eastern Ross, and Sutherland ; in Lewis and Harris (0. 
Hebrides), rarely in Skye, possibly in Tiree, not in Orkneys, but 
possibly on a few occasions in Shetlands. Elsewhere passage- 
migrant throughout British coasts and occasionally inland, chiefly 
autumn, and more rarely spring, and only occasionally observed in 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Summers in northern regions of Europe 
and Asia, while it passes on migration through temperate Europe 
and Asia, and winters in Africa and tropical Asia, Malay Archi- 
pelago, and Australia. Accidental in Canaries and Azores, and 

* The names of Pallas, in the Catalogue of Vroeg's Collection being 
admissible, the name erythropus has priority over Scolopax fusca Linnaeus, 
1766, which, by the by, is not the Scolopax fusca of the same author of 
1758! E.H. 

f There can be no doubt as to the specific name of the Greenshank, which 
has hitherto been unfortunate in its nomenclature ; it is most commonly called 
Totanus glottis, while Saunders (I.e.) preferred the name canescens, and 
Reichenow maintained that Linnseus's name Tringa littorea was referable to 
the Greenshank, which view, however, cannot be accepted. E.H. 



397. Tringa stagnatilis (Bechst.) THE MARSH-SAND- 

TOTANUS STAGNATILIS Bechstein, Orn. Taschenb., n, p. 292, pi. (1803 


T. stagnatilis, Saunders, p. 620 (text) ; M. J. Nicoll, Brit. B., in, p. 350. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Four. One Tring (Herts.), Oct., 1887 
(cf. Viet. Hist. Bucks., I, p. 150 ; Brit. B., in, p. 356 (footnote) and 
Saunders, p. 620). Pair Rye Harbour (Sussex), female June 16 and 
male June 18, 1909 (M. J. Nicoll, Brit. B., in, p. 356). Female 
Bodiam Marsh (Sussex), July 1, 1910 (J. B. Nichols, Brit. B., v, 
p. 49). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Seems to breed in south Siberia and 
Turkestan, throughout south-east Europe in suitable localities, and 
possibly also in south France, while nesting in north-west Africa 
has not yet been proved. Migrates to Africa, India, Indo-Chinese 
countries, and eastern Archipelago south to Australia. 


398. Phalaropus fulicarius (L.) THE GREY PHALAROPE. 

TRINGA FULICARIA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 148 (1758 " America." 

Typical locality : Hudson Bay. Ex Edwards). 

Phalaropus fulicarius (Linnaeus), Yarrell, in, p. 310 ; Saunders, p. 565. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Passage -migrant. Scarce and 
irregular all coasts (most regular south-west England) autumn, very 
rare winter and spring. Occasional inland. Periodically (after 
heavy south-west gales) in numbers, as autumns 1866, 1869, and 
1886 in south England and autumn 1891 in many parts. Very rare 
vagrant Hebrides, Orkneys and Shetlands. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in arctic regions of Old and New 
Worlds (in Europe south to Iceland (rare), Spitsbergen, and 
Novaya Zemlia), migrating in winter south to Falkland and Juan 
Fernandez Islands, and Chile ; in the east to China and New Zealand. 
In Europe in winter found on many inland waters and along coasts 
to Mediterranean, also in north Africa. 


399. Phalaropus lobatus (L.) THE RED-NECKED 

TRINGA TOBATA (evident misprint for lobata, corrected p. 824) Linnaeus, 
Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 148 (1758 N. America and Lapland. Restricted 
typical locality : Hudson Bay, from first and only quotation). 
Phalaropus hyperboreus (Linnaeus), Yarrell, in, p. 315 ; Saunders, p. 567. 

* P. lobatus is beyond doubt, and is the oldest specific name. E.H. 


DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Summer -resident (May- Aug.) and 
vagrant. Breeds in limited numbers Orkneys, Shetlands, 0. 
Hebrides, and one locality west of Ireland. Elsewhere vagrant, 
occurring most frequently (but rarely) south and east coasts England, 
very rarely west coast and very rarely Scotland, except at breeding- 
haunts, and only three times Ireland outside breeding-locality. 
Exceptionally inland. Usually in autumn, occasionally winter and 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Nests in northern regions of both hemi- 
spheres, though more southward than Grey Phalarope ; breeding as 
far south as Iceland, Faeroes, central Norway, and south Greenland ; 
in North America from Alaska to Aleutian Islands, Yukon river, 
north Mackenzie, central Keewatin, south James Bay, and north 
Ungava. Migrates through Europe, Asia, and North America to 
India, Malayan and Moluccan Islands, China and Japan, and in 
America to Central America, Bermudas, and occasionally Hawaii. 


400. Himantopus himantopus*(L.) THE BLACK- WINGED 

CHARADRITJS HIMANTOPUS Linnseus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 151 (1758 

S. Europe). 

Himantopus condidus Bonnaterre, Yarrell, in, p. 305 ; Saunders, p. 563. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Rare vagrant. A good many records 
but few recent ones. Chiefly in early summer, most south and east 
coasts, especially Norfolk (about seventeen), and a few inland 
counties of England. Elsewhere very rare vagrant : Gloucester 
(one), Wales (one), Cheshire (one), Dumfries (two or three), Clyde 
(two), Shetlands (one), Orkneys (two), Tay and Moray (old doubtful 
records), Ireland six occasions. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in suitable localities in south 
France (delta of Rhone), Spain and Portugal, in Sicily, Hungary to 
Black Sea basin and Balkan Peninsula, Cyprus, in many places in 
Africa, from Marocco, Algeria and Tunisia to south Africa, and in 
many places in south Asia. Northern birds are migratory, wintering 
in Africa. 


401. Recurvirostra avosetta L. THE AVOCET. 

RECURVIROSTRA AVOSETTA Linnseus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 151 (1758 

Europe. Restricted typical locality : Oeland). 

Recurvirostra avocetta Linnaeus, Yarrell, in, p. 299 ; Saunders, p. 561. 

* Perhaps some of the other recognized species of Stilts were better treated 
as geographical races, in which case the Black-winged Stilt would have to be 
referred to trinomially. E.H. 


DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Irregular migrant. Only in Norfolk, 
Kent and Sussex fairly regular in spring (May-June) but irregular 
autumn. Elsewhere vagrant, very rare west side Great Britain and 
north of Yorks. North Wales (one), Lanes, (two), 0. Hebrides (two), 
Shetlands (two), Moray (one), Tay (one probable). In Ireland 
obtained fourteen occasions and a few seen, chiefly south and east 
coasts (but Galway (one), Mayo (one) ) Aug. to Feb. Formerly 
summer-resident and bred Humber to Sussex, the last nests being 
mouth of Trent about 1837 (Birds Yorks., p. 589), and Kent 1842 
and probably 1843 (Hist. Birds Kent, p. 439). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds locally on shores of North Sea 
(Denmark, Holland, and one locality Baltic), south France, and 
Spain, and from basin of Mediterranean eastwards to shores of 
Black, Caspian, and Aral Seas. Ranges also across Asia to China, 
and over many parts of Africa. Northern birds are migratory. 


402. Limosa lapponica lapponica (L.) THE BAR-TAILED 

SCOLOPAX LAPPONICA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 147 (1758 Lapland). 
Limosa lapponica (Linnaeus), Yarrell, in, p. 494 ; Saunders, p. 623. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Winter-visitor and passage-migrant. 
Generally distributed around all coasts, but scarce Orkneys and 
Shetlands. Many stay winter, but many, especially from Yorks. 
southward on east coast, are only autumn and spring passage- 
migrants. A good many non-breeders stay summer, especially in 
parts of western Scotland and Ireland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. North Europe (rarely as far west as Lap- 
land) to Siberia, probably east to Taimyr peninsula, being repre- 
sented further eastwards by Limosa lapponica baueri. Migratory, 
wintering as far south as Senegambia and Somaliland in Africa and 
Mekran coast and Karachi in Asia, passing through intervening 
countries on migration, while the eastern race ranges through south- 
east Asia to Malay Archipelago, Australia, etc. 


403. Limosa limosa (L.) THE BLACK-TAILED GODWIT. 

SCOLOPAX LIMOSA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 147 (1758 Europe. 
Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Limosa cegocephala (Linnaeus), Yarrell, in, p. 488 ; Limosa belgica (J. F. 
Gmelin), Saunders, p. 625. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Irregular passage-migrant, chiefly 
autumn (Aug. -Sept.), occasionally spring (April-May), rarely winter 
and summer. Mostly along east coast from Humber southwards 
and on south coast ; scarce vagrant north of Humber on east side 


and everywhere on west side Great Britain ; has occurred O. and I. 
Hebrides, Orkneys and Shetlands. Frequent migrant to Ireland. 
Occasionally inland. Formerly summer-resident breeding from 
south Yorks. to Norfolk ; last 1847 Norfolk, and possibly 1885 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in north Europe and Asia, in 
Europe in Iceland (rarely Faeroes) and from Jutland, north Ger- 
many (sparingly in Sweden) and 60 north in Russia south to Low 
Countries, Hungary, and parts of central Russia and west Asia ; 
migrates through Europe and west Asia ; winters in basin of 
Mediterranean, and stragglers reach Canaries and Abyssinia ; 
in Asia winter-quarters are chiefly India and Ceylon. Accidental 
in Greenland. Appears to be represented by a closely -allied race 
perhaps of doubtful value further eastwards. 


404. Numenius arquata arquata (L.) THE COMMON 

SCOLOPAX ARQUATA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 145 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Numenius arquata (Linnaeus), Yarrell, in, p. 499 ; Saunders, p. 627. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident, passage-migrant, and 
winter -visit or. Breeds sparingly Dorset, Wilts., and Hants., more 
freely Devonian peninsula, exceptionally Norfolk (1910) and Surrey 
(1897), commonly Wales and neighbouring counties, and from 
Staffs, and Derbyshire northwards on high ground (as well as on 
low ground in Yorks.). Also Isle of Man. In Scotland breeds 
generally and commonly, except 0. Hebrides, where nesting not 
proved. In Ireland breeds all provinces. In early autumn 
breeding -haunts deserted for coasts, on all of which it is found 
autumn and spring and occasionally summer. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in Scandinavia, Russia, north 
and south Germany (Bavaria), Austria, Galizia, Denmark, Holland, 
Belgium, and in Brittany, also apparently on Canaries. Passes 
through central and south Europe, appearing on Azores, and 
wintering in Africa from Mediterranean districts to south Africa and 
Madagascar. In Asia this form does not seem to reach further east 
than the Khirgiz Steppes, being represented by a w r ell distinguished 
race further eastwards, and replaced by another species in east 


405. Numenius phseopus phaeopus (L.) THE WHIMBREL. 

SCOLOPAX PHJEOPUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 146 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Numenius phceopus (Linnaeus), Yarrell, in, p. 507 ; Saunders, p. 629. 


DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Summer-resident and passage- 
migrant. A few breed Orkneys and Shetlands, and apparently 
breeding-birds have been seen North Rona (0. Hebrides), and 
possibly on an islet off west Ross. No authentic case of breeding 
elsewhere. Passage -migrant all coasts and often inland, April and 
May and end July to Sept. and occasionally later. A few non- 
breeders stay summer. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in Iceland, Faeroes, north Scandi- 
navia, north Russia, and west Siberia, and is found occasionally in 
Greenland. Migrates through western Palaearctic region and winters 
on coasts of Africa, some individuals remaining in winter-quarters 
all the year round. Replaced by the allied, but easily separable, 
N. phceopus variegatus in north-east Asia, the latter migrating to 
south-east Asia and Australia. 


406. Numenius borealis (Forster) THE ESKIMO-CURLEW. 

SCOLOPAX BOREALIS J. R. Forster, Philos. Trans., LXII, p. 431 (1772 

Fort Albany, Hudson Bay). 

Numenius borealis (J. R. Forster), Yarrell, in, p. 512 ; Saunders, p. 631. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Seven or eight. One Sept. 6, 1855, 
and one-Sept. 21, 1880, Kincardine. One Sept. 29, 1879, Aberdeen. 
Two Nov., 1852, near Woodbridge (Suffolk), and one alleged R. Aide 
(Suffolk) prior to 1870. One Sept. 10, 1887, Scilly Isles. One 
Dublin Market, Oct., 1870, alleged from Sligo (Saunders, p. 631). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds on Barren Grounds of north 
Mackenzie in arctic America, passes through United States and 
winters in South America from Galapagos Islands and Chile to 
Brazil, Argentina, and Patagonia. Also recorded from Greenland 
and Falkland Islands. Said to have become very rare, so that fears 
have been expressed of its becoming extinct. 


407. Numenius tenuirostris VieilL THE SLENDER-BILLED 

NUMENIUS TENUIROSTRIS Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. cl'Hist. Xat., nouv. ed., 

vm, p. 302 (1817 Egypt). 

Numenius tenuirostris VieilL, M. J. Nicoll, Brit. B., v, p. 124. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Three or more. Young male and 
female Sept. 21, and adult male Sept. 23, 1910, from " small flock " 
near Brookland (Kent) (ut supra]. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in north, the only breeding-place 
so far known being west Siberia ; passes winter in Mediterranean 
countries, as far west as south France and Algeria. Obtained on 


passage in Russia, Hungary, and Austria, and occasionally further 
west ; four times in Germany, once Heligoland, twice Belgium, three 
times Holland, once at least in north France. 


408. Gallinago media (Lath.) THE GREAT SNIPE. 

SCOLOPAX MEDIA Latham, Gen. Syn. Suppl., i, p. 292 (1787 Lancashire, 


Gallinago major (Gmelin), Yarrell, in, p. 336 ; Saunders, p. 571. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Rare passage -migrant. Probably 
annual autumn (Aug. -Oct.) in small numbers east and south England, 
vagrant elsewhere ; over thirty Scotland and fourteen Ireland. Very 
rare indeed in spring. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in Scandinavia, north Russia 
and west Siberia, as far south as Denmark, and some parts of north 
Germany. On migration passes through Europe and westernmost 
Asia (Caucasus, Persia), and winters in Africa from north Africa to 
south Africa (east Cape Colony and Natal). Said to be accidental 
in Canada. 


409. Gallinago gallinago gallinago (L.) THE COMMON 

SCOLOPAX GALLINAGO Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 147 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Gallinago scolopacina Gould, B. Great Britain, iv, pi. 79. 

Gallinago ccelestis (Frenzel), Yarrell, in, p. 342 ; Saunders, p. 573. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident, passage -mi grant, and 
winter- visitor. Breeds locally suitable places throughout but in 
some southern English counties rarely. A proportion of our breeding 
birds appear to emigrate. Abundant winter- visitor (Oct. -March). 
Weather greatly influences its movements, but regular arrivals on 
Sussex coast in April point to passage-movements. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in Iceland, Faeroes, north and 
temperate Europe to north Italy and south Russia, and in north Asia 
south of lat. 70 north to high plateaus of central Asia. Winters 
from British Isles to east Atlantic isles and north Africa, as far as 
Senegambia and Aden, Persia, India, Ceylon, Andaman Islands, 
Burmah, Malay Peninsula, China, Japan, Formosa, Batjan (see 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xxiv, p. 641, perhaps an error, or very accidental 
occurrence), and Philippine Islands. Recorded also from Greenland 

* Latham's name has two years priority over Gmelin's of 1789, and it i.s 
strange that this has been overlooked for so many years, although it was useJ. 
by Meyer and Wolf, Schinz, Vieillot, Naumann, and others. E.H. 


and Bermudas. Replaced in America by the very closely-allied 
G. gallinago wilsoni. 


410. Limnocryptes gallinula (L.) THE JACK SNIPE. 

SCOLOPAX GALLINULA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. xii, i, p. 244 (1766 


Gallinago gallinula (Linnaeus), Yarrell, in, p. 351 ; Saunders, p. 575. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Winter-visitor (early Sept. and Oct. 
to April and occasionally later). Generally distributed but decidedly 
local. No authentic case of nesting. Possibly also a passage- 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in arctic regions of Old World ; 
passes on migration through the intervening countries, and winters 
as far south as north Africa, Persia, Afghanistan, India, Ceylon and 


411. Scolopax rusticola L. THE WOODCOCK. 

SCOLOPAX RUSTICOLA Linnaeus, Syst. Xat., ed. x, i, p. 146 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Scolopax rusticula Linnaeus, Yarrell, in, p. 320 ; Saunders, p. 569. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident and winter-visitor. Breeds 
most parts and increasingly ; in some years, as 1902, 1904, and 1908 
in parts of Scotland in unusual numbers. Winter- visitors arrive 
east coast Great Britain Oct. and Nov., and depart March. A 
proportion of our breeding -birds emigrate, and winter weather- 
movements are often noted. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds on Madeira, Canary Islands, and 
Azores, in Europe from Arctic Circle to Pyrenees, Alps, Balkans, and 
Caucasus (but not in Greece), and eastwards through Asia to Hima- 
layas (not rare above 10,000 feet), and even north Japan. Winters 
in Mediterranean countries, as far as north-west Africa, in Egypt, 
Persia, India, Burmah, rarely as far as Ceylon, and China. Some 
winter in west Europe, especially in mild winters. Has been 
recorded once from Fseroes, and stragglers are occasionally found 
in eastern North America from Newfoundland to Virginia. 


412. Hydrochelidon nigra nigra (L.) THE BLACK TERN. 

STERNA NIGRA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 137 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : near Upsala). 

Hydrochelidon nigra (Linnaeus), Yarrell, m, p. 516 ; Saunders, p. 633. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. Passage-migrant, April and 


May (occasionally summer) and Aug. and Sept. (occasionally later). 
Chiefly south, and east England up to Yorks., where annual but 
rarer, as it is inland, including midlands. More irregular west coast 
and Wales. North of Yorks. and Cheshire, rare. Often in flocks. 
Formerly bred various parts, last records Solway, 1855, Norfolk, 
1858. Scotland. Occasional Tweed and Forth, rare vagrant else- 
where, not recorded extreme north nor any islands. Ireland. 
Rare vagrant to all Provinces. Has occurred July, Nov., and Dec. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in Europe south of about 60 north 
lat. Winters in Africa south to Loango in west and (at least) Abys- 
sinia in east. Eastwards known as far as west Turkestan. Once 
recorded from Faeroes. Replaced in North America (in summer) 
and in South America (in winter) by H. nigra surinamensis. 


413. Hydrochelidon leucopareia leucopareia (Temm.) THE 

STERNA LEUCOPAREIA " Natterer " Ternminck, Man. d'Orn., 2nd ed., ii, 

p. 746 (1820 S. Hungary, discovered by Natterer, also Istria, Dalmatia, 


Hydrochelidon hybrida (Pallas), Yarrell, in, p. 527 ; Saunders, p. 637. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Very rare vagrant. England. 
Twelve. One Dorset, Aug., 1836. One Yorks., 1842. Two Norfolk, 
June, 1847, and Oct., 1890. One Scilly Isles, Aug., 1851. One 
Devon, May, 1865. One Hants., June, 1875. Four Sussex, Aug. 9, 
1905. One Kent, same date. Scotland. One, Nithsdale (Dum- 
fries), May 28, 1894. Ireland. One, Dublin Bay, Sept., 1839. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Nests in south Europe as far north as 
south Hungary and (exceptionally only ?) in Bavaria, also regularly 
in north Africa, and recorded breeding in Transvaal. Also through- 
out temperate and warmer Asia to China, though perhaps eastern 
birds may be separable, and the Australian ones certainly are. 
Winters in Africa and south Asia. 


414. Hydrochelidon leucoptera (Temm..) THE WHITE- 

STERNA LEUCOPTERA Temminck, Man. d'Orn., p. 483 (1815 Shores of 

the Mediterranean, Swiss lakes, etc.). 

Hydrochelidon leucoptera (Schinz), Yarrell, in, p. 522 ; Saunders, p. 635. 

* Pallas's name dates from 1827 and not from 1811 (cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. 
Fauna, I, p. 277). The name leucopareia Temm. (not of Natterer ! ) has 
therefore priority. E.H. 

f Though Temminck's Man. d'Orn. and Meisner and Schinz's Vog. d. 
Schweiz bear the same date, 1815, Temminck's work appeared before that of 
Meisner and Schinz, as is clear from p. 265 of the latter volume. E.H. 


DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Rare vagrant, mostly April and May, 
sometimes in small flocks, three in autumn. England. Has occurred 
Durham, Yorks. (two spring, one Sept. 26, 1896), Norfolk (many), 
Kent, Sussex, Hants., Dorset (several), Devon (several, one Nov., 
1870), Cornwall and Scilly, Warwick (two). Ireland. Six. One 
each Clare, Limerick, Tipperary, Waterford, two Dublin (one Oct., 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in south-east Europe, north to 
Hungary, and ( ? regularly) in Bavaria, throughout south Russia and 
temperate Asia to China. In winter in Africa and south Asia to 
Australia and even New Zealand. Accidental in North America 
and Barbados. 


415. Sterna nilotica nilotica Gm. THE GULL-BILLED 

STERNA NILOTICA Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, ii, p. 606 (1789 Egypt. Ex 


Sterna anglica Montagu, Yarrell, in, p. 531 ; Saunders, p. 639. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Very rare vagrant. About twenty- 
four : Lanes, (two), Yorks. (one), Norfolk (ten), Kent (four or five), 
Sussex (three), Hants, (one), Devon (one), Cornwall (one), Scilly 
(one). All spring or summer and none recorded last twelve years. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in Europe in a few small colonies 
on coasts of Jutland and Schleswig, formerly on small island near 
Eiigen in Baltic, exceptionally in Bavaria, Hungary (apparently 
now only one breeding-place), south France, Spain and Portugal, 
Greece, Asia Minor, on Black and Caspian Seas, and north-west 
Africa (island on Tunisian coast, Algeria). Across temperate Asia 
to Mongolia, but breeds in Persia, and the Punjab (India). In 
winter, ranges all over Africa and tropical Asia. Also breeds in North 
and in South America, and winters in eastern South America. 
Represented by closely-allied race in Australia, and probably other 
forms are separable. 


416. Sterna tschegrava Lep. THE CASPIAN TERN. 

STERNA TSCHEGRAVA Lepechin, Nov. Comm. Acad. Petr., xiv, i, p. 500, 

pi. xiii (1770 S. Russia). 

Sterna caspia Pallas, Yarrell, in, p. 536 ; Saunders, p. 641. 

* The name nilotica antedates anglica by twenty -four years. 

f Lepechin's description and figure are quite clear, and his name must be 
accepted. I have carefully compared them and have asked the opinion of three 
other ornithologists, who fully agree with my view. Saunders also quoted 
it without doubt, but probably rejected it because he did not like " changes," 
and as it has only page-priority. E.H. 


DISTRIBUTION. England. Very rare vagrant. About nineteen 
obtained and others seen : Northumberland, Yorks., Lines., Suffolk, 
Hants, (one each), Notts, (two), Dorset (four), Norfolk (nine got and 
others seen, the last July, 1901, July, 1902, and Aug., 1910). Records 
from Kent are doubtful. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Locally on coasts of Europe from about 
60 north lat. southwards (Baltic, Sylt, Mediterranean, Black and 
Caspian Seas) ; throughout Asia east to China, throughout Malaysia 
to Australia and New Zealand ; many parts of Africa, chiefly in 
winter ; also North America, wintering on south Atlantic and Gulf 
coasts. Northern birds are migratory. 


417. Sterna sandvicensis sandvicensis Lath. THE SAND- 

STERNA SANDVICENSIS Latham, Gen. Syn., Suppl., i, p. 296 (1787 

Kent, etc.). 

Sterna cantiaca Gmelin, Yarrell, in, p. 540 ; Saunders, p. 643. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Summer-resident (end March to 
Sept.). As a passage-migrant occurs many parts of British coast 
and occasionally inland. England. Large breeding colonies Fame 
Isles (Northumberland) and Ravenglass (Cumberland), was not 
breeding Walney Island (Lanes.), 1901. Only occasionally breeds 
Kent. Scilly Isles and Norfolk (1893), and has ceased Essex. Scotland. 
Breeds Kirkcudbright and sporadically on east coast, also breeds 
Sanday (Orkneys). | Ireland. Several colonies on loughs in Mayo, 
one in Fermanagh, and occasionally on islands off Down and in 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. " Atlantic and North Sea coasts from the 
Orkneys southward to the Mediterranean, the Black Sea and the 
Caspian (breeding) ; in winter along the west coast of Africa to the 
Cape of Good Hope and up to Natal, down the Red Sea and across 
Mesopotamia to the Persian Gulf, Mekran coast and Karachi " 
(Saunders). Represented by Sterna sandvicensis acuflavida in North 
America, from Carolina to Mexico, and British Honduras, wintering 
in Florida, Louisiana, Central America, West Indies, and South 

* Saunders, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xxv, p. 75, says that Latham's name is a 
" nomen nudum," but this is by no means the case, being based on the 
" Sandwich Tern" of his General Synopsis, in, ii, p. 356, and Suppl. , i, p. 266,. 
where the bird is described at length, and therefore his name must be used. 

f The Rev. J. R. Hale informs us that it breeds on Sanday, and not 
Xorth Ronaldshay, as stated in Saunders's Manual. 



418. Sterna dougallii dougallii Mont. THE ROSEATE TERN. 

Sterna dougalli Montagu, Yarrell, in, p. 544 ; Saunders, p. G45. 

STERNA DOUGALLII Montagu, Orn. Diet. Suppl., text and plate (1813 
Firth of Clyde, Scotland). 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Summer-resident and vagrant. 
Breeds regularly, Fame Isles (Northumberland), one or two pairs, 
Skerries (N. Wales), small colony, another locality (N. Wales), 
large colony. Elsewhere vagrant, very rare Scotland and Ireland. 
Formerly bred Foulney and Walney (Lanes.), Scilly, Clyde and 
possibly Moray areas, Dublin and Down, and probably also in north- 
west Ireland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Coasts of Atlantic and (sparingly) North 
Sea, from about 57 north lat. in summer to Mediterranean, Azores, 
and Madeira ; in north-west and east Africa ; North America from 
Sable Island to Long Island and from Bahamas to Lesser Antilles and 
north coast of Venezuela, wintering from Bahamas to Brazil. The 
geographical forms have not yet been finally worked out, but our 
race is replaced by allied forms at least on the islands of the Bay of 
Bengal, and probably all coasts of Indian Ocean, as well as in 


419. Sterna hirundo L. THE COMMON TERN. 

STERNA HIRUNDO Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 137 (1758 " Europa." 
Restricted typical locality : Lakes and swamps of Sweden. Ex Fauna 
Svecica, No. 127). 
Sterna fluvia til-is Xaumann, Yarrell, in, p. 549 ; Saunders, p. 647. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Summer-resident (April to Sept. 
and Oct.). Breeds many places all coasts but rarely in 0. Hebrides. 
North of Loch Broom on west side Scotland and in Ireland 
outnumbered by S. paradiscea, but on east side relatively common 
further northward and abundant Pent land Skerries, but sparse 
Orkneys, and only discovered breeding Shetlands 1901. Migrants 
occasional 0. Hebrides and Fair Isle. Breeds some inland lakes 
and rivers Scotland and Ireland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Coasts, rivers, and lakes of Europe, 
Canaries, Azores, Tunisia, temperate Asia and temperate North 
America. In winter (chiefly) in India, Ceylon, and Africa, as well 
as parts of South America. Local races may exist, but the question 
is not settled. 

* There is no reason for rejecting the well-known name Sterna hirundo, 
the description and breeding-place distinctly showing that this Tern was 
meant by Linnaeus. E.H. 



420. Sterna paradisaea Briinn. THE ARCTIC TERN. 

STERNA PARADIS^A Brunnich, Orn. Bor. p. 46 (1764 Christiansoe, 


Sterna macrura Naumann, Yarrell, in, p. 553 ; Saunders, p. 649. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Summer-resident (April to Sept. 
and Oct.). England. Breeds only Fame Isles (Northumberland), 
Scilly Isles, two groups of islets off Anglesey, Walney (Lanes.), and 
Isle of Man. Elsewhere on passage and often inland. Scotland. 
Breeds all coasts and groups of islands, and outnumbers 8. hirundo 
on west side north of Loch Broom and in Orkneys and Shetlands, 
and is chief breeding species 0. Hebrides. Ireland. On coasts and 
some lakes. More numerous than 8. hirundo. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in northern regions of Old and 
New Worlds, from about 82 north lat. south to about 50 north lat. 
in Europe and 42 in America. In winter southwards to coasts of 
Africa and South America. Appears to be represented by a closely- 
allied form in the Southern Ocean, though some ornithologists are 
of opinion that these southern birds are migrants from the Northern 


421. Sterna minuta minuta L. THE LITTLE TERN. 

STERNA MINUTA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. xn, i, p. 228 (1766 S. Europe). 
Sterna minuta Linnaeus, Yarrell, in, p. 558 ; Saunders, p. 651. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Summer-resident (end April to 
Sept. or Oct., exceptionally later). Breeding colonies of various 
sizes here and there south coasts. East coast as far north as Tees- 
mouth, but not further north in England ; a few pairs Forth, 
increasing Tay, a few Aberdeen, fair number Moray Firth, but 
doubtful breeder northwards on mainland, but appears to breed 
Orkneys, though only straggler Shetlands. On west side colonies 
from Cornwall to Solway, but does not now breed northwards on 
mainland, though it does in Tiree, and has in Barra since 1901-3, 
in N. Uist in 1907, possibly in Lewis in 1907, and in another O. 
Hebrides since 1885 or 1886. Breeds in Ireland on coasts of Leinster, 
Ulster, and Connaught. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in north Europe and north-west 
Africa, and in Asia as far east as Turkestan and perhaps India 
(Indian birds may be separable), and winters as far south as tropical 
and south Africa, Burmah and Java. Replaced by allied forms 

* There is no doubt about Briinnich's name, and it has many years 
priority over that of Naumann. E.H. 

o 2 


in America, the Malayan Archipelago, the China Seas and Australia, 
and (according to Zarudny and Loudon) in Persian Baluchistan. 


422. Sterna fuliginosa Gm. THE SOOTY TERN. 

? Sterna fuscata Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. xn, i, p. 228 (1766 Dominica. 

Ex Brisson). 

STERNA FTJLIGINOSA Gmelin, Syst. Nat.,i, ii, p. 605 (1789 " Habitat in 

mari atlantico, americano, indico, australi." Selected typical locality : 

New York, type in Mus. Lever., fide Latham). 

Sterna fuliginosa Gmelin, Yarrell, in, p. 562 ; Saunders, p. 653. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Six. Tutbury near Burton-on-Tren 
(Staffs.), Oct., 1852. Near Wallingford (Berks.), June 21, 1869 
Near Bath (Somerset), Oct. 4 or 5, 1885 (Saunders, p. 653). Near 
Brandon (Suffolk), Mar. or April, 1900 (W. G. Clarke, Zool., 1903, 
p. 393; Brit. B., n, p. 308). Hulme, near Manchester (Lanes.), 
Oct. 9, 1901 (Saunders, Bull. B.O.C., xn, p. 26 ; Brit. B., n, p. 308). 
Brighton (Sussex), April 24, 1911 (A. F. Griffith, Bull. B.O.C., 
xxvii, p. 95 ; Brit. B., v, p. 81). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Tropical and sub-tropical seas, but almost 
unknown on Pacific coast of South America. Wanders occasionally 
northwards as far as Maine in North America, the Azores, and 
Europe ; once Germany, once France, once Italy. 

[Sterna anastheta Scop. THE LESSER SOOTY TERN. 

STERNA AN^THETUS (evidently misprint for ancestheta) Scopoli, Del. 

Faun, et Flor. Insubr., i, p. 92 (1786 Ex Sonnerat : Island of Panay, 


Sterna ancestheta Scopoli, Yarrell, in, p. 565 (in text) ; Saunders, p. 654 

(in text). 

DISTRIBUTION. England. One alleged taken on a lightship, mouth 
of Thames, Sept., 1875, " but the evidence is slightly imperfect " 
(Saunders, p. 654). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Tropical and intertropical seas, but 
possibly separable into various races. Nearest breeding-places to 
British Isles are apparently those in Bahamas and West Indies, 
or on the coasts of west Africa.] 

[NOTE. Two specimens of the NODDY TERN, Anous stolidus stolidus (L.) 
(Sterna stolida Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 137 (1758 In the " American 
Sea " : West Indian seas meant) ) alleged to have been shot between Tuskar 
Rock and Dublin about 1830, were brought in skinned by the captain of a 
vessel, and the evidence is not considered sufficient by R. J. Ussher (c/. List 
Irish Birds, p. 48 ; Brit. B., n, p. 248). Another, alleged to have been shot 
on the Dee Marshes, is not authentic (Birds Cheshire, p. 229 ; c/. Yarrell, in, 
p. 567 ; Saunders, p. 655). Anous stolidus stolidus appears to be distributed 
throughout the Atlantic from Florida Keys and coast of Louisiana to 


Bahamas and West Indies, south to Brazil and Tristan da Cunha, but it 
has been suggested that it only winters in these southern latitudes. It is 
represented by allied forms in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.] 


423. Xema sabini (Sabine) SABINE'S GULL. 

LARUS SABINI Sabine, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, xn, p. 522. pi. 29 

(1818 Islands near Disco, west coast of Greenland). 

Xema sabinii (J. Sabine), Yarrell, in, p. 573 ; Saunders, p. 657. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Irregular autumn and winter- visitor. 
Almost regular Yorks. and Norfolk, many recorded elsewhere, even 
in inland counties, but rarer Scotland (unrecorded O. Hebrides) and 
only twelve Ireland (Dublin Bay seven, Belfast Lough three, 
Donegal Bay one, Lough Derg one). Adults very rare, viz. one, 
each Yorks., Norfolk, Sussex, Kent, Hants., Cornwall, Mull, East 
Lothian, and Shetlands (seen July 25, 1909). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds from coast of Alaska to north 
Greenland and on arctic islands of Old World. Winters in more 
southern latitudes from Europe to Bermudas and Texas, and about 
12 south lat., and even Peru. Not rare as visitor to Atlantic coasts 
of France, casual in Holland, Switzerland, and Austria-Hungary. 


424. Rhodostethia rosea (MacGill.) THE WEDGE-TAILED 

LARUS ROSEUS MacGillivray, Mem. Wernerian Soc., v, p. 249 (1824 

Melville Peninsula). 

Rhodostethia rosea MacGillivray, Yarrell, in, p. 579 ; Saunders, p. 659. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. One near Tadcaster (Yorks.), Dec. 22* 
1846, or Feb. 1847 (W. Milner, Zool, 1847, p. 1694, and cf. p. 1784 ; 
Saunders, p. 659 ; Birds Yorks., p. 665). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in delta of Kolyma River in 
north-east Siberia and doubtless other places on arctic shores of 
Asia. Has been found in many places in arctic seas and casual 
visitors have been obtained in Faeroes and Heligoland. 


425. Larus Philadelphia (Ord) BONAPARTE'S GULL. 

STERNA PHILADELPHIA Ord, in Guthrie's Geogr., 2nd Amer. ed., p. 319 

(1815 near Philadelphia, U.S.A.). 

Larus Philadelphia (Ord), Yarrell, in, p. 584 ; Saunders, p. 661. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Six. One near Belfast, Feb. 1, 


1848. One Loch Lomond (Argyll) about end April, 1850. One 
Falmouth, Jan. 4, 1865, one Penryn, Jan. 10, 1865, and one 
Penzance (Cornwall), Oct. 20, 1890. One St. Leonards (Sussex) 
early Nov., 1870 (Saunders, p. 661). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds from Alaska and north Mackenzie 
to British Columbia and south Keewatin. Winters from Maine to 
Florida, Texas, and Yucatan and on Pacific coasts of North America 
as far south as Lower California and Mexico ; on migration west to 
Kotzebue Sound and east to Ungava, casual in Bermudas and 
Bahamas. Once, in winter 1845, in Heligoland. 


426. Larus minutus Pall. THE LITTLE GULL. 

LARUS MINUTUS Pallas, Reise d. versch. Prov. d. Russ. Reichs, in, p. 702 

(1776 Beresof, Tobolsk). 

Larus minutus Pallas, Yarrell, in, p. 589 ; Saunders, p. 663. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Irregular autumn and winter- 
visitor, occasionally spring and summer. Almost annual east coast 
England (sometimes numerous as 1866 and 1868 in Yorks., and 
winter 1869-70 on east coast), fairly frequent south coast, rare Wales 
and northwards to 0. Hebrides and Shetlands, not so rare east coast 
Scotland. About eleven Ireland, chiefly near Dublin and Belfast, 
but one Londonderry, one Galway, one Meath (Feb., 1909). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds from River Ob to Sea of Ochotsk 
in subarctic Asia, and in north-east Europe as far west as the 
Ladoga and Onega lakes, Baltic Provinces of Russia, a few places in 
northern, east, and west Prussia, and at least in one locality in 
west Jutland. Formerly (and perhaps still) on Gotland. After 
breeding-season not rare on Baltic shores of Prussia, but in small 
numbers only as far west as North Sea, and casually even to 
Faeroes (once), Bermudas, Maine, and Long Island, New York. In 
Europe south as far as Mediterranean. Once, according to Irby, near 
Jehangirabad in north-west India. 


427. Larus ridibundus L. THE BLACK-HEADED GULL. 

LARUS RIDIBUNDUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. xn, i, p. 225 (1766 
" Habitat in Mari Europseo." Restricted typical locality : England 
from first three quotations). 
Larus ridibundus Linnaeus, Yarrell, in, p. 594 ; Saunders, p. 665. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Increasing greatly of 
late years. Breeding colonies throughout Great Britain from Dorset 
in south-west and Kent in south-east to Shetlands and 0. Hebrides 


and many Ireland. Generally distributed coasts and rivers and 
frequently inland in winter. Some evidence of immigration from 
Continent in autumn. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad, Breeds in temperate Europe and A c ia, 
from Faeroes, south Norway, and Sweden and Archangel southwards 
to Mediterranean, and eastwards to Kamtschatka. Passes winter 
in north Africa and south Asia, as far south as India, China, Japan, 
and Philippines. 


428. Larus melanocephalus Temm. --THE MEDITER- 

LARUS MELANOCEPHALUS Natterer, Isis 1818, p. 816 (Chiozza Nomen 
nudum !) ; Temminck, Man. d'Orn., 2nd ed., p. 777 (1820 Adriatic. 
First description). 
Larus melanocephalus Natterer, Yarrell, in, p. 604 ; Saunders, p. 667. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Three. Immature, Barking Creek 
(Essex), Jan. 1866. Adult, Breydon (Norfolk), Dec. 26, 1886 
(Saunders, p. 667). One Yorks. coast Nov., 1895 (Birds Yorks., 
p. 675). [Two said Falmouth (Cornwall) Mar., 1851, cf. Brit. B., n, 
p. 328.] 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Inhabits Mediterranean, Bosporus, and 
Black Seas, and reaches in west to Spain, Portugal, and south-west 
France, whence occasionally blown as far as mouth of Somme in 


429 . Larus ichthyaetus Pall. THE GREAT BLACK-HEADED 

LARUS ICHTHYAETUS Pallas, Reise d. versch. Prov. d. Russ. Reichs, 
n, p. 713 (1773 Caspian). 

Larus ichtyaetus Pallas, Yarrell, in, p. 609 ; L. ichthyaetus Pallas, Saunders 
p. 669. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. One. Adult off Exmouth (Devon), 
end May or early June, 1859 (F. W. L. Ross, Ann. & Mag. N.H. 

(3), iv, p. 467). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Eastern Mediterranean, Egypt to Nubia 
and Red Sea, Palestine, Black and Caspian Seas, eastwards to 
Turkestan and Tibet. In winter on coasts of Persian Gulf and 
Baluchistan, and in India as far as Ceylon and Burmah. 



430. Larus canus canus L. THE COMMON GULL. 

LARUS CANUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 136 (1758 Europe. Re- 
stricted typical locality : Sweden). 
Larus canus Linnaeus, Yarrell, in, p. 613 ; Saunders, p. 671. 

DISTRIBUTION. England and Wales. On all coasts and often 
inland. Young birds frequent all summer, especially in north. 
Bred Fame Isles (Northumberland), 1910, and possibly once pre- 
viously, but has not bred elsewhere. Probably some winter- 
visitors are immigrants from Continent. Scotland and Ireland. 
Resident. In Scotland breeds from Solway and Forth northwards 
on low coasts and freshwater lochs on mainland and islands. In 
Ireland small colonies in coast districts, Donegal, Sligo, Mayo, and 
Connemara, Loughs Conn and Mask, and Blaskets (Kerry). 
Common and more widely distributed winter. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Northern Europe and Asia, north to 
67-70, south to Frisian Isles (Holland), Mecklenburg, the Russian 
Baltic Provinces, and even south Russia. In autumn and winter 
to Mediterranean basin, Nile Valley, and Persian Gulf : in east from 
Kamtschatka to Japan and China ; i are in Iceland, once in Lab- 
rador. Replaced by L. canus brackyrhynchus in western North 


431. Larus argentatus argentatus Pontopp.* THE HER- 

LARUS ARGENTATUS Pontoppidan, Danske Atlas, i, p. 622 (1763 


Larus argentatus Gmelin, Yarrell, in, p. 618 ; Saunders, p. 673. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Breeds all precipitous 
coasts and stacks, as well as occasionally on low ground such as low 
islands and bogs. In winter generally distributed on coasts but 
rather uncommon far inland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. " Northern Europe from the White Sea 
westward, the Atlantic Region to Iceland and down to the north of 
France (breeding) ; Greenland, Baffin Bay, Melville Peninsula, 
Prince Regent Inlet, North Georgian or Parry Islands, and Prince 
Albert Land (breeding)." Southwards, in Europe in winter only to 
Mediterranean basin, Black and Caspian Seas, in America wintering 
south to Lower California and Mexico, Bahamas, Cuba, Yucatan, and 
Texas. Replaced, during breeding -season, in Mediterranean, Atlan- 
tic islands, and coasts of north-west Africa, as well as from Black and 
Caspian Seas, eastwards to Lake Baikal, and along arctic coast of 
Siberia as well as in North America, by allied forms. 

* Pontoppidan named the species twenty six years before Gmelin. E.H. 


432. Larus argentatus cachinnans Pall. THE YELLOW- 

LARUS CACHINNANS Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso- Asiat., n, p. 318 (1827 Caspian 

Sea, Volga to Lake Baikal). 

Larus cachinnans Pallas, Samiders, pp. 673, 674. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. One or two. One shot Breydon (Nor- 
folk) Nov. 4, 1886 (T. Southwell, ZooL, 1897, p. 572). One seen 
Dover (Kent) April 18, 1904 (N. C. Rothschild, Bull. B.O.C., xiv, 
p. 91 ; cf. Brit. B., n, p. 328). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds from Azores, Canary and Ma- 
deiran Islands throughout basin of Mediterranean, and from Black 
and Caspian Seas through west Asia to Lake Baikal. According to 
Buturlin also in White Sea, Gulf of Finland, and Lake Onega. In 
winter in India, in Red Sea, and in Africa to Senegambia and 


433. Larus fuscus fuscus L. THE LESSER BLACK-BACKED 

LARUS FUSCUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 136 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Larus fuscus Linnaeus, Yarrell, in, p. 624 ; Saunders, p. 675. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Breeds coasts Isle of 
Wight (increased recently), Cornwall, Devon (nested Kent, 1908), 
inland and coasts of Wales and isles, Cumberland, Northumberland, 
and Fame Isles ; many places coast, inland and isles of Scotland ; 
several islands, lakes, and some inland places in Ireland. In winter 
more widely distributed on coasts, but most general on passage 
autumn and spring, when often seen inland. Considerable numbers 
emigrate in winter, Shetlands and Orkneys being abandoned, 
extreme north mainland nearly so, and species becoming rare in 
Ireland. Non-breeding birds frequent in summer on all coasts. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Northern Europe from the Dwina to 
Faeroes (not in Iceland), southward to Mediterranean (breeding in 
one place off Maroccan coast), in winter to Canaries (but breeds 
on Azores), Senegal, Fanti, Bonny, Egypt, Nubia, Red Sea (where 
said to be resident), and Persian Gulf. Very rare in north Caspian 
(Saunders). A close study of local races has not yet been 
made, but this form seems to be replaced in north Russia 
east of the Dwina, and in Siberia, by the allied form called Larus 
fuscus affinis, which winters in west Asia, Arabia, Somaliland, 
Sokotra. (The type of L. affinis was obtained in Greenland ( ? ), 
while it is also recorded from Heligoland and, doubtfully, from 



434. Larus marinus L. THE GREAT BLACK-BACKED 

LARUS MARINUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 136 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Gotland). 

Larus marinus Linnaeus, Yarrell, in, p. 631 ; Saunders, p. 677. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Breeds sparsely coasts 
of Dorset, Cornwall, Scilly Isles, Lundy Isle, Wales (coasts and islets 
in lakes), Lake District and Clyde Area, and commonly northwards 
and Scottish isles both sea-cliffs and inland. Does not breed from 
Forth southwards on east side. In Ireland increasing, and breeds 
rocky coasts and islands, especially west, and a few inland loughs 
north and west. In winter more widely distributed on all coasts. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. " Northern Europe, from the Lower Pet- 
chora westward to Iceland, and down to about 50 north (breeding) ; 
in winter to the Canaries and Azores, and along the Mediterranean 
(rarely) to the Egyptian coast ; also on inland waters. Greenland, 
and also the east coast and the great lakes of North America to 
Labrador (breeding) ; in winter (casually) to Florida, and accident- 
ally in Bermuda " (Saunders). 


435. Larus glaucus Briinn. THE GLAUCOUS GULL. 

LABUS GLAUCUS Briinnich, Orn. Bor., p. 44 (1764 Iceland). 
Larus glaucus O. Fabricius, Yarrell, in, p. 636 ; Saunders, p. 679. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Winter-visitor, exceptional summer. 
Most frequent and occasionally abundant east coast Great Britain 
from Shetlands to Norfolk. Frequent north and west Ireland. 
Elsewhere rare and occasional, although apparently regular 
0. Hebrides. Adults very rare in south and west. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in circumpolar region, and ranges 
in winter to Mediterranean, Black and Caspian Seas, Japan, Cali- 
fornia, Bermudas, North Carolina, Texas, and Florida. 


436. Larus leucopterus Faber THE ICELAND GULL. 

LARUS LEUCOPTERUS Faber, Prodromus Island. Orn., p. 91 (1822 


LARUS LEUCOPTERUS Faber, Yarrell, in, p. 642 ; Saunders, p. 681. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Winter- visitor, sometimes until April 
and May. Much same as Glaucous but decidedly scarcer. Many 
Cornwall and Devon winters 1872-3 and 1874-5. 

* Briinnich named the species sixteen years before Fabricius. E.H. 


DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Jan May en, Greenland, north to Victoria 
Land and Boothia Peninsula ; possibly Novaya Zemlia ; in winter 
south to Baltic (casually), Scandinavia, British Islands down to Gulf 
of Gascony (rarely), Iceland, and Faeroes; in America to Great 
Lakes (casually) and Long Island, accidentally in Nebraska and 


437. Rissa tridactyla tridactyla (L.) THE KITTIWAKE 

LARUS TRIDACTYLUS Linnseus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 136 (1758 N. 

Europe. Restricted typical locality : Great Britain). 

Rissa tridactyla (Linnaeus), Yarrell, in, p. 650 ; Saunders, p. 683. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident and winter-visitor. Breeds 
abundantly precipitous coasts and islands, Ireland, and north and 
west Scotland (especially Orkneys, Shetlands, and Hebrides), also 
Isle of Man, Wales, Lundy Island [in Scilly Isles apparently not since 
1900], not south coast England, and only in a few places on east side 
Great Britain, viz. Flamborough Head (Yorks.), Fame Isles (Nor- 
thumberland), St. Abb's Head (Berwick), Fowlsheugh (Kincardine), 
Dunbury (Aberdeen), and borders Aberdeen and Banff. In winter 
widely distributed on all coasts Great Britain, numbers being in- 
creased by immigrants, but in Ireland apparently scarcer in winter. 
Rare inland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds from west arctic Asia, Spitsbergen, 
and arctic Europe to north-west France, and from Wellington 
Channel and north Greenland to Gulf of St. Lawrence, and winters 
from latter south to New Jersey, and casually to Virginia, Bermudas, 
and Great Lakes, and in Europe south to Mediterranean, the Atlantic 
islands from Madeira to Azores, Senegal, and Caspian Sea. Replaced 
by Rissa tridactyla pollicaris on coasts of north Pacific, Bering Sea 
and adjacent ocean, south to Commander and Aleutian Islands. 


438. Pagophila eburnea (Phipps) THE IVORY-GULL. 

? LARUS ALBUS Gunnerus, Leem, Beskr. Finm. Lapp., p. 285 (1767 

N. Norway). 

Larus eburneus Phipps, Voy. N. Pole, App., p. 187 (1774 Arctic Sea). 

Pagophila eburnea (Phipps), Yarrell, in, p. 656 ; Saunders, p. 685. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Rare vagrant. About forty-five. 
Most frequent Shetlands and Orkneys, but has occurred many 
counties Great Britain (Yorks., seven), and three in Ireland. From 
autumn to spring and as late as June. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in high arctic latitudes around 


North Pole, wintering south as far as north France, Lake Geneva 
(once), British Columbia, Lake Ontario and Long Island in America. 


439. Stercorarius skua skua (Briinn.)* THE GREAT SKUA. 

CATHARACTA SKUA Briinnich, Oni. Bor., p. 33 (1764 Faeroes and Iceland). 
Stercorarius catarrhactes (Linnaeus), Yarrell, in, p. 662 ; Saunders, p. 687. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident in Shetlands, breeding on 
Unst and Foula. Increased late years (over forty nests Hermanees, 
1907) and nested Hascosay, 1907, and Burrafirth Voe, 1904. Else- 
where winter- visitor (exceptional summer), seldom coming to land. 
Seen various months at sea off south-west Ireland ; others obtained 
Dublin, Down, and Tipperary. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in Iceland and Faeroes, also 
apparently on Lady Franklin Island (Hudson Strait). In winter 
southward in north Atlantic to about Gibraltar, the fishing- 
grounds off Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, and even (casually) to 
Long Island. Replaced by allied forms in southern oceans. 


440. Stercorarius pomarinus (Temm.) - - THE POMA- 

LESTRIS POMARINUS Temminck, Man. d'Orn., p. 514 (1815 Arctic 
regions, Holland and France). 

Stercorarius pomatorhimts (Temminck), Yarrell, in, p. 668 ; Saunders, 
p. 689. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Passage-migrant and winter-visitor. 
Tolerably regular autumn passage -migrant, especially east coast 
England, less regular east coast Scotland, and still scarcer south and 
west coasts Great Britain and coasts Ireland. Periodically great 
numbers (e.g. autumn, 1879, 1880, 1886, 1892, 1901 Great Britain, 
and Oct., 1862, Ireland). Sometimes stops winter, but rare on 
spring -passage except seas of O. Hebrides, where recorded as frequent 
in some years. Said to have bred but no proof. Sometimes blown 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. "Arctic regions north of 70, chiefly on 
tundras during breeding-season " ; in winter southward as far as 
Australia, south Africa, New Jersey, Galapagos Islands, and Peru. 

* Briinnich's name has two years priority over that of Linnaeus, who, in 
fact, derived his description from Briinnich. E.H. 

f The original spelling is pom'arinits, and we have no right to alter it, as we 
cannot absolutely prove that Temminck meant " pomatorhimis." Brehm 
also called an Eagle pomarina. E.H. 



441. Stercorarius parasiticus (L.) THE ARCTIC SKUA. 

LARUS PARASITICUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 136 (1758 Europe, 
America, Asia. Restricted typical locality : coast of Sweden). 
Stercorarius crepidatus (Gmelin), Yarrell, in, p. 674 ; Saunders, p. 691. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Summer-resident and passage- 
migrant. Breeds many places Shetlands, a few Orkneys and I. and 
O. Hebrides, and very sparsely Caithness and Sutherland. Else- 
where passage-migrant chiefly autumn (Aug. -Oct.) in varying 
numbers ; rare spring. Most regular east coast Great Britain, less 
frequent south and west coasts, and Ireland. Sometimes inland. 
Occasionally summer. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Circumpolar and subarctic regions, breed- 
ing as far south as about 55 45', and in America to Aleutian Islands, 
Great Slave Lake and central Keewatin. In winter along coasts 
of Europe and Africa south to Cape of Good Hope, Persian 
Gulf, Australia, New Zealand, and in America to California and 


442. Stercorarius longicaudus Vieill. THE LONG-TAILED 

STERCORARIUS LONGICAUDUS Vieillot, Nouv.Dict. d' Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 
xxxn, p. 157 (1819 Northern regions). 

Stercorarius parasiticus (Linnaeus), Yarrell, in, p. 680 ; Saunders, 
p. 693. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Irregular autumn-migrant (Sept.- 
Oct.), occasional spring and summer. Most frequent (but rather 
rare) east coast England, usually small numbers, occasionally many, 
as in 1879, rare south and west coasts (except 1891) and rare Scotland 
and Ireland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Circumpolar regions of Northern Hemis- 
sphere. Winters south to Straits of Gibraltar and Japan, and in 
America on New England coasts, casually to California, accidentally 
in Manitoba, Iowa, Illinois, and Florida. 

* Gray, Dresser, Saunders, and (following these authorities) other British 
and Continental ornithologists, have shifted the name parasiticus from this 
species to the Long-tailed Skua. It is rather surprising that Saunders should 
have at length recommended this transfer, as he otherwise would not accept 
" violent transfers even when justifiable." In this case the change is not 
justifiable, as fully explained by Stejneger (Proc. U.S. Nat. Museum, v, 
pp. 40-42), whose view has now been generally accepted. E.H. 

f As explained under the Arctic Skua, the name parasiticus must not be 
used for the Long-tailed Skua ; the next oldest name is Vieillot's longicaudus, 
which corresponds with the English name. E.H. 



443. Alca torda L. THE RAZORBILL. 

ALCA TORDA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 130 (1758 "Habitat in 

Europse borealis oceano "). 

Alca torda Linnaeus, Yarrell, iv, p. 55 ; Saunders, p. 695. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Breeds (end March-Aug.) 
suitable cliffs (mainland and isles) throughout (doubtfully Dover 
cliffs). Less plentiful than Guillemot except in Ireland. Fairly 
generally distributed in seas autumn and winter (rare Irish seas 
winter) and frequently washed up on coasts, and occasionally 
storm-driven inland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Islands and coasts of North Atlantic, 
breeding as far south as Channel Islands and Brittany, and in 
America to Newfoundland and New Brunswick. In winter south 
to Mediterranean, and Canary Islands (casually), and in America 
to Long Island and casually to North Carolina. 


444. Alca impennis L. THE GREAT AUK. 

ALCA IMPENNIS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 130 (1758 Arctic Europe). 
Alca impennis Linnaeus, Yarrell, iv, p. 61 : Saunders, p. 697. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Extinct. Recorded in 0. Hebrides as 
far back as 1684, but became rare early 1800. Only British taken 
specimens known are (1) Papa Westray (Orkneys) (the breeding- 
place was the Holm of Papa Westray, see Ibis 1898, p. 587) obtained 
by Bullock 1813, now in Brit. Mus. ; (2) St. Kilda (O. Hebrides) 
captured alive and received by Fleming, Aug. 1821 or 2 ; (3) Water- 
ford coast May, 1834, captured alive and now in Trin. Coll. Mus., 
Dublin. Strong evidence of one captured Stack-an-Armin (St. 
Kilda) about 1840, and fair evidence of one captured Fame Isles 
a few years previous to 1769. Remains have been found Orkneys, 
Caithness, Oronsay Is. (Argyll), Durham, Antrim, Donegal, Clare, 
and Waterford. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Formerly breeding round Newfoundland, 
and particularly on Funk Island, Iceland (Grimsey, Eldey, Geirfugla- 
sker), Faeroes, and possibly in east Greenland ; in winter at least 
south to Ireland and Denmark, and to Carolina and Florida. 
Extinct since 1844. Eighty skins and seventy-three eggs are known 
to be in existence (E. Bidwell). 


445. Uria troille troille (L.) THE COMMON GUILLEMOT. 
COLYMBUS TROILLE Linnaeus, Fauna Svecica, ed. n, p. 52 (1761 Arctic 

Uria troile (Linnaeus), Yarrell, iv, p. 69 ; Saunders, p. 699. 


DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Breeds (end March. -Aug.) 
suitable cliffs (mainlands and isles) throughout. More plentiful 
than Razorbill, except in Ireland. Fairly generally distributed in 
seas autumn and winter (scarce Irish seas winter), and frequently 
washed up on coasts and occasionally storm-driven inland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Coasts and islands of north Atlantic, 
breeding south to north France and small islands off Portugal, and 
on American side to Newfoundland and Magdalen Islands. In 
winter south to about 30 north, and in America to Maine. Re- 
placed by an allied form in north Pacific. 


446. Uria lomvia lomvia (L.) BRUNNICH'S GUILLEMOT. 

ALCA LOMVIA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 130 (1758 N. Europe. 
Restricted typical locality Greenland, from Linnaeus's last but most 
definite quotation : Albin, pi. 84). 
Uria bruennichi Sabine, Yarrell, iv, p. 76 ; Saunders, p. 701. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Rare vagrant. Male Scarborough 
Dec. 7, 1894, male and female Filey (and others reported) Jan., 1895, 
one near Flamborough Hd., Nov., 1899, one off Scarborough, Oct. 28, 
1902, and probably one or two others previous to 1894 (Birds Yorks., 
pp. 724-5). One reported seen Bempton Cliffs (Yorks.) June 27, 
1909 (Brit. B., in, p. 91). One Cambs., Jan. 12, 1895 (Saunders, 
p. 701). One reported seen Fame Isles (Northumberland) June 
14, 1908 (Brit. B., n, p. 331). Female, Craigielaw Pt. (Haddington), 
Dec. 11, 1908 (t.c., n, p. 425). Others possible Caithness and 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Coasts and islands of Arctic Ocean, 
but even in winter not far south, being only a straggler to North 
Sea and English Channel, and a very exceptional vagrant inland in 
Europe, while on American coast it extends south casually to South 
Carolina, northern Ohio, Indiana, and Iowa. Replaced by Uria 
lomvia arra in North Pacific, Bering Sea, and on coast of eastern 
north Siberia. 


447. Uria grylle grylle (L.) THE BLACK GUILLEMOT. 

ALCA GRYLLE Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 130 (1758 European 

Arctic Ocean). 

Uria grylle (Linnaeus), Yarrell, iv, p. 81 ; Saunders, p. 703. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Breeds sparsely Isle of Man, and a 
few places between Solway and Firth of Lome, northwards more 

* The name lomvia antedates brunnichii by sixty years. E.H. 


abundantly, but especially in some I. and most O. Hebrides, Orkneys 
and Shetlands, fairly commonly north coast Sutherland and north- 
east coast Caithness, but not now southwards on east side. Fairly 
frequent Ireland except east coast, where few. Used to nest a few 
places east coast Scotland, Flamborough (Yorks), Orme's Head 
(N. Wales). Outside present breeding area only occasional visitor 
and especially rare in south. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Coasts of north Europe eastwards to 
White Sea, Faeroes, Iceland, south Greenland, eastern North 
America from Ungava to Maine ; in winter to north of France 
and in America from Cumberland Sound to Cape Cod and casually 
to New Jersey. Replaced in circumpolar seas (Novaya Zemlia, 
Spitsbergen, Franz -Josef Land, north Greenland and arctic 
America) by an allied form. 


448. Alle alle (L.) THE LITTLE AUK. 

ALCA ALLE Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 131 (1758 Arctic Ocean). 
Mergulus alle (Linnaeus), Yarrell, iv, p. 85 ; Saunders, p. 705. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Irregular winter-visitor. Most fre- 
quent Scotland and east coast England, but occurs all coasts, often 
being driven on shore and inland. Occasionally in great numbers 
as Jan., 1895, Feb. and Mar., 1900, Nov., 1910 and Jan. and 
Feb., 1912. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Arctic Ocean, from Novaya Zemlia and 
Franz -Josef Land to Greenland, Baffin Bay and Kane Basin, in 
winter south to Azores and Canary Islands, and in America to 
Long Island, casually and accidentally to other parts of North 


449. Fratercula arctica arctica (L.) THE PUFFIN. 

ALCA ARCTICA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 130 (1758 X. European 

Ocean. Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Fratercula arctica (Linnaeus), Yarrell, iv, p. 90 ; Saurders, p. 707. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Breeds (erd March- Aug.) 
sparsely, Isle of Wight, mainland Dorset, Cornwall, Devon; abun- 
dantly Scilly Isles and Lundy ; many colonies Wales and northwards 
mainland and isles, especially abundant Hebrides and Shetlands. 
Few colonies east side Scotland, breeds Fame Isles (Northumberland) 
and Flamborough (Yorks.), but not elsewhere east coast England. 
Formerly bred Kent. Abundant various parts Ireland. Seldom 
near shore winter. Occasionally driven inland. 


DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Coasts and islands of north Atlantic, 
south to Portugal, in winter casual to Canary Islands and Azores. 
Replaced by a larger form in Arctic Ocean from northern and 
western Greenland to Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlia. 


450. Otis tarda tarda L. THE GREAT BUSTARD. 

OTIS TARDA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 154 (1758 Poland, Orient, 
Belgium, England. Restricted typical locality : Poland). 
Otis tarda Linnaeus, Yarrell, in, p. 193 ; Saunders, p. 523. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Very rare vagrant. Formerly bred 
many parts England and at one time in south-east Scotland. Last 
survivor Yorks., 1832 or 1833, last bred Norfolk and Suffolk about 
1838, dying out a few years later. In winters 1870-71, 1879-80, 
and 1890-91 considerable number occurred. Attempted re-intro- 
duction in Norfolk (1900) may account for several shot Dec., 1902, 
Lines, (two), Glamorgan (one), and Ireland (two), or these may 
have been genuine immigrants. Has occurred very rarely mainland 
Scotland and once Orkneys (1886). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe from central Germany (and 
formerly Denmark and south Sweden) to Russia and the Khirgiz 
Steppes, southwards to Spain (perhaps only occasional migrant 
to north-west Africa), Asia Minor ; migrates to Persia. The 
exact limit eastwards is uncertain, but in central Asia (Turkestan) 
and eastern Asia, closely-allied forms take the place of the 
European race. 


451. Otis tetrax L. THE LITTLE BUSTARD. 

OTIS TETRAX Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 154 (1758 "Europe* 
especially France." Typical locality therefore France). 
Otis tetrax Linnaeus, Yarrell, in, p. 216 ; Saunders, p. 525. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Occurrences fairly numerous Yorks., 
Norfolk and Suffolk, less so southern counties England, and only 
very occasional elsewhere. Scotland. Four. Forfar, Fife, and 
Elgin (two). Ireland. Eight. Kerry, Cork (two), Wicklow (two), 
Longford, Mayo (two). Usually in winter, occasionally spring, 
e.g. Suffolk, May 3, 1898, Derby, May 14th, 1901. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Southern Europe, north to central France 
and central Germany (accidentally or at least casually only to 
Scandinavia, the Baltic Provinces, and Ingermannland in Russia), 
and north-west Africa, eastwards to west Siberia, central Asia, 


and Yarkand, and in winter north-west India. Northern birds 
are migrants, but not much is known about the extent of their 


452. Houbara undulata macqueenii (Gray & Hardw.) MAC- 

OTIS MACQUEENII Gray and Hardwicke, Illustr. Ind. Zool., n, pi. 47 (1834 


Otis macqueeni J. E. Gray, Yarrell, in, p. 221 ; Saunders, p. 527. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Four. One Kirton-in-Lindsey 
(Lines.), Oct., 1847. Male adult near Redcar (Yorks.), Oct. 5, 1892. 
Male near Spurn (Yorks.), Oct. 17, 1896 (Saunders, p. 527). Female 
St. Fergus (Aberdeen) Oct. 24, 1898 (Saunders, p. 756). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. From west Siberia (foot of Altai, Tomsk) 
and west Turkestan to north-west India, and Sind, Afghanistan, 
Persia to Syria, the Khirgiz Steppes and Lower Volga. Stragglers 
have been obtained in many parts of Europe : west Russia, Livonia, 
Oeland, Finland, Sweden, Germany, Bohemia, Holland, Belgium, 
France, Italy. Houbara undulata undulata, inhabits the northern 
Sahara, and H. undulata fuertaventurce the island of Fuertaventura, 
east Canaries. 


453. Megalornis grus grus (L.) THE COMMON CRANE. 

ABDEA Gnus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 141 (1758 Europe, Africa. 

.Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Grus communis Bechstein, Yarrell, in, p. 178 ; Saunders, p. 521. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Bare vagrant. Bred East Anglia 
up to about 1600 and subsequently regular winter- visitor (perhaps 
also common in Ireland 12th-14th century) but for last century or 
more only irregular. Has occurred most counties England ; rarely 
Wales (last Anglesey, May, 1908) ; rarely Scotland (latest Pentland 
Skerries, May, 1903, Shetlands, May, 1906, Lewis (0. Hebrides), 
May 1906) ; very rarely Ireland (latest Tipperary, Sept., 1906, 
Donegal, June, 1896). Bones found in cave in Clare. 

* The genus Houbara appears to be fairly separable from Otis, if various 
genera of Bustards are admitted. Macqueen's Bustard is very closely allied 
to the north-west African Houbara Bustard, and can only be looked upon 
as a subspecies of the latter. The alleged differences of the " key " in the 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xxni, are not quite correct. E.H. 

I The name Grus, Pallas 1766, is a synonym of Psophia, and recognizing this 
fact, Gray, in 1841, introduced Megalornis for the Cranes. See Nov. ZooL, 
1910, p. 502. E.H. 


DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in Europe from Scandinavia, 
greater part of Russia, and north Germany to Austro -Hungary, the 
Balkan Peninsula, north Italy, and south Spain. In Asia probably 
ranges to west Siberia and Turkestan, while a closely-allied, but 
paler, race replaces it further eastwards. European Cranes migrate 
in autumn southwards to Africa as far as Marocco, Algeria, and 
Tunisia, and to Abyssinia. 

[NOTE. An AMERICAN BROWN CRANE, Megalornis canadensis (L. ),recorded 
as shot co. Cork, Ireland, September 14th, 1905 (A. R. Nichols, Irish Nat., 
1907, p. 209), had probably escaped from captivity (Brit. B., i, p. 90). This 
species inhabits North America, breeding in Alaska, migrating through the 
United States, wintering south to Texas and Jalisco in Mexico, casual west to 

[NOTE. A DEMOISELLE CRANE, Anthropoides virgo (L.), said to have been 
shot Orkneys, May 14th, 1863, a companion bird escaping (Yarrell, in, .p. 192 ; 
Saunders, p. 522), had probably escaped from captivity. Another was 
erroneously recorded from Somerset. The bird breeds in south Spain (?) the 
Dobrudscha and south Russia, as well as in north-west Africa, and many 
parts of Asia, while stragglers have occurred in Sweden, Heligoland, Germany. 
Frequently kept in confinement.] 

[NOTE. An AFRICAN CROWNED CRANE, Balearica pavonina(L.), shot in 
Ayrshire, Sept. 17, 1871, had doubtless escaped from captivity (Yarrell, in, 
p. 192 ; Saunders, p. 522). Four races of this species inhabit west, east, and 
south Africa.] 


454. Crex crex (L.) THE LAND-RAIL. 

RALLUS CREX Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 153 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Crex pratensis Bechstein, Yarrell, in, p. 137 ; Saunders, p. 507. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Summer resident (late April and 
May to Oct.). One or two recorded in winter most years, especially 
Ireland and 0. Hebrides. Widely distributed even to remote 
islands, but in fluctuating numbers, thus in recent years nearly 
absent from south-eastern quarter of England. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Greater part of Europe, from Scandinavia, 
and Faroes to Pyrenees and north Italy, eastwards to west Siberia 
and central Asia, in winter in Africa. Casually in United States, 
Greenland, Bermudas, and once in Australia. 


455. Porzana porzana (L.) THE SPOTTED CRAKE. 

RALLTJS PORZANA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. xii, i, p. 262 (1766 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : France). 

Porzana maruetta (Leach), Yarrell, in, p. 143 ; Saunders, p. 509. 

* The generic names Porzana, Ortygometra, and Zapornia were all created 
in 1816. The former is preferable, as having a fixed type by tautonymy, 
besides being most generally used, and Ortygometra is a mixture. To split 
these little Rails into two or three genera, does not seem to be of any use. E.H. 



DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Summer resident and passage- 
migrant (March-May and Aug.-Nov.), occasionally wintering. Now 
rarely recorded breeding but probably still does so in some southern 
English counties and in East Anglia, Trent Valley, Yorks, and 
Brecon and possibly elsewhere. Formerly bred more commonly 
and as far north as southern Scotland, but Elgin record unlikely. 
Fairly frequent autumn-migrant except in north-west and north 
Scotland where very rare, once Hebrides, rarely Orkneys and 
Shetlands. In Ireland uncommon autumn, occasional winter- 
visitor. Bred (apparently commonly) Roscommon about 1851, 
apparently young bird taken Kerry and heard calling several 
nights Waterford, May, 1900. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. "Europe generally up to about 65 north 
lat., as far east as Yarkand ; wintering in Indian Peninsula and in 
Africa. Accidental in Greenland " (Sharpe). Probably also breeds 
north-west Africa. 


456. Porzana Carolina (L.) THE CAROLINA CRAKE. 

RAIXTTS CAKOLINUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 153 (1758 
N. America. Restricted typical locality : Hudson Bay). 
Porzana Carolina, Yarrell, in, p. 147 (in text) ; Saunders, p. 510 (in text) ; 
Lort Phillips, Bull. B.O.C., xn, p. 26. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Three. Near Newbury (Berks.), 
Oct., 1864 (Saunders, p. 510). Near Cardiff, 1888 (Birds Glamorgan, 
p. 113). Male Tiree (I. Hebrides), Oct. 25th., 1901 (E. Lort Phillips, 
Bull. B.O.C., xii, p. 26 ; cf. Brit. B., n, p. 29). 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds in North America, winters from 
California and South Carolina through West Indies and Central 
America to South America, accidental in Bermudas and Greenland. 


457. Porzana parva (Scop.) THE LITTLE CRAKE. 

RALLUS PABVUS Scopoli, Annus i, Historico-Natur., p. 108 (1769 


Porzana parva (Scopoli), Yarrell, in, p. 148 ; Saunders, p. 511. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Vagrant. England. About forty, 
as follows : Yorks. (five), Lines., Norfolk (eleven), Suffolk, Cambs., 
Middlesex, Oxon., Surrey (possibly), Sussex (four), Hants, (four), 
Dorset (two), Somerset, Devon (several), Cornwall, Salop, Lanes., 
Cumberland (two). Scotland. Two. Banff, March, 1852, Ayr, 
March, 1909. Ireland. Two. co. Dublin, March, 1854, Kildare, 
Nov,, 1903. 


DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Breeds from south Sweden, north 
Germany and central Russia down to Hungary, south France, 
north Italy (possibly also in Algeria and Tunisia). On passage in 
Mediterranean countries, wintering in Africa. Eastward appears 
to breed as far as Persia and Turkestan, and winters in west India 


458. Porzana pusilla intermedia (Herm.) BAILLON'S 

RALLTJS INTERMEDIUS Hermann, Obs. Zool., i, p. 198 (1804 Strasbourg). 
Porzana bailloni (Vieillot), Yarrell, in, p. 154 ; Saunders, p. 513. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Vagrant, but two nests and eggs 
found Cambs., June and Aug., 1858, and two near Hickling (Norfolk) 
June and July, 1866. As vagrant has occurred chiefly Norfolk, but 
also Derby., Notts., Yorks., Suffolk, Essex, Herts., Kent, Sussex, 
Surrey, Hants., Dorset, Somerset, Cornwall, Pembroke, Carnarvon, 
Cheshire, Lanes., Cumberland, Derby., Isle of Man, Dumfries., 
Wigtown, Renfrew, Sutherland, Caithness, Cork, and Waterford. 
Chiefly spring and autumn, and exceptionally summer and winter. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Central and southern Europe generally, 
as far north as East Prussia ; also north-west Africa (Algeria), and 
probably Egypt, eastwards at least as far as Persia. Passes Mediter- 
ranean countries on migration, and winters probably partly north 
and partly south of Sahara. Represented by allied forms in Africa 
south of Sahara and Madagascar, east Siberia and Japan, Australia 
and New Zealand. 

[Porphyrio alleni Thomps. ALLEN'S GALLINULE. 

PORPHYRIO ALLENI Thompson, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., x, p. 204 (1842 

Iddah on the Lower Niger). 

Porphyriola alleni (Thompson), J. H. Gurney, Zool., 1902, p. 98. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. One captured alive on a fishing-boat off 
Hopton, near Yarmouth (Norfolk), Jan. 1, 1902, may have escaped 
from captivity. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Resident in tropical Africa, but has 
occurred accidentally on Canary Islands and a number of times on 
Azores, as well as in south Europe.] 

[NOTE. Examples of the PURPLE GALLINULE, Porphyrio cceruleus 
(Vandelli), the GREEN-BACKED GALLINULE, Porphyrio porphyrio (L.), the 

*Porzana pusilla pusilla (Rallus pusillus Pallas, Reise d. Versch. Prov. d. 
Russ. Reichs, in, p. 700 1776, Dauria= Transbaikalia) is the eastern repre- 
sentative ; cf. Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xxm, pp. 103, 107. Hermann's name 
has fifteen years priority over Vieillot's bailloni. E.H. 


Porphyrio melanotus Temm., have been captured from time to time, but 
these had no doubt escaped from captivity or semi-captivity (Yarrell, m, p. 
170 ; Saunders, p. 518).] 


459. Rallus aquaticus aquaticus L. THE WATER-RAIL. 

RALLUS AQUATICUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 153 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Great Britain). 

Rallus aquaticus Linnaeus, Yarrell, in, p. 159 ; Saunders, p. 515. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident and winter- visitor. Breeds 
most marshy districts, especially Norfolk and Ireland, but very few 
records of nesting in Scotland, especially in the north, and has not 
bred Shetlands, and not for some years Orkneys. In winter com- 
moner and more widely spread. Well marked immigration Oct. and 
Nov., north, east, and west coasts Great Britain and Ireland, return 
generally April not so well marked. Also some emigration autumn 
on south coast England may indicate southward movement of some 
home-bred birds or passage of some immigrants. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe generally, north as far as Iceland 
(practically resident), Scandinavia, and St. Petersburg, south to 
Mediterranean, north-west Africa, and Egypt. Exact limit eastwards 
uncertain, but birds from north-east Asia and eastern parts of India 
(in winter) are Rallus aquaticus indicus, while Zarudny has separated 
a Persian race as R. aquaticus korejewi. 


460. Gallinula chloropus chloropus (L.) THE MOOR-HEN. 

FULICA CHLOROPUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 152(1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : England). 

Gallinula chloropus (Linnaeus), Yarrell, in, p. 164 ; Saunders, p. 517. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Generally distributed, 
but scarce in northern Shetlands. Subject to local movements, and 
some evidence of immigration and emigration in autumn, and 
immigration south coast in spring. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe generally, and nearly whole of 
Africa, on passage in Atlantic isles, eastwards apparently to 
Turkestan. Replaced by allied forms in Madagascar, greater part 
of Asia, America, and Hawaiian Islands. 


461. Fulica atra atra L. THE COOT. 

FULICA ATRA Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 152 (1758 Europe. Re- 
stricted typical locality : Sweden). 
Fulica atra Linnaeus, Yarrell, in, p. 171 ; Saunders, p. 519. 


DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Generally distributed 
and locally very numerous. In severe weather moves to tidal waters 
and southwards. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Greater part of Europe and Asia and 
north Africa, on passage in Atlantic isles. Replaced by closely- 
allied forms in Australia, Tasmania, and possibly east Asia. 

[NOTE. Three examples of the ANDALTJCIAN HEMIPODE, Turnix sylvatica 
sylvatica (Desf . ), no doubt escaped from captivity, have been recorded as having 
been captured in England (Yarrell, in, p. 131 ; Saunders, p. 506).] 


462. Tetrao urogallus urogallus L. THE CAPERCAILLIE. 

TETRAO UROGALLUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 159 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Tetrao urogallus Linnaeus, Yarrell, in, p. 45 ; Saunders, p. 491. 

DISTRIBUTION. Scotland. Resident. Became extinct Scotland 
and Ireland about 1760, and England perhaps a century previously. 
Reintroduced from Sweden into Perthshire 1837, and subsequently 
in many places. Now spread over Tay area and north into Aberdeen, 
Elgin, and Inverness, west into Argyll, south into Stirling, Dum- 
barton and Lanark, and sporadically Mid and East Lothians, Ayr, 
Renfrew, Wigtown, Dumfries, and other southern counties. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Forests of Europe generally from Scan- 
dinavia to Pyrenees and Cantabrian Mountains, Alps, and Car- 
pathians and Balkans. Represented by allied forms from Ural 
Mountains eastwards. 


463. Lyrurus tetrix tetrix (L.) THE BLACK GROUSE. 

TETRAO TETRIX Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 159 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Tetrao tetrix Linnaeus, Yarrell, in, p. 60 ; Saunders, p. 493. 

DISTRIBUTION. Great Britain. Resident. Almost extinct Corn- 
wall, scarce south Devon, more plentiful north Devon and Somerset, 
some Dorset and Wilts, (extinct in Hants., Kent, Surrey and Sussex), 
locally many parts Wales, English border counties and north mid- 
lands, and more numerous (but still local) in all English counties 
north of Derby. Generally distributed mainland Scotland and some 
I. Hebrides, but not 0. Hebrides, Orkneys or Shetlands. Has been 
introduced many parts (e.g. Sussex, Surrey, Berks., Bucks., Norfolk, 
Suffolk, Orkneys, N. Wales, Ireland), but generally unsuccessfully. 

* The genus Lyrurus appears to be better separable than many others 
which are generally recognized. E.H. 


DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe from Scandinavia and Russia to 
Switzerland and Apennines, but not found in Pyrenees. Repre- 
sented by various other races from east Russia eastwards (cf. 
Lorenz, Die Birkhuhner Russlands}. 


464. Lagopus lagopus scoticus (Lath.) THE RED GROUSE. 

TETRAO SCOTICUS Latham, Gen. Syn., Suppl., i, p. 290 (1787 Scotland). 
Lagopus scoticus (Latham), Yarrell, in, p. 73 ; Saunders, p. 495. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. England and Wales. In, 
and west and north of, Glamorgan, Brecon, Hereford, Salop, Staffs.. 
Derby, Yorks. Stragglers have occurred many counties and intro- 
ductions have been made in Surrey and Suffolk. Scotland. 
Generally distributed, but not Shetlands, where attempts have been 
made at introduction. Ireland. In every county, especially moun- 
tains of west and bogs of central plain, but seldom numerous. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Originally exclusively British, but re- 
cently introduced (successfully) into the Eiffel Mountains in west 
Germany and Belgium, and perhaps other places abroad. Replaced 
by other races in north Europe, north Asia, and North America. 


465. Lagopus mutus mutus (Montin) THE PTARMIGAN. 

TETRAO MUTUS Montin, Phys. Salsk. Handl., i, p. 155 (1776-86 


Lagopus mutus (Montin), Yarrell, in, p. 83 ; Saunders, p. 497. 

DISTRIBUTION. Scotland. Resident. On high mountains of main- 
land from Ben Lomond north, also a few in Jura, Skye, Lewis, and 
Harris. Extinct Orkneys, Arran, Dumfries. Unsuccessful 
attempts at introduction into Ireland have been made. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Mountains of Europe from Scandinavia 
to Pyrenees and Alps, eastwards to Ural, and perhaps far into 
Asia. Replaced by a number of allied forms in arctic regions, and 
apparently in Japan. 


466. Phasianus colchicus L. THE PHEASANT. 

PHASIANUS COLCHICUS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 158 (1758 

" Habitat in Africa, Asia." Africa is wrong ! Restricted typical locality : 


Phasianus colchicus (Linnaeus), Yarrell, in, p. 91 ; Saunders, p. 499. 

* Evidently Phasianus colchicus colchicus L. was first introduced into 
England. Afterwards the Ring-necked Pheasant, P. colchicus torquatus, 
and several allied forms were acclimatized, and they have so freely mixed 
with the old race that hardly any pure colchicus can now be found, and most 
or all British Pheasants are now mongrels. E.H. 


DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Introduced in England 
before 1066, in Scotland and Ireland about five hundred years later. 
Now generally hybridized with P. c. iorquatus, introduced about 
1700, and other races more recently. Generally distributed but not 
Shetlands and unsuccessfully introduced Orkneys. Scarce Ireland 
in places not preserved. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Various Pheasants have been introduced 
into almost every part of Europe and many suitable places in North 
America. In no part of Europe are they indigenous. True home 
of P. colchicus colchicus is in west parts of Transcaucasia, basins of 
rivers Rion and Chorokh, or districts round east and south-east 
fhores of Black Sea generally, not further north than Sukham-kale. 
Represented by more or less closely-allied forms in Caucasus, east 
Transcaucasia, Talysch, and many parts of west, north, and central 


467. Perdix perdix perdix (L.) THE COMMON PARTRIDGE. 

TETRAO PERDIX Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 160 (1758 Europe. 

Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Perdix cinerea Latham, Yarrell, in, p. 105 ; Saunders, p. 501. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Resident. Generally distributed, 
but local in Scotland, not present Shetlands, but introduced (not 
successfully) 0. Hebrides and Orkneys. Becoming scarce Ireland. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Difficult at present to define with cer- 
tainty distribution of P. perdix perdix, but it appears to be dis- 
tributed over greater part of Europe, and to be replaced by closely- 
allied forms on alpine meadows of Pyrenees, and north Spain, 
eastern Europe and western Asia, east to foot of Altai Mountains. 


468. Coturnix coturnix coturnix (L.) THE QUAIL. 

TETRAO COTURNIX Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 161 (1758 Europe, 

Asia, Africa. Restricted typical locality : Sweden). 

Coturnix commnnis Bonnaterre, Yarrell, in, p. 123 ; Saunders, p. 505. 

DISTRIBUTION. British Isles. Summer-resident, occasionally stay- 
ing winter. Formerly much more plentiful, especially Lines, and 
East Anglia. Now scarce, but numbers fluctuate. Rare north- 
wards in Great Britain, but has bred as far as Sutherland and 
Caithness, as well as Orkneys, Shetlands, and 0. Hebrides. In 
Ireland previous to 1850, practically resident and plentiful, now 
much scarcer and chiefly summer-resident in eastern half. 


DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Europe and Africa north of Sahara, 
east to west Asia, exact limit eastwards not yet fully known. 
Partial migrant, wintering in Mediterranean countries, Africa, and 
India. Replaced by allied races in Atlantic isles, Africa south of 
Sahara, and east Asia to Japan. 


469. Caccabis rufa rufa (L.) THE RED-LEGGED 

TETBAO RTJFTJS Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, p. 160 (1758 Part. 

S. Europe). 

Caccabis rufa (Linnaeus), Yarrell, in, p. 115 ; Saunders, p. 503. 

DISTRIBUTION. England. Resident. Introduced Suffolk about 
1770, and subsequently many places, now found in Yorks., midlands 
and southwards, west to Somerset and sparingly north Wales, and 
by recent introductions in many other parts. Some evidence of 
immigration on east and south-east coasts. 

DISTRIBUTION. Abroad. Belgium, France, and apparently north 
Spain, Italy, north to west and south Switzerland, and Balearic 
Isles ( ? ). Replaced by very closely-allied forms in south 
Spain, possibly Corsica, Canaries, and Madeira, but introduced in 





The approved English names of birds admitted fully to the List are printed 


The scientific names adopted by us of these birds are printed in italic. 
All other names are printed in ordinary type. 

abietinus, Phylloscopus c., 57 
abyssinicus, Coracias, 99 
Acanthis carduelis britannicus, 9 
Acanthyllis caudacuta, 96 

Accentor alpinus, 90 

collaris, 90 

modularis, 91 

- occidentalis, 91 
Accipiter gentilis gentilis, 117 

- atricapillus, 118 

nisus nisus, 118 
accipitrinus, Asio, 107 
Acredula caudata, 47 

rosea, 47 
Acrocephalus aquations, 65 

arundinaceus arundinaceus, 63 

dumetorum, 65 

palustris, 64 

phragmitis, 65 

schcenobcenus, 65 

streperus streperus, 63 
acuflavida, Sterna s., 193 
acuminata, Erolia m., 176 
acuta, Dafda, 138 
adamsii, Gavia, 159 
Aedon familiaris, 73 

galactodes, 72 
^gialitis asiatica, 166 

cantiana, 167 

curonica, 167 

hiaticula, 166 

vocifera, 168 
^Egiothius exilipes, 13 

rostratus, 1 1 
^Egithalos caudatus caudatus, 47 

roseus, 47 
segocephala, Limosa, 186 
dEgolius tengmalmi tengmalmi, 105 
aegyptiacus, Chenalopex, 133 
cegyptius, Caprimulgus ce., 97 
ceruginosus, Circus, 116 

aesalon, Falco, 112 
aestiva, Dendroica, 40 
sethereus, Phaethon, 149 
^Ethyia baeri, 140 
affinis, Larus f., 201 
Agelaius phceniceus, 7 
Agrobates galactotes galactotes, 72 

syriacus, 73 

Aix sponsa, 137 
Alauda arborea, 30 
Alauda arvensis arvensis, 31 

cinerea, 31 

scotica, 31 

- brachydactyla, 29 

cristata, 29 

sibirica, 28 

tatarica, 28 

alba, Ciconia, 121 

, Egretta a., 123 

, Motacilla a., 40 

, Tyto a., 108 

albellus, Mergus, 147 

albeola, Nyroca, 142 
albicilla, Haliaetus, 116 
albicollis, Zonotrichia, 28 
albifrons, Anser, 128 

, (Enanthe d., 81 

albus, Larus, 203 
Alca impennis, 206 

tor da, 206 

Alcedo ispida ispida, 99 
alcyon, Ceryle, 99 
alexandrinus, Charadrius a., 167 
Atte alle, 208 

alleni, Porphyrio, 213 
alpestris, Otocorys, 32 
alpestris, Turdus t., IS 
alpina, Erolia a., 173 
alpinus, Accentor, 90 
Alseonax latirostris, 54 
aluco, Strix a., 109 
americana, Anas, 137 





americanus, Coccyzus a., 103 
Ampelis garrulus, 53 
amphileuca, Saxicola, 82 
ansestheta, Sterna, 196 
Anas americana, 137 

boscas, 134 

crecca crecca, 135 

carolinensis , 136 

discors, 136 

penelope, 137 

platyrhyncha platyrhyncha, 134 

querquedula, 136 

strepera, 135 
anatum, Falco p., Ill 
anglica, Loxia c., 17 

, Sterna, 192 
anglicus, Dry abates m., 101 
anglorum, Puffinus, 153 
anglorum, Regulus r., 48 
Anhinga anhinga, 149 
Anous stolidus stolidus, 196 
Anser albifrons, 128 

gambeli, 128 

anser, 128 

arvensis, 129 

brachyrhynchus, 130 

cinereus, 128 

erythropus, 129 
fabalis fabalis, 129 

finmarchicus, 129 

gambeli, 128 

- helsingicus, 129 

hyperboreus hyperboreus, 130 
nivalis, 131 

neglectus, 130 

rubrirostris, 128 

segetum, 129 
Anthropoides virgo, 211 
Anthus arboreus, 33 
Anthus campestris, 33 

cervinus, 34 

ludovicianus, 35 

obscurus, 36 

pennsylvanicus, 35 

- petrosa, 36 

pratensis, 33 

richardi richardi, 32 

rupestris, 36 

spinoletta littoralis, 36 

obscurus, 36 

rttbescens, 35 

spinoletta, 35 

spipoletta, 35 

trivialis trivialis, 33 

apiaster, Merops, 98 
apivorus, Pernis a., 119 
apricarius, Charadrius, 168 
Apus apus apus, 96 

melba melba, 95 

aquations, Acrocephalus, 65 

, Cinclus, 92, 93 

, Rallus, 214 
Aquila chrysaetus chrysaetus, 114 

maculata, 114 

naevia, 114 

arborea, Lullula a., 30 
arboreus, Anthus, 33 
arctica, Fratercula a., 208 

, Gavia, 159 

Ardea alba, 123 

bubulcus, 124 
Ardea cinerea, 122 

garzetta, 124 

purpurea purpurea, 123 

- ralloides, 124 

Ardeola ibis ibis, 124 

ralloides ralloides, 124 

Ardetta minuta, 125 
arenaria, Calidris, 173 
Arenaria interpres interpres, 171 
argentatus, Larus a., 200 
arquata, Nnmenius a., 187 
arra, Uria 1., 207 

arundinaceus, Acrocephalus a., 63 
arvensis, Alauda a., 31 

, Anser, 129 
asiatica, JEgialitis, 166 
asiaticus, Charadrius, 166 
Asio accipitrinus, 107 

brachyotus, 107 

Asio flammeus flammeus, 107 

otus otus, 107 
assimilis, Puffinus, 151 
Astur palumbarius, 117 
ater, Milvus, 119 
ater, Parus a., 44 
Athene noctua noctua, 106 
atlanticus, Puffinus o., 151 
atra, Fulica a., 214 
atricapilla, Muscicapa, 54 
atricapilla, Sylvia ., 69 
atrigularis, Turdus, 77 
atrogularis, Saxicola d., 81 
atrogularis, Turdus r., 77 
AUK, GREAT, 206 

, LITTLE, 208 
auratus, Charadrius, 168 

, Colaptes, 102 
aurea, Pluvialis, 168 
aureola, Emberiza, 23 
aureus, Turdus d., 73 
auriculatus, Lanius, 51 
aurita, Saxicola, 81, 82 

, Tringa, 176 
auritus, Colymbus, 157 
AVOCET, 185 
avosetta, Recurvirostra, 185 




badius, Lanius s., 51 
baeri, Nyroca, 140 
bailloni, Porzana, 213 

, Puffinus, 151 
bairdii, Erolia, 176 
Balearica pavonina, 211 
baltimore, Icterus, 7 
Bartramia longicauda, 171 
bassana, Sula, 148 

, Blue-tailed, 98 

beema, Motacilla /., 37 
benghalensis, Coracias, 99 
Bernicla brenta, 132 
- leucopsis, 132 
nigricans, 133 

ruficollis, 131 

bernicla, Branta b., 132 
bewickii, Cygnus b., 127 
biarmicus, Panurus b., 49 
bicolor, Tachycineta, 95 
bifasciata, Loxia L, 19 

, AMERICAN, 126 

, LITTLE, 125 

boarula, Moticilla b., 39 
borealis, Buteo b., 116 
, Motacilla, 37 
borealis, Numenius, 188 

, Parus a., 47 

, Phylloscopus b., 59 
borin, Sylvia, 68 
boscas, Anas, 134 
Botaurus stellaris stellaris, 125 

lentiginosus, 126 
brachydactyla, Calandrella b., 29 

, Certhia, 41 
brachyotus, Asio, 107 
brachyrhynchus, Anser, 130 
Branta bernicla bernicla, 132 

glaucogastra, 133 
- nigricans, 133 

canadensis canadensis, 133 

leucopsis, 132 
- ruficollis, 131 

brenta, Bernicla, 132 
brevipes, Pterodroma, 154 
britannica, Acanthis L, 12 
britannica, Carduelis c., 9 

, Certhia /., 41 

, Sitta e., 42 
britannicus, Cinclus c., 92 

, Falco p., Ill 
, Parus a., 44 

bruennichi, Uria, 207 
Bubo biibo bubo, 107 

ignavus, 107 
bubulcus, Ardea, 124 
buccinator, Cygnus, 127 
Budytes neglectus, 38 
Bulbul, South African, 53 

Bulweria bulwerii, 155 

columbina, 155 


GIRL, 24 

CORN-, 22 



MEADOW-, 24 



PINE-, 23 

REED-, 26 


SNOW-, 27 


Burhinus magnirostris, 163 
Burhinus cedicnemus cedicnemus, 163 

, LITTLE, 209 

, MACQUEEN'S, 210 

Buteo buteo buteo, 115 
desertorum, 116 

borealis borealis, 116 

lagopus lagopus, 115 

lineatus lineatus, 116 

vulgaris, 115 

Butorides virescens virescens, 126 

, HONEY-, 119 


cabaret, Carduelis L, 12 
Caccabis rufa ru/a, 218 
cachinnans, Larus a., 201 
caeruleus, Elanus, 119 
cceruleus, Parus c., 43 
, Porphyrio, 213 
caesia, Sitta, 42 
calandra, Emberiza c., 22 

, Melanocorypha, 28 

Calandrella brachydactyla brachydac- 
tyla, 29 

Calcarius lapponicus lapponicus, 27 
calendula, Regulus c., 49 
Calidris arenaria, 173 
Calidris leucophcea, 173 
calidris, Totanus, 182 
campestris, Anthus, 33 





canadensis, Branta c., 133 

, Megalornis, 211 

Canary Serin, 15 

candicans, Falco r., 110 

candidus, Himantopus, 185 

canescens, Totanus, 183 

cannabina, Carduelis c., 14 

canorus, Cuculus c., 102 

cantiaca, Sterna, 193 

cantiana, ^Egialitis, 167 

cantillans, Sylvia c., 71 

canus, Larus, 200 

Canutus canutus, 172 

canutus, Tringa, 172 

caparoch, Surnia u., 105 

capense, Daption, 155 

capensis, Pycnonotus, 53 

Cape Pigeon, 155 


Caprimulgus enropceus europceus, 96 

cegyptius cegyptius, 97 

ruficollis desertorum, 97 

carbo, Phalacrocorax c., 148 
Carduelis carduelis carduelis, 9 

cannabina cannabina, 14 

citrinella citrinella, 14 

flavirostris flavirostris, 10 
hornemannii hornemannii, 13 

exilipes, 13 

linaria linaria, 11 

cabaret, 12 

holboelli, 12 

rostrata, 11 

spinus, 10 

tristris, 10 

Carine noctua, 106 
Carolina, Porzana, 212 
carolinense, Nettion, 136 
carolinensis, Anas c., 136 
carolinus, Scolecophagus, 7 
Carpodacus erythrinus erythrinus, 16 
caryocatactes, Nucifraga c., 4 
Casarca ferruginea, 134 
casarca, Tadorna, 134 
caspia, Sterna, 192 
castaneiceps , Emberiza c., 25 
castro, Oceanodroma, 150 
catarrhactes, Stercorarius, 204 
caudacuta, Chcetura c., 96 
caudata, Acredula, 47 
caudatus, ^githalos c., 47 
cenchris, Falco, 113 
Certhia familiaris familiaris, 41 

brittanica, 41 
certhiola, Locustella, 62 
cervinus, Anthus, 34 
Ceryle alcyon, 99 
Cettia cetti cetti, 61 
cetti, Cettia cetti, 61 

Chcetura caudacuta caudacuta, 96 

Charadrius alexandrinus alexandrinus 

apricarius, 168 ] 

asiaticus, 166 

auratus, 168 

dominicus dominicus, 169 

fulvus, 169 

dubius, 167 

hiaticula hiaticula, 166 

major, 166 

minor, 167 

morinellus, 165 

- pluvialis, 168 

voci/erus, 168 

Chelidon daurica rufula, 94 

rustica rustica, 93 

urbica, 94 

Chen hyperboreus, 130 

nivalis, 131 

Chenalopex segyptiacus, 133 
Chettusia gregaria, 170 



Chloris chloris chloris, 8 
chloris, Ligurinus, 8 
chloropus, Gallinula c., 214 

, Alpine, 6 
chrysaetus, Aquila c., 114 
Chrysomitris citrinella, 14 
da, Emberiza c., 24 
Ciconia alba, 121 
Ciconia ciconia ciconia, 121 

nigra, 121 

Cinclus aquaticus, 92, 93 
Cinclus cinclus cinclus, 92 

britannicus , 92 
hibernicus, 93 

melanogaster, 92 
cinerea, Alauda a., 31 

, Ardea, 122 

, Perdix, 217 

, Sylvia, 69 

cineraceus, Circus, 117 
cinereocapilla, Motacilla /., 38 
cinereus, Anser, 128 
cioides, Emberiza, 25 
ciopsis, Emberiza c., 25 
circia, Querquedula, 136 
Circus ceruginosus, 116 

cineraceus, 117 

cyaneus, 117 

pygargus, 117 
cirlus, Emberiza, 24 
citrinella, Carduelis c., 14 





citrinella, Eniberiza c., 22 
Clamator glandarius, 103 
Clangula albeola, 142 

glaucion, 141 
Clangula hy emails, 142 
clangula, Nyroca c., 141 
clarkei, Turdus p., 76 
clypeata, Spatula, 138 
Coccothraustes coccothraustes cocco- 

thraustes, 8 

Coccystes glandarius, 103 
Coccyzus americanus americanus, 103 

erythrophthalmus, 104 
cozlebs, Fringilla c., 19 
coelestis, Gallinago, 189 
Colaptes auratus, 102 
colchicus, Phasianus c., 21G 
collaris, Muscicapa, 55 

, Nyroca, 141 

, Prunella c., 90 
collurio, Lanius c., 52 
collybita, Phylloscopus c., 56 
ColcBus monedula spermologus, 3 
Columba lima lima, 161 

cenas, 161 

pal ambus palumbus, 160 

columbianus, Cygnus, 127 
Colymbus adamsi, 159 

arcticus, 159 
Colymbus auritus, 157 

cristatus cristatus, 156 

glacialis, 159 

griseigena griseigena, 157 

nigricollis nigricollis, 158 

- ruficollis ruficollis, 158 

septentrionalis, 160 

comminutus, Dryobates m., 101 
communis, Coturnix, 217 

, Grus, 210 
communis, Sylvia c., 69 

, Turtur, 161 
COOT, 214 
Coracias abyssinicus, 99 

- benghalensis, 99 
Coracias garrulus garrulus, 99 
corax, Corvus c., 1 

cornix, Corvus c., 1 
cornuta, Tadorna, 134 
corone, Corvus c., 2 
Corvus corax corax, 1 

cornix cornix, 1 

corone corone, 2 

frugilegus frugilegus, 2 
Cosmonetta histrionica, 143 
Cotile riparia, 95 
Coturnix communis, 217 
Coturnix coturnix coturnix, 217 

, CAROLINA, 212 

, CORN-, see RAIL, LAND- 

, LITTLE, 212 

Crane, Brown, American, 211 

, Crowned, African, 211 

, Demoiselle, 211 

crecca, Anas c., 135 

, , NORTHERN, 41 

, WALL-,. 41 

crepidatus, Stercorarius, 205 
Crex crex, 211 

- pratensis, 211 
cristata, Fuligula, 140 
cristata, Galerida c-., 29 
cristatus, Colymbus c., 156 

, Parus c., 45 

, Regulus, 48 

CROSSBILL, American White-winged, 

, COMMON, 17 

, PARROT-, 18 


, TWO -BARRED, 19 


, HOODED, 1 

Cryptoglaux funerea funerea, 105 
CUCKOO, 102 




cucullatus, Mergus, 147 
Cuculus canorus canorus, 102 

, ESKIMO, 188 


, STONE-, 163 

curonica, -^Egialitis, 167 
curruca, Sylvia c., 70 
Cursorius gallicus gallicus, 164 
curvirostra, Loxia c., 17 
Cyanecula leucocyana, 88 

suecica, 87 

wolfi, 88 

cyanecula, Luscinia svecica, 88 
cyaneus, Circus, 117 
Cygnus bewickii bewickii, 127 

buccinator, 127 

columbianus, 127 

cygnus, 126 

immutabilis, 127 

musicus, 126 

olor, 127 

Cymochorea leucorrhoa, 149 
Cypselus apus, 96 

melba, 95 





Dafila acuta, 138 

Dandalus rubecula melophilus, 89 

rubecula, 89 
Daption capense, 155 
Darter, American, 149 
dartfordiensis, Sylvia u. } 72 
Daulias luscinia, 86 
dauma, Turdus, 73 
daurica, Chelidon, 94 
Dendrocopus major, 100-1 

minor, 101 

Dendroica aestiva aestiva, 40 
deserti, (Enanthe d.. 80 
desertorum, Buteo b., 116 
desertorum, Caprimulgits r,. 97 
desmaresti, Phalacrocorax g., 148 
Diomedea melanophrys, 156 

, BRITISH, 92 

, IRISH, 93 

discors, Anas, 136 




domesticus, Passer d., 21 
dominions, Charadrius d,, 169 
dougallii, Sterna d., 194 
Dove, RING-, see PIGEON, WOOD- 
DOVE, ROCK-, 161 

, STOCK-, 161 

, TURTLE-, 161 


dresseri, Parus, p. 46 
Dryobates major anglicus, 101 

major, 100 

minor comminutus, 101 

- pubescens, 102 

- villosus, 102 

Dryocopus martins martius, 102 
dubius, Charadrius, 167 

, Turdus, 77 
DUCK, BAER'S, 140 





Ring-necked, American, 141 

SCAUP-, 141 

SHELD-, 134 
, RUDDY, 134 

Summer, North American, 137 

TUFTED, 140 
Ducks, see EIDER, GADWALL, GAR- 



dumetorum, Acroceplialus, 65 
DUNLIN, 173 


, SPOTTED, 114 


eburnea, Pagophila, 203 
Ectopistes migratorius, 162 
Efjatheus jaldnellus falcinellus, 122 
Egretta alba alba, 123 

garze.Ua garzetta, 124 

, KING-, 144 
, Pacific, 144 

, STELLER'S, 143 
Elanoides forficatus, 119 
Elaiius caeruleus, 119 
elegans, Carduelis, 9 

, Loxia 1., 19 

Emberiza aureola, 23 

calandra calandra, 22 

da da, 24 

cioides castaneiceps , 25 

drlus, 24 

- dlrinella dtrinella, 22 

hortulana, 24 

leucocephala, 23 

melanocephala, 23 

miliaria, 22 

pusilla, 25 

pyrrhuloides palustris, 26 

rustica, 25 

schceniclus schoeniclus, 26 

enucleator, Pinicola e.,\Q 
epops, Upupa e., 98 
Eremophila alpestris ftava, 32 
Erithacus rubecula, 89 

melophilus, 89 

Erolia alpina alpina, 173 

bairdii, 176 

ferruginea, 174 

fusdcollis, 177 

maculata acuminata, 176 

maculata, 175 

maritima maritima, 111 

minuta minuta, 174 

ruficollis, 174 

minntilla minutilla, 175 

subruficollis, 177 

temminckii, 175 

erythrinus, Carpodacus e., 16 
erythroplithalmus, Coccyzus, 104 
erythropus, Aiiser, 129 
erythropus, Tringa, 183 
Eudromias morinellus, 165 
Eurenetes pusillus pusitttts, 178 
euro pas a, Pyrrhula, 15, 16 
europceus, Caprimulgus e., 96 





eversmanni, Phylloscopus t., 58 
excubitor, Lanius e., 50 
exilipes, Carduelis /L, 13 

fabalis, Anser /., 129 
falcinellus, Egatheus f., 122 
Falco aesalon, 112 

candicans, 110 
- cenchris, 113 

gyrfalco, 110 

islandus, 110 

Falco naumanni naumanni, 113 

peregrinus peregrinus, 111 

anatum, 111 

britannicus, 111 
pealei, 111 

regulus regulus, 112 

rusticolus candicans, 110 

islandus, 110 

rusticolus, 110 

subbuteo subbuteo, 112 

tinnunculus tinnunculus, 113 

vespertinus vespertinus, 113 
, GYR-, 110 

, ICELAND, 110 



, RED-FOOTED, 113 
familiaris, Aedon, 73 
familiaris, Certhia /., 41 
feldeggi, Motacilla, 38 
ferina, Nyroca /., 139J 
ferruginea, Casarca, 134 

, Erolia, 174 
ferruginous, Scolecophagus, 7 

, SNOW-, 20 
finmarchicus, Anser, 129 
flammea, Strix, 107-9 
flammeus, Asio /., 107 
flava, Eremophila a., 32 

, Motacilla /., 36 
flavipes, Tringa, 181 
flavirostris, Carduelis f., 10 
fluviatilis, Podicipes, 158 

, Sterna, 194 


, PIED, 54 


, SPOTTED, 53 

forficatus, Elanoides, 119 
Fratercula arciica arctica, 208 
Fringilla ccelebs codebs, 19 
monti/ringilla, 20 

fruqilegus, Corvus /., 2 
fuertaventurse, Houbarau., 210 
Fulica atra atra, 214 
fulicarius, Phalaropus, 184 
fuliginosa, Sterna, 196 
Fuligula cristata, 140 

ferina, 139 

marila, 141 

nyroca, 140 

fuligula, Nyroca, 140 
Fuligula rufina, 139 
Fulmarus glacialis glacialis, 155 
fulvus, Charadrius d., 169 

Gyps /., 120 

funerea, Cryptoglaux, 105 

, Surnia, 105 

fusca, Oidemia /., 145 
fuscata, Sterna, 196 
fuscatus, Turdus, 77 
fuscicollis, Erolia, 177 
fuscus, Lams /., 201 
, Totanus, 183 

GAD WALL, 135 

gaetkei, Luscinia svecica, 87 
galactodes, Aedon, 72 
galactotes, Agrobates g., 72 
galbula, Icterus, 7 

, Oriolus, 7 

Galerida cristata cristata, 29 
gallicus, Cursorius g., 164 
Gallinago coelestis, 189 
Gallinago gallinago gallinago, 189 
wilsoni, 190 

gallinula, 190 

major, 189 

media, 189 

scolopacina, 189 

Gallinula chloropus chloropus, 214 
gallinula, Limnocryptes, 190 
Gallinule, Allen's, 213 

, Australian, 214 

, Green-backed, 213 

, Indian, 214 

, Purple, 213 
gambeli, Anser a., 128 
gambensis, Plectropterus, 133 
GANNET, 148 
garrulus, Ampelis, 53 

, Coracias g., 99 
Garrulus glandarius glandarius, 5 

hibernicus, 5 

rufitergum, 5 
garzetta, Egretta g., 124 
Gavia adamsii, 159 

arctica, 159 

immer, 159 





Gavia pacifica, 159 
Gavia stellata, 160 
Gecinus viridis, 100 
gengleri, Fringilla c., 19 
gentilis, Accipiter g., 117 
gibraltariensis, Phcenicurus o., 85 
ginginianus, Neophron p., 120 
giu, Scops, 108 
glacialis, Colymbus, 159 
glacialis, Fulmarus g., 155 

, Harelda, 142 

glandarius, Clamator, 103 

, Garrulus g., 5 

Glareola melanoptera, 165 
Glareola nordmanni, 165 

pratincola pratincola, 164 

glareola, Tringa, 180 
glaucion, Clangula, 141 
glaitcogastra, Branta &., 133 
glaitcus, Larus, 202 
glottis, Totanus, 183 
Goatsucker, see NIGHTJAR 
godmani, Puffinus o., 151 




, Barrow's, 141 



, North American, 10 


, BEAN-, 129 

, BRENT, 132 

, , Black, 133 

, , PALE -BREASTED, 133 

, Canada, 133 

, Egyptian, 133 



, SNOW-, 130 

, , GREATER, 131 

, Spur- winged, 133 


LESSER, 129 


, American, 118 

Gracula religiosa, 7 

graculus, Phalacrocorax g., 148 

, Pyrrhocorax, 6 

grams, Puffinus, 152 


, LITTLE, 158 

, RED-NECKED, 157 



gregaria, Chettusia, 170 
gregarius, Vanellus, 170 
grisea, Motacilla, 39 
griseigena, Colymbus g., 157 
griseus, Macrorhamphus g. t 179 

, Nycticorax, 125 

, Puffinus, 152 

grisola, Muscicapa, 53 


, RED, 216 

, SAND-, PALLAS'S, 162 

grus, Megalornis g., 210 
grylle, Uria g., 207 

, BRUNNICH'S, 207 

, COMMON, 206 


, , LESSER, 201 


, , GREAT, 199 



, COMMON, 200 

, GLAUCOUS, 202 

, HERRING-, 200 


, ICELAND, 202 

, IVORY-, 203 


, LITTLE, 198 

, SABINE'S, 197 


guttata, Tyto a., 109 
Gyps fulvus fulvus, 10 

occidentalis, 120 

gyrfalco, Falco, 110 

Hcematopus ostralegus ostralegus, 163 
Haliaetus albicilla, 116 
haliaetus, Pandion h., 119 
Harelda glacialis, 142 

, MARSH-, 116 

, MONTAGU'S, 117 

hasitata, Pterodroma, 154 
helsingicus, Anser, 129 
helvetica, Squatarola, 169 
Hemipode, Andalucian, 215 
Herbivocida schwarzi, 61 

, COMMON, 122 


, Green, 126 

, NIGHT-, 125 

, PURPLE, 123 





hiaticula, Charadrius h., 166 
hibernans, Saxicola t., 84 
hibernicus, Cinclus c., 93 

, Glandarius g., 5 

, Parus a., 44 
Himantopus candidus, 185 
Himantopus himantopus, 185 
hirtensis, Troglodytes t., 92 
Hirundo riparia riparia, 95 

rufula, 94 

rustica, 93 

urbica urbica, 94 
hirundo, Sterna, 194 
hispanica, (Enanthe h., 81 
histrionica, Cosmonetta, 143 
Histrionicus histrionicus, 143 
HOBBY, 112 

holboelli, Carduelis I., 12 

hornemannii, Carduelis h., 13 
horteiisis, Sylvia, 68 
hortensis, Sylvia h., 67 
hortulana, Ember iza, 24 

, Serinus, 14 

Houbara undulata fuertaventurse, 210 
Houbara undulata macqueenii, 210 

- undulata, 210 
hybrida, Hydrochelidon, 191 
Hydrobates pelagicus, 149 
Hydrochelidon hybrida, 191 
Hydrochelidon leucopareia leucopareia, 


leucoptera, 191 

nigra nigra, 190 

surinamensis, 191 
hyemalis, Clangula, 142 

, Junco, 28 

hyperboreus, Anser h., 130 

, Phalaropus, 184 
Hypolais hypolais, 66 
Hypolais icterina, 66 

polyglotta, 66 
hypoleuca, Muscicapa h., 54 

, Tringa, 179 
hypoleucus, Totanus,^179 

ibis, Ardeola i., 124 
ichthyaetus, Larus, 199 
icterina, Hypolais, 66 
Ictevus galbula, 7 

baltimore, 7 

ictinus, Milvus, 118 
ignavus, Bubo, 107 
ignicapillus, Regulus'_i., 49 
iliacus, Turdus, 76 
immer, Gavia, 159 
imniutabilis, Cygnus, 127 

impennis, Alca, 206 
indica, Saxicola t., 84 
intermedia, Porzana p., 213 
interpres, Arenaria i., 171 
isabellina, (Enanthe, 83 
islandica, Nyroca, 141 
islandus, Falco r., 110 
ispida, Alcedo i., 99 
Ixobrychus minutus, 125 



, IRISH, 5 

Junco hyemalis, 28 

Jynx torquilla torquilla, 102 


, LESSER, 113 

, American Belted, 99 

KITE, 118 

, BLACK, 119 

, Black-winged, 119 

, Swallow- tailed, American, 119 

kleinschmidti, Parus a., 46 
KNOT, 172 

korschun, Milvus u., 119 
kuhlii, Puffinus k., 152 

lagopus, Buteo I., 115 
Lagopus lagopus scoticus,[21& 

mutus mutus, 216 

lanceolata, Locustella, 63 
Lanius auriculatus, 51 
Lanius collurio collurio, 52 

excubitor excubitor, 50 

meridionalis, 51 

minor, 50 

nubicus, 52 

pomeranus, 51 

ruficeps, 51 

rufus, 51 

rutilus, 51 

senator badius, 51 

senator, 51 

lapponica, Limosa I., 186 
lapponicus, Calcarius L, 27 


, Calandra, 28 

, CRESTED, 29 

, SHORE-, 32 


, SKY-, 31 

, , EASTERN, 31 


, WOOD-, 30 

Larus albus, 203 


Q 2 




Larus argentatus argentatus, 200 
cachinnans, 201 

canus canus, 200 
fnscus fuscus, 201 

affinis, 201 
glaucus, 202 
ichthyaetus, 199 
leucopterus, 202 
marinus, 202 
m&lanocephalus, 199 
minutus, 198 
Philadelphia, 197 
ridibundus, 198 

fatirostris, Muscicapa, 54 
lentiginosus, Botaurus s., 126 
leucocephala, Emberiza, 23 
leucocyana, Cyanecula, 88 
leucopareia, Hydrochelidon I., 191 
leucophcea, Calidris, 173 
leucopsis, Branta, 132 
leucoptera, Hydrochelidon, 191 

,LoxiaL, 19 

leucopterus, Larus, 202 

leucorhoa, Oceanodroma, 149 

leucorodia, Platalea L, 121 

leucorrhoa, (Enanthe 02., 80 

leiicura, (Enanthe L, 83 

Limicola platyrhyncha platyrhyncha, 


Limnocryptes gallinula, 190 
Limosa segocephala, 186 
Limosa lapponica lapponica, 186 

limosa, 186 

linaria, Cardwlis L, 11 
lineatus, Buteo L, 116 

Linota cannabina, 14 

flavirostris, 10 

holboelli, 12 

hornemanni, 13 

linaria, 11 

rostrata, 11 

rufescens, 12 
littoralis, Anthus s., 36 
littorea, Tringa, 183 
fo'w'a, Columba L, 161 
lobatus, Phalaropus, 184 
Lociistella certhiola, 62 

lanceolata, 63 

luscinioides luscinioides, 61 

ncevia ncevia, 62 
lomvia, Uria L, 207 
longicauda, Bartramia, 171 

, Mecistura, 47 

longicaudus, Stercorarius, 205 
Lophophanes c. scotica, 45 
Loxia curvirostra curvirostra, 17 

anglica, 17 
scotica, 18 

Loxia leucoptera bi/asciata, 19 
- leucoptera, 19 

pytyopsittacus, 18 
luctuosa, Muscicapa, 54 
ludovicianus, Anthus, 35 
lugubris, Motacilla a., 39 
Lullula arborea arborea, 30 
Luscinia calliope, 87 
Luscinia luscinia, 87 

megarhyncha megarhyncha, 86 

svecica cyanecula, 88 

gaetkei, 87 

luscinioides, Locustella L, 61 
Lusciniola schwarzi, 61 
Lyrurus tetrix tetrix, 215 

Machetes pugnax, 172 
macqueenii, Houbara u., 210 
Macrorhamphus griseus griseus, 179 
macrorhynchus, Nucifraga c., 4 
macrura, Sterna, 195 
macularia, Tringa, 180 
macularius, Totanus, 180 
maculata, Aquila, 114 

, Erolia m., 175 

, Scolopax, 183 
magna, Sturnella, 7 
magnirostris, Burhinus, 163 
major, Charadrius h., 166 

, Dendrocopus, 100-1 

major, Dryobates m., 100 

, Gallinago, 189 

, Lanius, 50 

, Parus m., 42 

, Puffinus, 152 

, Pyrrhula, 15 

Mareca americana, 137 

penelope, 137 

marila, Nyroca m., 141 
marina, Pelagodroma, 151 
marinus, Larus, 202 
maritima, Erolia m., 177 

, Purple, American, 95 

, SAND-, 95 

martius, Dryocopus m., 102 
maruetta, Porzana, 211 
maura, Saxicola t., 84 
Mecistura longicauda, 47 

rosea, 47 

vagans, 47 
media, Gallinago, 189 
Megalornis ca^nadensis, 211 
Megalornis grus grus, 210 
megarhyncha, Luscinia m., 86 
Melanitta, 145 
melanocephala, Emberiza, 23 





melanocephala, Motacilla /., 38 

, Sylvia m.,1\ 

melanocephalus, Larus, 199 
Melanocorypha calandra, 28 
Melanocorypha sibirica, 28 

yeltoniensis, 28 
melanogaster, Cinclus, 92 
melanoleiica, Tringa, 182 
melanoleucus, Totanus, 182 
melanope, Motacilla, 39 
melanophrys, Diomedia, 156 
melanoptera, Glareola, 165 
melanotus, Porphyrio, 214 
melba, Apus m., 95 
Melizophilus provincialis, 72 

- undatus, 72 
melophilus, Dandalus r., 89 

merganser, Mergus m., 146 
Mergulus alle, 208 
Mergus albellus, 147 

cucullatus, 147 

merganser merganser, 146 

serrator, 147 
meridionalis, Lanius e., 51 
MERLIN, 112 

Merops apiaster, 98 

- philippinus, 98 
merula, Turdus, 79 
migrans, Milvus, 119 
migrate rius, Ectopistes, 162 

, Turdus m., 77 
miliaria, Emberiza, 22 
Milvus ater, 119 

ictinus, 118 

Milvus korschun korschun, 119 

migrans, 119 
milvus, 118 

regalis, 118 
minor, Charadrius, 167 

, Dendrocopus, 101 
minor, Lanius, 50 
minuta, Ardetta, 125 
minuta, Erolia, 174 

, Sterna m., 195 

minutilla, Erolia m., 175 
minutus, Ixdbrychus, 125 

, Larus, 198 
mitratus, Parus c., 45 
modularis, Prunella m., 90 
mollissima, Somateria m., 144 
monedula, Corvus, 3 
Monticola saxatilis, 79 
monti/ringilla, Fringilla, 20 
Monti fringilla nivalis nivalis, 20 
morinellus, Charadrius, 165 
Motacilla alba alba, 40 

Motacilla alba lugubris, 39 

- beema, 37 

boarula boarula, 39 

borealis, 37 

feldeggi, 38 

ftava fiava, 36 

beema, 37 

borealis, 37 

cinereocapilla, 38 

feldeggi, 38 

melanocephala, 38 

rayi, 38 

thunbergi, 37 
viridis, 37 

grisea, 39 

- lugubris, 39 

melanocephala, 38 

melanope, 39 

- raii, 38 

sulphurea, 39 

- viridis, 37 

- yarrellii, 40 
muraria, Tichodroma, 41 
Muscicapa atricapilla, 54 
Muscicapa collaris, 55 

grisola, 53 

hypoleuca hypoleuca, 54 

latirostris, 54 

- luctuosa, 54 

parva parva, 55 

striata striata, 53 
musicus, Cygnus, 126 

- ,Turdus, 75, 76 
musicus, Turdus, 76 
mutus, Lagopus m., 216 . 

nee via, Aquila, 114 

ncevia, Locustella n., 62 
naumanni, Falco n., 113 
nebularia, Tringa, 183 
neglect a, Pterodroma, 154 
neglectus, Anser, 130 
, Budytes, 38 

Neophron percnopterus percnopterus, 

ginginianus, 120 
Nettion carolinense, 136 
newtoni, Parus m., 43 

, THRUSH-, 87 



nigra, Ciconia, 121 

, Hydrochelidon n., 190 

, Oidemia n., 145 

nigricans, Branta b., 133 
nigricollis, Colymbus n., 158 
nilotica, Sterna n., 192 





nisona, Sylvia n., 67 
nisus, Accipiter n., 118 
nivalis, Anser h., 131 

, Montifringilla n., 20 

, Plectrophenax, 27 

noctua, Athene n., 106 

nordmanni, Glareola, 165 

nubicus, Lanius, 52 

Nucifraga caryocatactes caryocatactes, 4 

macrorhynchus, 4 

nudipes, Chsetura c., 96 
Numenius arquata arquata, 187 

borealis, 188 

phceopus phceopus, 187 

tenuirostris, 188 

Nyctala tengmalmi, 105 
Nyctea nyctea, 104 

scandiaca, 104 
Nycticorax griseus, 125 
Nycticorax nycticorax nycticorax, 125 
Nyroca albeola, 142 

baeri, 140 

clangula clangula, 141 

collaris, 141 

ferina ferina, 139 

- fuligula, 140 
nyroca, Fuligula, 140 
Nyroca islandica, 141 
Nyroca marila marila, 141 

nyroca, 140 

- rufina, 139 

obscurus, Anthus s., 36 

, Parus c., 43 

, Puffinus, 151 
occiden tails, Gyps f., 120 
occidental**, Prunella m., 91 

, Saxicola, 81 

oceanicus, Oceanites, 150 
Oceanites oceanicus, 150 
Oceanodroma caslro, 150 

leucorhoa, 149 

ochropus, Totanus, 181 
ocrophus, Tringa, 181 
(Edemia, see Oidemia. 
cedicnemus, Burhinus OR., 163 
(Edicnemus scolopax, 163 
(Enanthe deserti albifrons, 81 

deserti, 80 

hispanica hispanica, 81 

xanthomelcena, 82 

isabellina, 83 
leucura leucura, 83 
oenanthe leucorrhoa, 80 

cenanthe, 80 

pleschanka pleschanJca, 82 

oenanthe, Saxicola, 80 
oznas, Columba, 161 
(Estrelata brevipes, 154 
hsesitata, 154 

neglecta, 154 
Oidemia fusca fusca, 145 

nigra nigra, 145 

perspicillata, 146 
olor, Cygnus, 127 
orientalis, Streptopelia o., 162 
Oriolus galbula, 7 

Oriolus oriolus oriolus, 1 
orphea, Sylvia, 67 
OSPREY, 119 

ostralegus, Hcematopus o., 163 
Otis macqueeni, 210 
Otis tar da tarda, 209 
tetrax, 209 
Otocorys alpestris, 32 
otus, Asio o., 107 
Otus scops scops, 108 

, , ALPINF, 78 



-, EAGLE-, 107 

-, HAWK-, AMERICAN, 105 

-, EUROPEAN, 105 
, LITTLE, 106 
, LONG-EARED, 107 

, SCOPS, 108 


, SNOWY, 104 

, TAWNY, 109 

, TENGMALM'S, 105 

pacifica, Gavia, 159 
Pagophila eburnea, 203 
palumbarius, Astur, 117 
palumbus, Columba p., 160 
palustris, Acrocephalus, 64 

, Emberiza p., 26 

, Parus, 46 

Pandion haliaetus haliaetus, 119 
Panurus biarmicus biarmicus, 49 
paradiscea, Sterna, 195 
paradoxus, Syrrhaptes, 162 
parasiticus, Stercorarius, 205 

, PvED-LEGGED, 218 

Parus ater ater, 44 

britannicus, 44 

hibernicus, 44 
atricapillus borealis, 47 
kleinschmidti, 46 

borealis, 47 





Parus britannicus, 44 

Pur us cceruleus cceruleus, 43 

obscurus, 43 

cristatus cristatus, 45 

mitratus, 45 

scoticits, 45 

hibernicus, 44 

- major major, 42 
newtoni, 43 
- palustris dresseri, 46 
parva, Muscicapa p., 55 

, Porzana, 212 

parvulus, Troglodytes, 91, 92 
Passer domvsticus domesticus, 21 

montanus, 21 
Pastor roseus, 7 
pavonina, Balearica, 211 
pealei, Falco p., Ill 
pelagica, Procellaria, 149 
pelagicus, Hydrobates, 149 
Pelagodroma marina, 151 
penelope, Anas, 137 
pennsylvanicus, Anthus, 35 
percnopterus, Neophron p., 120 
Perdix cinerea, 217 

Perdix perdix perdix, 217 
Peregrine, see FALCON. 
peregrinus, Falco p., Ill 
Pernis apivorus apivorus, 119 
perspicillata, Oidemia, 146 

, CAPPED, 154 

, COLLARED, 154 


, , MADEIRAN, 150 

, FRIGATE-, 151 

, FULMAR, 155 

, Phillip's, 154 

, SCHLEGEL'S, 154 

, STORM-, 149 

, WILSON'S, 150 

petrosa, Anthus, 36 
phceopus, Numenius p., 187 
Phaethon sethereus, 149 
Phalacrocorax carbo carbo, 148 
graculus graculus, 148 
desmaresti, 148 

, RED-NECKED, 184 
Phalaropus fulicarius, 184 

hyperboreus, 184 

lobatus, 184 

Phasianus colchicus colchicus, 216 

torquatus, 216 

Philadelphia, Larus, 197 
philippinus, Merops, 98 
phillipii, Procellaria, 154 
philomelus, Turdus p., 75 

phoenicius, Agelaius, 7 
Phcenicopterus roseus, 126 
Phcenicurus ochrurus gibraltariensis, 85 

phcenicurus phcenicurus, 85 

phragmitis, Acrocephalus, 65 
Phylloscopus borealis borealis, 59 

collybita collybita, 56 

abietinus, 57 

tristis, 57 

nitidus viridanus, 58 
proregulus proregulus, 60 
sibilatrix sibilatrix, 59 
superciliosus superciliosus, 60 
tristis, 57 
trochilus eversmanni, 58 

trochilus, 57 
viridanus, 58 

Pica pica pica, 3 
Picoides tridactylus, 102 
Picus viridis pluvius, 100. 
Pigeon, Cape, 155 

, Passenger, American, 162 

is, Turdus, 74 

a, Pyrrhula p., 16 
Pinicola enucleator enucleator, 16 


, RICHARD'S, 32 

, ROCK-, 36 


TAWNY, 33 
TREE-, 33 
WATER-, 35 


pityopsittacus, Loxia, 18 
Platalea leucorodia leucorodia, 121 
platyrhyncha, Anas p, 134 

, Limicola p., 178 

Plectrophanes lapponicus, 27 

nivalis, 27 

Plectrophenax nivalis, 27 
Plectropterus gambensis, 133 
Plegadis falcinellus, 122 
pleschanka, (Enanthe p., 82 

GOLDEN, 168 
, AMERICAN, 169 

, ASIATIC, 169 

Green, see LAPWING 

GREY, 169 


KlLLDEER, 168 

RINGED, 166 

, LITTLE, 167 

Stone-, see CURLEW, STONE- 
Pluvialis aurea, 168 





pluvialis, Charadrius, 168 
pluvius, Picus v., 100 

, RED -CRESTED, 139 

, White-eyed, see DUCK, FERRU- 
Podicipes auritus, 157 

cristatus, 156 

fluviatilis, 158 

griseigena, 157 

nigricollis, 158 

pollicaris, Rissa t., 203 
polyglotta, Hypolais, 66 
Polysticta stelleri, 143 
pomarinus, Stercorarius, 204 
pomatorhirms, Stercorarius, 204 
pomeranus, Lanius, 51 
Porphyrio alleni, 213 

caeruleus, 213 

- melanotus, 214 

- porphyrio, 213 

- veterum, 214 
Porzana bailloni, 213 
Porzana Carolina, 212 

maruetta, 211 

parva, 212 

porzana, 211 

pusilla intermedia, 213 

- pusilla, 213 
pratensis, Anthus, 33 

, Crex, 211 
pratincola, Olareola p., 164 
Pratincola indica, 84 

maura, 84 

- rubetra, 83 

rubicola, 84 

torquata hibernans, 84 


Procellaria phillipii, 154 
Progne subis subis, 95 
proregulus, Phylloscopus p., 60 
provincialis, Melizophilus, 72 
Prunella collaris collaris, 90 

modularis modular is, 90 

occidentalis, 91 

Pterodroma brevipes, 154 
hasitata, 154 

neglecta, 154 

pubescens, Dryobates, 102 
PUFFIN, 208 

Puffinus anglorum, 153 

assimilis, 151 

bailloni, 151 

Puffinus grams, 152 
griseus, 152 

kuhlii kuhlii, 152 

major, 152 

obscurus atlanticus, 151 

Puffinus obscurus godmani, 151 

obscurus, 151 

- puffinus puffinus, 153 

yelkouan, 153 
pugnax, Machetes, 172 
purpurea, Ardea p., 123 
pusilla, Emberiza, 25 

, Porzana p., 213 

pusillus, Eurenetes p., 178 
Pycnonotus capensis, 53 
pygargus, Circus, 117 
Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, 6 
Pyrrhula enucleator, 16 

- erythrina, 16 
Pyrrhula pyrrhula pyrrhula, 1 15 

europsea, 15, 16 

pileata, 16 

pytyopsittacus, Loxia, 18 

QUAIL, 217 

querquedula, Anas, 136 
Querquedula circia, 136 

- crecca, 135 

- discors, 136 

raii, Motacilla, 38 
RAIL, LAND-, 211 

, WATER-, 214 

ralloides, Ardeola r., 124 
Rallus aquaticus, 214 

rayi, Motacilla /., 38 
Recurvirostra avosetta, 185 




, HOLBOLL'S, 12 


, LESSER, 12 

, MEALY, 1 1 


, SPOTTED, 183 

, BLACK, 85 
regalis, Milvus, 118 
Regulus calendula calendula, 49 

cristatus, 48 

regulus, Falco r., 112 
Regulus ignicapillus ignicapillus, 49 
regulus anglorum, 48 

regulus, 48 

religiosa, Gracula, 7 
Rhodostethia rosea, 197 
richardi, Anthus r., 32 





ridibundus, Larus, 198 
Riparia riparia riparia, 95 
Rissa tridactyla tridactyla, 203 

- pollicaris, 203 
Robin, see REDBREAST. 

, American, 77 

, Abyssinian, 99 

, Indian, 99 
ROOK, 2 

rosea, Rhodosteihia, 197 
roseus, ^githalos c., 47 

, Pastor, 7 

, Phcenicopterus, 126 
rostrata, Carduelis I., 11 
rubecula, Dandalus r., 89 
rubescens, Anthus s., 35 
rubetra, Saxicola r., 83 
rubicola, Saxicola t., 84 
rubrirostris, Anser, 128 
Ruby-throat, Siberian, 87 
rufa, Caccabis r., 218 

, Sylvia, 69 
rufescens, Linota, 12 

, Tryngites, 177 
RUFF, 172 
ruficeps, Lanius, 51 
ruficollis, Branta, 131 

, Caprimulgus, 97 

, Colymbus r., 158 

, Erolia m., 174 

, Turdus, 77 
rufina, Nyroca, 139 
rufitergum, Glandarius g., 5 
rufula, Chelidon d., 94 
rufus, Lanius, 51 

, Phylloscopus, 56 
rupestris, Anthus, 36 
rustica, Chelidon r., 93 

, Emberiza, 25 

, Pica, 3 

rusticola, Scolopax, 190 
rusticolus, Falco r., 110 
Ruticilla phoenicurus, 85 

titys, 85 

rutilus, Lanius, 51 

sabini, Xema, 197 
saharae, Caprimulgus se., 97 
salicaria, Sylvia, 68 

, BARTRAM'S, 171 




, COMMON, 179 

, CURLEW-, 174 


, MARSH-, 184 


, , SIBERIAN, 176 

, PURPLE, 177 


, SOLITARY, 181 

, SPOTTED, 180 

, WOOD-, 180 

sandvicensis, Sterna s., 193 
saxatilis, Monticola, 79 
Saxicola amphileuca, 82 
- aurita, 81, 82 

deserti, 80 

atrogularis, 81 

hispanica, 81 

isabellina, 83 

leucura, 83 

occidentalis, 81 

oenanthe, 80 

leucorrhoa, 80 

- pleschanka, 82 

- stapazina, 81, 82 

xanthomelaena, 82 
Saxicola rubetra rubetra, 83 

torquata hibernans, 84 

indica, 84 

maura, 84 

rubicola, 84 
scandiaca, Nyctea, 104 
schcenidus, Emberiza s., 26 
schcenobcenus, Acrocephalus, 65 
schwarzi, Herbivocula, 61 
Scolecophagus carolinus, 7 

ferruginous, 7 
scolopacina, Gallinago, 189 
scolopax, (Edicnemus, 163 
Scolopax rusticola , 190 
Scops giu, 108 

scops, Otus s., 108 
, SURF-, 146 

, VELVET-, 145 
scotica, Loxia c., 18 
scoticus, Parus c., 45 

, Lagopus I., 216 

segetum, Anser, 129 
senator, Lanius s., 51 
septentrionalis, Colymbus, 160 
SERIN, 14 

, Canary, 15 
Serinus canarius serinus, 14 

canarius, 15 

serrator, Mergus, 147 

SHAG, 148 








, MANX, 153 

, SOOTY, 152 


, RUDDY, 134 


, , LESSER, 50 


-, MASKED, 52 

-, RED-BACKED, 52 

-, WOODCHAT, 51 

-, CORSICAN, 51 

sibilatrix, Phylloscopus s., 59 
sibirica, Melanocorypha, 28 
sibiricus, Turd us s., 73 

Sitta europo&a britannica, 42 

, Buffon's, see LONG-TAILED. 

, GREAT, 204 



, Richardson's, see ARCTIC. 
skua, Stercorarius s., 204 
SMEW, 147 

, GREAT, 189 

, JACK, 190 

Snowbird, American, 28 
solitaria, Tringa s., 181 
solitarius, Totanus, 181 
Somateria mollissima mollissima, 144 
v-nigrum, 144 

spectabilis, 144 

stelleri, 143 



, HOUSE-, 21 

, TREE-, 21 

, White-throated American, 28 

Spatula clypeata, 138 

spectabilis, Somateria, 144 

spermologus, Colceus m., 3 

spinoletta, Anihus s., 35 

spinus, Carduelis, 10 

spipoletta, Anthus, 35 

sponsa, Aix, 137 



Squatarola helvetica, 169 

Squatarola squatarola, 169 

stagnatilis, Tringa, 184 

stapazina, Saxicola, 81, 82 


, Red-winged, 7 


stellaris, Botaurus s., 125 
stellata, Oavia, 160 
stelleri, Polysticta, 143 
Stercorarius catarrhactes, 204 

crepidatus, 205 

Stercorarius longicaudus, 205 

parasiticus, 205 

pomarinus, 204 

pomatorhinus, 204 

skua skua, 204 

Sterna ansestheta, 196 

anglica, 192 

cantiaca, 193 

caspia, 192 

Sterna dougallii dougallii, 194 

fluviatilis, 194 

fuliginosa, 196 

fuscata, 196 

hirundo, 194 

macrura, 195 

minuta minuta, 195 

nilotica nilotica, 192 

paradiscea, 195 

sandvicensis sandvicensis, 193 

acuflavida, 193 

tschegrava, 192 

, LITTLE, 174 

, TEMMINCK'S, 175 

stolidus, Anous s., 196 

, INDIAN, 84 


, WHITE, 121 
strepera, Anas, 135 
streperus, Acrocephalus s., 63 
Strepsilas interpres, 171 
Streptopelia orientalis orientalis, 162 

turtur turtur, 161 

striata, Muscicapa s., 53 

, Tringa, 177 
Strix aluco aluco, 109 

flammea, 108 
Sturnella magna, 7 
Sturnus vulgaris vulgaris, 6 
subalpina, Sylvia, 71 
subarquata, Tringa, 174 
subbuteo, Falco s., 112 
subis, Progne s., 95 
subruficollis, Erolia, 177 
suecica, Cyanecula, 87 
Sula bassana, 148 
sulphurea, Motacilla, 39 
super ciliosus, Phylloscopus s., 60 
surinamensis, Hydro chelidon n., 191 
Surnia funerea, 105 
Sumia ulula caparoch, 105 





Surnia ulula ulula, 105 
svecica, Luscinia, 87 

, RED -HUMPED, 94 

, Tree-, American, 95 
. MUTE, 127 

, Polish, 127 

, Trumpeter, American, 127 

, Whistling, American, 127 

, WHOOPER, 126 
SWIFT, 96 

, ALPINE, 95 

sylvatica, Turnix, 215 
Sylvia atricapilla atricapilla, 69 

borin, 68 

cantillans cantillans, 71 

cinerea, 69 

communis communis, 69 

curruca curruca, 70 

hortensis hortensis, 67 

- hortensis, 68 

melanocephala melanocephala, 71 

nisoria nisoria, 67 

- orphea, 67 

- rufa, 69 

salicaria, 68 

subalpina, 71 

undata dartfordiensis, 72 

syriacus, A gr abates g., 73 
Syrnium aluco, 109 
Syrrhaptes paradoxus, 162 

Tachycineta bicolor, 95 
Tadorna casarca, 134 

cornuta, 134 

Tadorna tadorna, 134 
tarda, Otis t., 209 
tatarica, Alauda, 28 
TEAL, 135 


temminckii, Erolia, 175 
tengmalmi, AZgolius t., 105 
tenuirostris, Numenius, 188 
, BLACK, 190 

, , WHITE-WINGED, 191 

, CASPIAN, 192 

, COMMON, 194 

, LITTLE, 195 

, Noddy, 196 

, ROSEATE, 194 

, SANDWICH, 193 

, SOOTY, 196 
, , Lesser, 196 

Tetrao tetrix, 215 
Tetrao urogallus urogallus, 215 
tetrax, Otis, 209 
tetrix, Lyrurus t., 215 
Thalassidroma, 149 
DUSKY, 77 
MISTLE-, 74 
ROCK-, 79 

WHITE'S, 73 
thuribergi, Motacilla /., 37 
Tichodroma muraria, 41 
tinnunculus, Falco t., 113 





, , IRISH, 44 


, , NORTHERN, 45 

, , SCOTTISH, 45 






, , NORTHERN, 47 

titys, Ruticilla, 85 

torda, Alca, 206 

torquatus, Phasianus c., 216 

, Turdus t.,11 

torquilla, Jynx t., 102 
Totanus calidris, 182 

- canescens, 183 

- flavipes, 181 

- fuscus, 183 

glareola, 180 

glottis, 183 

- hypoleucus, 179 

macularius, 180 

melanoleucus, 182 

ochropus, 181 

solitarius, 181 

stagnatilis, 184 
totanus, Tringa, 182 
tridactyla, Rissa t., 203 
tridactylus, Pico ides, 102 
Tringa acuminata, 176 

- alpina, 173 

- aurita, 176 

bairdi, 176 

canutus, 172 
Tringa erythropus, 183 

flavipes, 181 

fuscicollis, 177 





Tringa glareola, 180 

hypoleuca, 179 

- littorea, 183 

macularia, 180 

maculata, 175 

melanoleuca, 182 

minuta, 174 

minutilla, 175 

nebularia, 183 

ocrophus, 181 

solitaria solitaria, 181 

stagnatilis, 184 

- striata, 177 

subarquata, 174 

- temmincki, 175 

- totanus, 182 
tristis, Carduelis, 10 
iristis, Phylloscopus c., 57 
trivialis, Anthus t., 33 
trochilus, Phylloscopus t., 57 
Troglodytes parvulus, 91, 92 
Troglodytes troglodytes hirtensis, 92 

troglodytes, 91 

zetlandicus, 92 
troille, Uria t., 206 
Tropic-Bird, Red-billed, 149 
Tryngites rufescens, 177 
tschegrava, Sterna, 192 
turdoides, Acrocephalus, 63 
Turd us atrigularis, 77 
Turdus dauma aureus, 73 

dubius, 77 

fuscatus, 77 

iliacus, 76 

merula, 79 

migratorius migratorius, 77 

musicus, 76 

musicus, 75, 76 

philomelus clarkei, 76 

philomelus, 75 

pilaris, 74 

ruficollis atrogularis, 77 

sibiricus sibiricus, 73 

torquatus alpestris, 78 
torquatus, 77, 

varius, 73 

viscivorus viscivorus, 74 

- Whitei, 73 
Turnix sylvatica, 215 
Turtur communis, 161 

orientalis, 162 
turtur, Streptopelia t., 161 
TWITE, 10 

Tyto alba alba, 108 

guttata, 109 

nlula, Surnia W./105 
undata, Sylvia, 72 

undatus, Melizophilus, 72 
undulata, Houbara u., 210 
Upupa epops epops, 98 
urbica, Hirundo u., 94 
Uria bruennichi, 207 
Uria grylle grylle, 207 

lomvia lomvia, 207 
arra, 207 

- troille troille, 206 
urogallus, Tetrao u., 215 

vagans, Mecistura, 47 
Vanellus gregarius, 170 
Vanellus vaneilus, 170 

- vulgaris, 170 
varius, Turdus, 73 
vespertinus, Falco v., 113 
veterum, Porphyrio, 214 
villosus, Dryobates 102 
virescens, Butorides v., 126 
virgo, Anthropoides, 211 
viridanus, Phylloscopus n., 58 
viridis, Gecinus, 100 

, Motacilla, 37 

viscivorus, Turdus v., 74 
v-nigrum, Somateria m., 144 
vocifera, ^Egialitis, 168 
voci/erus, Charadrius, 168 
vulgaris, Buteo, 115 

, Coccothraustes, 8 

, Sturnus v., 6 

, Vanellus, 170 
, GRIFFON-, 120 



, GREY, 39 


, PIED, 39 

, SYKES'S, 37 

, WHITE, 40 

, YELLOW, 38 
Warbler, American Yellow, 40 

, BARRED, 67 

, Blackcap, 69 

, Blyth's, 65 


, BUSH-, RADDE'S/^}! 
, CETTI'S, 61 


, GARDEN-, 68 


, , PALLAS'S, ^62 

., GREENISH, '58 





, MARSH-, 64 
, ORPHEAN, 67 
, PALLAS'S, 60 


, RADDE'S BUSH-, 61 
, REED-, 63 

, BLYTH'S, 65 

-, GREAT, 63 

, RUFOUS, 72 


, SAVI'S, 61 

, SEDGE-, 65 


, WILLOW-, 57 

, , NORTHERN, 58 

, WOOD-, 59 

Waterhen, see MOORHEN 

. BLACK, 83 


, , WESTERN, 81 

, Black-throated, 81, 82 


, , WESTERN, 80 



, PIED, 82 

Whitei, Turdus, 73 
f LESSER, 70 

WIGEON, 137 

, AMERICAN, 137 

wilsoni, Gallinago g., 190 

wolfi, Cyaneoula, 88 


Woodpecker, American Downy, 102 

, Golden-winged, 102 

, Hairy, 102 

, Black, 102 


, , NORTHERN, 100 



, THREE-TOED, 102 
WREN, 91 




, Ruby-crowned, American, 49 

, ST. KILDA, 92 


Wren, see WARBLER, WILLOW-, etc. 

xanthomelcena, (Enanthe h., 82 
Xema sabini, 197 

yarrellii, Motacilla, 40 
yelkouan, Puffinus p., 153 
Yellowhammer, see BUNTING, YELLOW 

, GREATER, 182 

yeltoniensis, Melanocorypha, 28 

zeilandizus, Troglodyte* t., 92 
Zonotrichia albioollis, 28 





Book Slip-50m-8,'66(Goo30s4)458 

N 461667 

Hartert, E. G7 

A hand- list of British H28 
birds, with an account 
of the distribution of 
each species in the 
British Isles and abroad